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Terms in this set (153)
symbolized by r?
correlation coefficient
assumes data is at least interval level?
correlation coefficient
two variables with a perfect direction relationship have a correlation of?
+1
two variables with a perfect inverse relationship have a correlation of?
-1
two variables with a NO relationship have a correlation of?
0
because correlations are _______, they will underestimate nonlinear relationships
linear
strengths of correlation: 0.8-1.0?
very strong correlation
strengths of correlation: 0.6-0.8?
strong correlation
strengths of correlation: 0.4-0.6?
moderate correlation
strengths of correlation: 0.2-0.4?
weak correlation
strengths of correlation: 0.0-0.2?
negligible correlation
the extent to which data points in two data sets vary together?
covariance OR shared variance
measured by r²?
covariance OR shared variance
accuracy and stability and types of?
reliability
survey will lead to very little error, so it measures something well?
accuracy
survey leads to consistent results when used at different times or by different people?
stability
have many people complete the survey; correlate survey questions with one another -> what are these a part of?
internal consistency
Cronbach's alpha belongs to?
internal consistency
average correlation among items?
Cronbach's alpha
correlation between answers for each question?
test-retest reliability
a survey measures what it is intended to measure, presumes it measures something well (reliable), and cannot be more valid than reliable?
survey validity
true or false: in survey validity, items can be reliable but not valid
true
types of survey validity?
content, predictive, and construct
which type of survey validity: Are questions representative of the content being measured?
content validity
which type of survey validity: Do scores correlate with other measure they ought to correlate with?
predictive validity
which type of survey validity: what accounts for people's scores?
construct
When two variables are significantly correlated, scores from one variable can be used to predict the scores on the other variable?
regression
regression working with two correlated variables?
simple regression
regression working with more than two variables?
multiple regression
simple regression equation?
...
when predicting a person's Y score, if you have no other info use the ________?
mean of Y
when predicting a person's Y score, if you have info about the person's X score, and X and Y are correlated, use the ________?
regression line
when predicting a person's Y score, if you have info about the person's X score, but the X and Y are not correlated use the ________?
mean of Y
where there is a correlation between X and Y, a _______ exists between them
regression line
where there is a correlation between X and Y, a regression line exists between them: what is this called?
systematic variance
remaining error in prediction is ______ ______
error variance
predicted Y score = ?
simple regression
regression coefficient, number of unit changes in Y when X goes up in 1 = ?
beta coefficient
intercept predicted for Y when X is 0 = ?
Cronbach's alpha
which type of regressions are established before regression equation is used, prediction is made, and can only make a prediction between variables that are significantly correlated?
simple regression
symbolized by R?
multiple correlation coefficient
what is step 1 of multiple regressions?
compute the multiple correlation coefficient
for multiple regressions, systematic variance = ?
R²
for multiple regressions, error variance = ?
1 - R²
in multiple regressions what does p = ?
the number of predicting variables
for correlations, how many predictor variables?
1
for multiple regressions, how many predictor variables?
2 or more
for every predictor variable, need how many participants?
at least 50
When predictor variables are highly correlated in a multiple regression?
multicollinearity
multiple regression equation?
...
The systematic, quantitative, and objective study of communication?
content analysis
systematic, quantitative or objective: Content is selected by consistent rules, all content must be treated the same, and one set of uniform guidelines is used throughout the study?
systematic
systematic, quantitative or objective: No bias in the findings, definitions should be comprehensive, and perfect objectivity is seldom, if ever, achieved?
objective
systematic, quantitative or objective: Goal is to achieve an accurate representation of the population of messages, allows for additional statistical tools to be used, and can't be blind to other way of assessing content?
quantitative
manifest or latent content: elements that are physically present and countable?
manifest
manifest or latent content: the intention behind the communication?
latent
content analysis can study what two types of content?
manifest (mostly) and content
what is the purpose of content analysis?
...
what are the limitations of content analysis?
- cannot be used to determine the media's effects on the audience
- findings limited to the systematic rules used
- lack of content relevant for some research
- often can be time consuming and expensive
examples of content analysis?
...
steps in the content analytic process?
...
which level of measurement: Count units in categories not ordered from more to less?
nominal
which level of measurement: Count units in categories ordered from more to less?
ordinal
which level of measurement: Using rating scales?
interval
which level of measurement: Using rating scales where zero equals an absence of what is being coded?
ratio
event time Or clock time: count occurrence of the event only?
event time
event time Or clock time: count occurrence and duration of event?
clock time
tabular OR contingency: How many instances are there of each type of event?
tabular
tabular OR contingency: Given each type of event, what event is likely to occur next?
contingency
in a content analysis, how do you define the universe?
