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Arts and Humanities
Chapter 28 Study Guide: Cold War
Boba? Anybody? okay...
Terms in this set (57)
- (1947 - 1991)
- A political power struggle between the United States & the Soviet Union after World War II
- Never directly confronted, yet was characterized by deadly threats, propaganda, and other measures
- small neutral state/country
- separates areas that are under the colonial control of two rival powers/enemies
- (1948 - 1952)
- The United States' plan to revive the European nation with economic aid after WWII
- Meant to prevent the spread of communism and rebuild their countries
- Offered $13 billion to rebuild
- Made in the late 1940s
- Adopted by Pres. Truman
- Was an American foreign policy of resisting the further expansion of communism around the world
- By creating an alliance and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
- Treaty Created in 1949
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization
- An alliance between 12 countries to defend one another if attacked by any other country
- Treaty Created in 1945
- Formed an alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations behind the Iron Curtain
- Created to oppose NATO
- Joint Airlift Effort in 1948
- Was the Allies' response to the Soviets blockade of West Berlin
- Supplied food & fuel to citizens of West Berlin which was blocked all ground routes by the Soviet Union
- Had made Stalin embarrassed
Mutally Assured Destruction
- A Doctrine of Military Strategy
- Consisted of full-scale use of nuclear weapons used by 2 or more opposing sides
- Would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and defender
Bay of Pigs
- "Unsuccessful invasion of Cuba" in April 1961
- The purpose was to "assassinate" Cuban Dictator "Fidel Castro"
- Led by a group of Cuban exiles
- Supported by the United States' CIA
- Pres. Kennedy took full responsibility after its failure
Cuban Missile Crisis
- 1962 Crisis
- The Confrontation between U.S. and Soviet Union - Over the Soviet attempt of deploying nuclear missiles in Cuba on the United States
- Brought the frighteningly close to the near reality of a nuclear war
- Nationalist Chinese leader after 1925
- Became Military dictator
- Had a major goal to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong
- Island in SE Asia, 100 miles off the coast of mainland China
- Used to be a providence of China for several years
- Fled to this country for nationalism
Algerian War of Independence
- (1954 - 1962)
- Liberation movement between France & Algerian independence
- Led to Algeria gaining its independence from France
Gamal Abdel Nasser
- Egyptian Arab leader and statesman
- Led the coup who toppled the monarchy of King Farouk
- Started a new period of modernization and socialist reform in Egypt
- Led two wars against Zionist state
- Remained a symbol of independence and pride in Egypt
- Limited Economic policies
- A political and spiritual revolutionary leader during India's struggle with Great Britain for home rule
- Led peaceful civil disobedience movement in India for independence
- (1893 - 1976)
- Chinese Communist leader from 1949 till death
- Overthrew Jiang Jieshi & Nationalist
- Established China as the People's Republic of China
Great Leap Forward
- Started by Mao Zedong
- Combined collective farms into People's Communes
- People had no incentive to work harder
- Was led to fail after 2 years
- Competition between the United States and the Soviet Union
- For achievement in the field of space exploration
- Billions of dollars were invested for developing satellites, space stations, rockets, etc
- Led to great scientific advances, yet caused friction and insecurities
- Launched in October 1957
- World's first space satellite
- Launched by the Soviet Union
- Meant Soviets had a missile powerful enough to reach the U.S.
- Sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in tech. and outer space
- Led to Creation of NASA & Space Race
- Aggressive Soviet Leader during the Cuban Missile Crisis
- Failed gamble of putting missiles in Cuba (Cost him his Job)
- Famous for denouncing Stalin & allowed criticism of Stalin within Russia
- The country created after WWI
- Civil War broke out here
- Divided into different countries
- Serbs attempted to gain control of the entire territory
- Serbs instituted a policy of ethnic cleansing to clear non-Serbs out of all areas conquered by Serbs
Charles de Gaulle
- Very popular during WWII as Leader of Free French forces in exile
- French General who founded the French Fifth Republic in 1958
- Served as its first Pres. from 1959 to 1969
- First Chancellor of West Germany (1949 - 1963)
- Established a stable democratic government
German Economic Miracle
- Postwar Economic recovery in West Germany
- Built on policy of new currency, free market, low taxes, and elimination of controls
- Led to Rapid Economic Growth
- Konrad Adenauer was political leader in Germany during this time
- 20th century American painter
- Famous for creating abstract paintings
- Dripped/Poured paint on a canvas in complex "complex swirls and spatters", was called art
- The experimental art movement of the mid-twentieth century
- Focused on expressing emotion and feelings through abstract images and colors, lines and shapes
- Was represented by Jackson Pollock's action paintings
- Created by flinging paint on canvases stretched across the studio floor
European Common Market
- Formed in 1957
- Organization by Italy, France, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg
- Dedicated to developing common trade policies and reduced tariffs
- Gradually developed into the European Union
The Second Sex
- Written by Simone de Beauvoir in 1949
- Challenged marriage (basic unit of modern society)
- Theorized marriage held women back due to male-dominated societies
- Recognized females as the "Other" and as second-class citizens
A philosophy based on the idea that people give meaning to their lives through their choices and actions
- (1905 - 1980)
- French existentialist
- Said that people just "turned up" and that there was no God to help honest people
- "man is condemned to be free" and people had to choose their actions which shape our character
- Most famous for "existence precedes essence" statement
1. Which two nations were regarded as "Superpowers" after the Second World War?
The two nations who were regarded as "Superpower" after WWII were the United States and the Soviet Union.
