8th Grade History STAAR review
Terms in this set (52)
In this year, the first permanent English settlement in North America was established at Jamestown.
During this year on July 4th, the American colonies declared independence from Great Britain.
In this year, the Constitution of the United States was ratified (approved)
During this year, President Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory from France.
The American Civil War was fought during these years.
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted in 1781. The document was considered weak because states held more power than the federal government.
Bill of Rights
The name of the first ten amendments to the Constitution
People who exemplify this quality go beyond their obligations a by taking an active role in their community.
Declaration of Independence
This document was adopted on July 4, 1776 and established the 13 colonies as independent states, free from Great Britain's rule.
Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document.
Declaration of Independence
"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness..."
English Bill of Rights
In 1689, this document was drafted by the English Parliament limiting the power of the monarch and providing basic rights for English citizens.
A principle of government where power is shared within a union between the national (federal) and state governments
A series of essays written that supported a form of government that divided power between a strong central government and the states.
Writers of these documents were James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay
People who supported the ratification of the Constitution and a federalist form of government
People who opposed the ratification of the Constitution because they feared the national government was given too much power.
This term applies to those individuals who played a major role in the creation of the US government. Some include Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and James Madison.
French and Indian War
The struggle between the British and the French over colonial possessions in North America. This war was known worldwide as the Seven Years' War
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
This document was the first written constitution in the American colonies in which a system of government was established. It was prepared as the covenant for the new Puritan community in Connecticut.
A period of industrial growth where handmade goods were replaced by machine made goods
A principle of government where the powers of the federal and state government are defined by the constitution and must be followed.
This document, signed by King John of England in 1215, was the first document to limit the power of the government. It stated that the King was not above the law
It was the belief in the 1840s that the United States was destined to acquire territory "from sea to sea" the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
This document was drafted in 1620 by the Pilgrims to organize self- government in Plymouth.
McCulloch v. Maryland
In 1819, this legal case led the Supreme Court to rule that the power of the federal government was supreme over that of the states and that the states could not interfere in the creation of a national bank.
Marbury v. Madison
In 1803, this legal case led the Supreme Court to strengthen the authority of the federal judiciary. It established the principle of judicial review which is the power of the judiciary to determine that a law can be declared unconstitutional
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
In 1787, this document established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states.
Philadelphia Convention of 1787
This meeting was held "for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation." Instead they created a new plan for government which was the U.S. Constitution
This amendment granted all men particularly black men the right to vote.
This amendment banned slavery in the United States.
This amendment gave citizenship to all people born in the United States regardless of their race
The movement concentrated on ending slavery in the United States
Free Enterprise System
An economic system in which individuals depend on supply and demand and the profit margin to determine what, how, and how much to produce, and for whom to produce.
Checks and Balances
A system of controls in which each branch of government checks the power of the other branch to prevent abuse of power.
Ignoring the policies of a state or nation when the civil laws are unjust.
The speech given by Abraham Lincoln after the Battle of Gettysburg which explained the ideals and spirit of democracy and to continue the fight for it.
Gibbons v. Ogden
In 1824, this legal case led the Supreme Court to decide that the Constitution gave control of interstate commerce to the U.S. Congress, not the individual states through which a route passed.
The principle of government that protects certain privileges and rights of citizens.
The power of the judicial branch of the US government to determine if laws are constitutional.
A set of economic policies under which nations sought to increase their power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and selling more goods than they bought.
A statement issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free.
A period of unrest when southern states decided they could ignore a law passed by the federal government concerning federal protective tariffs if it hurt their interest
A system of agricultural production based on large-scale land ownership and the exploitation of labor and the environment
The principle of government that states that political power rests with the people
A tax on imported products instituted to protect local industries
Dred Scot vs. Sandford
In 1857, a legal case that led the Supreme Court to confirm the status of slaves as property rather than citizens.
A form of government where the power is held by the people through the efforts of representatives elected by the people.
A form of government in which people elect representatives to make and carry out laws.
Separation of Powers
A principle of government that divides a central government into two or more branches, each having its own responsibilities and authorities.
These are rights that we are born with as human beings and can not be given or taken away. They include life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Complaints made by the colonist about the government of Great Britain. One complaint was "no taxation without representation."
This geographical term is explained by the religious persecution by the King of England which forced the Puritans from England and the New World offering them freedom of religion.