- specify the content to be considered
- define the topic area
- define the time period
- should be able to spell out the parameters of the study in a concise statement
interpersonal OR media/mass comm: too little data, need convenience sample?
interpersonal
interpersonal OR media/mass comm: too much data, need stratified random samples?
media/mass
stratified random sampling?
...
Using a random sample of one Monday a month and randomly choosing days in the month to analyze certain times (follow same method of other days of the week)?
composite week
the item that is being counted in a content analysis?
unit of analysis
sentences, speaking turn, topic/theme, in the unit of analysis?
interpersonal comm
whole message (program, ad, etc.), portions of a message (clock time, column inches, etc.), in the unit of analysis?
media comm
in a content analysis, categories used to classify content?
category scheme
in a category scheme, categories written after a preliminary examination of the content?
emergent coding
in a category scheme, categories established beforehand based on theoretical and conceptual rational?
priori coding
in a category scheme, only one category for each unit?
mutually exclusive
in a category scheme, a category for every unit?
all inclusive
in a category scheme, must relate back to hypotheses or real questions?
relevant
in a category scheme, must be easy to use?
manageable
in a category scheme, different people should get the same results for the same content?
reliable
in the content analysis, coders learn the coder manual; includes definitions, examples, and rules for borderline/unusual cases?
coder training
in the content analysis, researcher and coders practice together, portion on content is coded together, and manual and definitions may be adjusted based on this practice?
coder training
in the content analysis, coders practice alone (another small sample of the content is coded), researcher and coders examine coding, and reliability analysis is performed?
coder training
in the content analysis, the degree of agreement is determined by percent agreement, Chohen's kappa (K), Scott's pi (π), Krippendorf's alpha (α), and if the agreenment is low, train and practice again?
intercoder reliability
in the content analysis, tendency of coders' interpretation of categories to change over time, can cause reliability problems, and perform reliability spot checks, retrain if necessary?
coder drift
content analysis is measuring what?
what it is supposed to be measuring
validity in a content analysis can be impacted by?
- faulty sampling
- overlapping categories
- low intercoder reliability
- adequacy of definitions
in research ethics, principle OR implication: People who consent to participate in research have the fundamental right to be treated with respect?
principle
in research ethics, principle OR implication: Anyone performing research with people as participants have the responsibility to ensure this occurs?
implication
what are the 5 issues from more to less general, but not more to less important from Ethical Dilemmas and Social Science Research?
1. research program effects
2. research project effects
3. participant effects
4. distribution of effects
5. consideration of participation's rights and welfare
which issue from the Ethical Dilemmas and Social Science Research: What are the positive and negative effects associated with a particular research program?
research program effects
which issue from the Ethical Dilemmas and Social Science Research: What are the positive and negative effects associated with the conduct of a specific research project as a contribution to a research program?
research project effects
which issue from the Ethical Dilemmas and Social Science Research: What are the positive and negative effects associated with an individuals participation in a research project?
a. Temporary, direct psychological or physiological effects
b. Temporary, direct economic or situational effects
participant effects
which issue from the Ethical Dilemmas and Social Science Research: What are the positive and negative effects associated with an individuals participation in a research project?
c. Long-lasting psychological or physiological effects
d. Socially mediated effects that are experienced by virtue of the impact of the research on societal processes
e. Societal effects upon various concepts of individual rights
participation effects
which issue from the Ethical Dilemmas and Social Science Research: Are major positive and negative effects of research distributed unevenly among different social categories?
distribution of effects
which issue from the Ethical Dilemmas and Social Science Research: What features of the research procedure provide confidence that these are respected? (Informed Consent)
consideration of participant's rights and welfare
Informed consent, documented in writing?
APA ethical guidelines
rules of APA ethical guidelines?
requires info such as:
1. information about study
2. participation is voluntary, alternatives available
3. contact info for researcher
4. promise of anonymity or confidentiality
three categories of human subjects committees?
exempt, expedited, full review
the statistical test for determining if differences in how the cases are distributed across the categories of one categorial, or nominal, variable are significant?
one-way chi square
in a one-way chi square, it allows the researcher to test what question?
"are the differences found real or due to chance"
a chi-square can not tell the the researchers where the significant difference occurred, but what can it tell you?
if a significant difference exists or not
with chi-squares, researchers must visually inspect what two things to determine if the significant difference is in fact the difference they predicted?
frequencies and percentages
the chi-square can also be used for examining the association between two nominal variables; in this case, participants are classified on two variables in relationship to each other. what is this called?
contingency analysis
two-way chi-square is also known as?
contingency analysis
symbol for chi-square = ?
