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type of cross done to see if a dominant phenotype is homo/heterozygous; R? x rr; only takes 1 recessive phenotype to prove that ? is r
when the heterozygote is its own phenotype of a trait somewhere between the two extremes
blood type is prime example of this idea; when there are more than 2 alleles to choose from
if two traits are _____ it means they are usually on the same chromosome so their phenotypes often show up together
# of cross overs/ total offspring=percent cross over, which also tells us how many ______ apart the linked traits are
when several genes interact contributing to the expression of a characteristic; creates a range of phenotypes
the idea that some traits will be expressed differently depending on gender; ex: baldness (dominant in males, recessive in females)
Nature vs. Nurture
name for the debate that questions if genetics or the environment a person is raised in has a bigger effect on their traits
method of replication that implies that each new strand of DNA is half original and half new
long pieces at the end of chromosomes that do not have necessary information; get shorter as person gets older
happens in cytoplasm at ribosomes; mRNA codes for tRNA which builds one amino acid a time to make an enzyme
mutation when a base is added or removed; more harmful, changes the rest of the line of bases
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