How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

54 terms

AP Biology Unit 5 (Chapter 9+10)

STUDY
PLAY
Product
Chance of any 2+ events occuring is the _______ of their separate possibilities
Gene
part of chromosome that controls expression of a trait
Allele
member of a gene pair - not necessarily the same expression of a trait
Dominant
trait that will be expressed phenotypically
Recessive
trait that will be masked; won't affect phenotype
Homozygous
letters in a gene pair are both dominant or both recessive
Heterozygous
gene pair has one dominant and one recessive
Monohybrid
type of cross that crosses only one trait from the mom and dad
Test
type of cross done to see if a dominant phenotype is homo/heterozygous; R? x rr; only takes 1 recessive phenotype to prove that ? is r
Co-Dominance
when the heterozygote is its own phenotype of a trait somewhere between the two extremes
Multiple Alleles
blood type is prime example of this idea; when there are more than 2 alleles to choose from
Sex-linked
a trait that is linked to the x chromosome, so is passed on depending on gender
XY
Male chromosome (2 letters)
XX
Female chromosome (2 letters)
Dihybrid
type of cross that crosses more than one trait
Linked
if two traits are _____ it means they are usually on the same chromosome so their phenotypes often show up together
Map units
# of cross overs/ total offspring=percent cross over, which also tells us how many ______ apart the linked traits are
Epistasis
when one gene affects the expression of another
Pleiotrophy
when one gene has several effects
Polygenes
when several genes interact contributing to the expression of a characteristic; creates a range of phenotypes
Skin color
prime example of polygenes
Influence
the idea that some traits will be expressed differently depending on gender; ex: baldness (dominant in males, recessive in females)
Pedigree
way of writing family genetic histories using universal symbols
Nature vs. Nurture
name for the debate that questions if genetics or the environment a person is raised in has a bigger effect on their traits
double helix
name for structure of DNA
Nucleotides
DNA is a chain of _____
Purines
bases A + G; larger, have two rings
Pyrimidines
bases T + C; smaller, have 1 ring
A
Complement of T
T
Complement of A
G
Complement of C
C
Complement of G
Helicase
enzyme used to unwind the helix for replication
Primase
enzyme that adds primer molecule for replication
DNA Polymerase
enzyme that brings in free nucleotides to the right spaces for DNA replication
Ligases
enzyme that fuses DNA segments
Semi-conservative
method of replication that implies that each new strand of DNA is half original and half new
Leading
strand that is more quickly formed in continuous flow; 5-3 direction
Lagging
strand that is assembled in 3-5 direction in short pieces, which each need a primer
Okazaki fragments
name for small pieces of DNA joined by ligase enzymes on the laggin strand
Telomeres
long pieces at the end of chromosomes that do not have necessary information; get shorter as person gets older
U
base A is complemented with base ____ when it is translated to mRNA
False
True or False: Because prokaryotes don't need telomeres, they never die.
Transcription
process where DNA copies onto mRNA; DNA determines sequence of mRNA
Translation
happens in cytoplasm at ribosomes; mRNA codes for tRNA which builds one amino acid a time to make an enzyme
SSSB
Mr. Peri's way to remember differences between RNA and DNA
Retroviruses
insert genes into host cell and take over; use reverse transcriptase
Mutation
random change in genetic information
Chromosomal
type of mutation that happens in meiosis; chromosomes are switched or forgotten
Substitution
mutation when one base is exchanged for another; less harmful
Addition/Deletion
mutation when a base is added or removed; more harmful, changes the rest of the line of bases
Radiation
one cause of mutations; can be ionizing or non-ionizing
Codon
a set of three bases on mRNA that determines amino acid
Anti-codon
set of three bases on tRNA that complements mRNA and determines amino acid