X²
the two nominal variables are arranged in a table where rows represent one nominal value and columns represent a second nominal variable. the display of frequency data in this type of table is called ?
contingency table
what would the simplest form of a two-way chi square be composed of?
two nominal variables, each with two levels (2x2 chi-square)
what is a contingency analysis composed of?
two variables with multiple categories
what are the degrees of freedom for a contingency analysis?
(number of rows -1) x (number of columns - 1)
this is used to test hypotheses that expect to find differences between two groupings of the independent variable on a continuous-level dependent variable?
t-Test
in experimental research designs, the t-Test is used to test WHAT between the means of two populations, based upon the means and distributions of two samples?
significant difference
in a t-Test, the independent variable must be a __________ variable composed of only two groups; only one independent variable can be tested
nominal
the t-Test is also restricted to one dependent variable; the dependent variable must be of continuous level data and the _______ or ________ level
interval or ratio
what does the t-Test ask?
"are the sample means different from each other?"
what are the forms of t-Test?
independent sample t-Test
paired comparison
for a t-Test, if the difference was in the direction it was expected, WHAT must be determined and WHAT must be interpreted for what it means or how it is to be applied?
statistical significance
statistical difference
a set of statistical techniques that predict some variables by knowing others?
regression
a highly statistical procedure that allows researchers to address many types of research questions, hypotheses, and different types of data?
regression
what is the most common use of regression?
assess the influence of several continuous level predictors (independent variables) on a single continuous criterion (dependent variables)
________ allows researchers to study variables that cannot be experimentally manipulated
regression
"variance accounted for" is a phrase associated with __________
regression
a form of regression in which the values a dependent (criterion) variable are attributed to one independent (predictor) variable; this technique finds the regression line?
linear regression
the better fit the regression line, the lower OR higher the correlation?
higher
in the regression line, R (correlation) ranges from _______ to _______?
-1.00 to +1.00
a line drawn through the data points on a scattergram that best summarizes as relationship between independent and dependent variables?
regression line
standardized scores = ?
beta-coefficients
beta-coefficients range from _____ to ______?
+1.00 to -1.00
the greater the beta-coefficient, the greater the _________ of that variable
variability
in standardized scores/beta-coefficients, +1.00 indicates what?
a change of 1 standard deviation in the dependent (criterion) variable and that the changes are both in the same direction
in standardized scores/beta-coefficients, -1.00 indicates what?
changes would be in the opposite direction
this allows a researcher to test for a significant relationship between the dependent variable and multiple independent variables separately and as a group?
multiple regression
this is an index of the magnitude of the relationship among variables?
multiple regression
in a multiple regression; for 200 observations and a regression with 3 predictor variables, what is the formula for degrees of freedom?
1. (n - k - 1)
2. (200 - 3 - 1)
3. 196
in a multiple regression, what does the F ratio indicate?
whether the correlation coefficient is significant
in a regression, what is p?
significance level
in a multiple regression, if the significance level (p) for F is .05 or less, what does this tell us?
at least one of the relationships among the variables is significant
within research ethics, people who consent to participate in research have the fundamental right to be treated with respect?
principle
within research ethics, anyone performing research with people as participants have the responsibility to ensure this occurs?
implication
the Nuremberg Code and the Belmont Report prompted what?
research ethics
what are the 5 issues taken from "Ethical Dilemmas and Social Science Research"?
1. research program effects
2. research project effects
3. participant effects
4. distribution of effects
5. consideration of participants' rights and welfare
which of the 5 issues from "Ethical Dilemmas and Social Science Research" includes individual rights?
participation efforts
which of the 5 issues from "Ethical Dilemmas and Social Science Research" includes informed consent?
Consideration of Participants' Rights and Welfare
Informed consent documented in writing is called?
APA ethical guidelines
this exists in research universities, organizations, grant providers; all proposed research not for educational purposes must be sent for review?
human subjects committees
what are the categories in the Human Subjects Committees?
exempt
expedited
full review
out of all the participants effects, which are temporary and which are long lasting?
temp. = stress, fun, grades/money
long lasting = educational benefits, probs with anonymity/confidentiality (Milgram Study), deception, and relationships
competence, full and complete info, sufficient comprehension, voluntary choice, studies that violate informed consent are all a part of what rights?
participant rights
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