2. Why was Western Europe the center of the Cold War after WWII?
Western Europe was the center of the Cold War after WWII because that is where the Soviets wants to extend communism as they already did in Eastern Europe.
3. Why did Stalin refuse to give up his territories in Eastern Europe after the war?
After the war, Stalin refused to give up his territories in Eastern Europe because he was fearful that the nations would return to traditional anti-Soviet attitudes if they were permitted free elections.
4. Why did the United States create the Marshall Plan to rebuild Western Europe?
The United States created the Marshall Plan to rebuild Western Europe because it was meant to prevent the spread of communism and rebuild their countries.
5. What was the purpose of NATO? How did the Soviet Union respond to its formation?
The purpose of NATO was to defend one another if attacked by any other country. The Soviets responded to NATO's formation by creating the Warsaw Pact which was a treaty that held nations together solely to oppose NATO.
6. Why did Yugoslavia, while communist, remain neutral in the Cold War?
While communist, Yugoslavia remained neutral in the Cold War because Josip Broz Tito had refused to surrender to Stalin's demand and his nationality towards Yugoslavia.
7. Why did President Truman institute a policy of containment around the globe?
President Truman instituted a policy of containment around the globe to limit the expansion of communism at whatever means.
8. How did the U.S. respond to the Soviet blockade of Berlin in 1948?
The United States' response to the Soviets' blockade of Berlin was the Berlin Air Lift, which supplied the city of Berlin with supplies shipped via air.
9. What was the purpose of the failed U.S. "Bay of Pigs" invasion of Cuba in 1961?
The purpose of the Bay of Pigs invasion was to assassinate Fidel Castro.
10. What was the Cuban Missile Crisis? How was it resolved without war between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962?
The Cuban Missile Crisis was a crisis between the U.S. and Soviet Union over the Soviet attempt of deploying nuclear missiles in Cuba on the United States. Without any conflict, it was resolved between the U.S. and Soviets by the U.S. setting quarantine Cuba and preventing the missile-filled fleet from reaching its destination, which helped come to a conclusion of Soviets agreeing to turn back their fleet if the U.S. pledged not to invade Cuba (Had brought close to nuclear war).
11. Where did the U.S. backed Chinese government flee after losing to the Chinese Communists led by Mao Zedong?
After losing to the Chinese Communists, the U.S. backed the Chinese government fled to Taiwan.
12. Which Middle East leader fought to drive the British out of Egypt, and forge a united Arab cultural identity in the 1950's?
Gamal Abdel Nasser had fought to drive the British out of Egypt and forge a United Arab cultural identity in the 1950s.
13. How did India gain its independence from Great Britain after WWII?
After WWII, India had gained its independence from Great Britain by using peaceful movements with the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.
14. What was Mao's Great Leap Forward, and why was it so disastrous for the people of China?
Mao's Great Leap Forward was combined collective farms into People's Communes but was so disastrous for the people of China because of the bad weather and the peasants' disapproval of the new system caused food production to go down and cause a famine that led the many left people left dead.
15. What was Stalin's primary focus while controlling the economy of the USSR? Where did he focus Soviet industry?
Stalin's primary focus, while controlling the economy of the USSR, was to promote growth in heavy industry. He focused the Soviet industry towards the benefit of the military.
16. Why did Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev condemn Stalin's policies after his death?
Khrushchev condemned Stalin's policies after his death because Stalin had caused an immense amount of administrative violence, mass repression, and terror towards the Soviet Union.
17. Why did Khrushchev lose the support of the Soviet leadership in the 1960's?
In the 1960s, Khrushchev lost the support of the Soviet leadership because of his rash plan to place missiles in Cuba, which had failed.
18. How did Charles de Gaulle position France in the Cold War between the U.S. and U.S.S.R.?
In the Cold War, Gaulle position France between the U.S. and U.S.S.R by investing heavily in the nuclear arms race.
19. Which West German leader is considered the founding Hero of West Germany?
Konrad Adenauer is considered the founding Hero of West Germany.
20. What was the purpose of the European Common Market?
The purpose of the European Common Market was to be dedicated to developing common trade policies for its six member nations and reduced tariffs.
21. What was the focus of Simone de Beauvoir's book The Second Sex?
The focus of Beauvoir's The Second Sex was women had been defined by their differences from men and consequently received second-class status as a result of a male-dominated society.
22. Which nation became the center of the art world in the years after WWII?
The United States of America became the center of the art world in the years after WWII.
23. Who was Jackson Pollock, and what style of painting did he help pioneer?
Jackson Pollock was a 20th-century American painter who was famous for creating abstract paintings. Pollock helped pioneer Abstract Expressionism.
24. What is the major teaching of existentialism, and how did it go against centuries of Christian teachings and orthodoxy?
The major teaching of existentialism was the absence of God in the universe. Existentialism went against centuries of Christian teachings and orthodoxy because it states there is no God and humans are utterly alone in the universe.
25. According to existential philosophers, what gave human lives meaning?
People had given their life's meaning through their own thoughts, values, and involvement in life.
26. How has the American film industry shaped world culture and style since WWII?
Since WWII, the American film industry had shaped world culture and style to become widespread across the globe.
27. When did televisions become available to most ordinary citizens?
Televisions had become available to most ordinary citizens in the late 1940s.
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