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Temperament, Personality, and Identity
Terms in this set (232)
Temperament refers to...
...a person's basic disposition
Temperament influences how people ______________ to situations.
Does temperament have a genetic component?
Temperament is apparent at birth (to some degree) and is predictive of later personality especially when it's measured after ________ years of age.
Kagan's research confirmed what two findings regarding behavioral inhibition?
1) it has a biological contribution
2) it is a relatively stable characteristic
Kagan found that children who were identified as either inhibited or uninhibited at _____ months of age were _______________ categorized as 5.5 and 7.5 years, that that level of inhibition was related to ________________ ______________.
21 months; similarly; physiological reactivity
Name 3 things that inhibited children had more of when faced with an unfamiliar situation than uninhibited children:
1) higher heart rate
2) greater pupillary dilation
3) larger changes in blood pressure
Additional confirmation of the stability of behavioral inhibition is provided by research showing that....
...inhibition in early childhood is associated with increased risk for social anxiety in adolescence and with a less positive and less active social life early in adulthood.
There is evidence that the level of behavioral inhibition in children can be modified by __________________ ____________________ ________________
Parental child-rearing practices
Name what type of parental child-rearing practice reduces the intension physiological reactions of inhibited children?
Warm, supportive parenting
Name what type of parental child-rearing practice increases the intensity of the physiological reactions of inhibited children?
Cold and intrusive parenting and over-protective parenting.
Thomas and Chess distinguish between 9 basic temperament qualities: name them
1) activity level
5)threshold of responsiveness
6) intensity of reaction
7) quality of mood
Based on the 9 basic temperament qualities, most babies can be placed in one of what 3 categories?
Describe 4 characteristics of 'easy children'.
1) they are even tempered
2)have regular sleeping and eating patterns
3) adapt easily to new situations and people
4) have a preponderance of positive moods
Name 4 characteristics of 'difficult children':
1)they are irritable
2) withdraw from new situations and people
3)have unpredictable habits
4) have a preponderance of negative moods
Name 3 characteristics of 'slow-to-warm-up children':
1) they are inactive
2)have a somewhat negative mood
3) take time to adjust to new stimuli
Thomas and Chess found that many children categorized as difficult or easy at age three were rated, respectively as ___________ or _______ adjusted as young adults.
Poorly- or well-
Because the relationship b/w early temperament and later adjustment was not perfect, and based on their findings, researchers develped a "_________________________________ ____________"
Goodness of fit model
The goodness-of-fit model predicts that ...
....it is the degree of match b/w parents' behaviors and their child's temperament that contributes to the child's outcomes
Thomas a chess developed what to help parents interact with their child in ways that are consistent with the child's temperament?
A parent guidance intervention
Freud's theory of theory of psychosexual development proposes that the id's _______________ centers on a different part of the body during each stage of development an that personality results from.......
Libido; ......the ways in which conflicts at each stage are resolved
Freud: Failure to resolve a conflict at any stage often stems from ......... and can result in.......
...excessive or insufficient gratification of the id's needs;..... fixation at that stage
List Freud's stages of psychosexual development in order:
Oral, Anal Phallic, Latent, Genital
Age range: oral stage
Age range: anal stage
Age range: phallic stage
Age range: latency stage
Age range: genital stage
What is the focus of sensation and stimulation in the oral stage?
What is the primary source of conflict in the oral stage?
Fixation in the oral stage results in: (name 5)
5) orally-focused habits (smoking, nail-biting, overating, etc.)
The main issue during the anal stage is:
Control of bodily wastes
Conflicts during the anal stage stem from issues related to:
Fixation in the anal stage produces (what two things)
Anal retentiveness or anal expulsiveness
Name 3 characteristics of anal retentiveness
Stinginess, selfishness, obsessive-compulsive behavior
Name 3 characteristics of anal expulsiveness:
Cruelty, destructiveness, messiness
During the phallic stage, sexual energy is centered where?
In the genitals
What is the primary task of the phallic stage?
Resolution of the Oedipal conflict
the Oedipal conflict is marked by ...
A desire for the opposite-sex parent to view the same-sex parent as a rival
A successful outcome of the Oedipal conflict results from...(two things)
...identification with the same-sex parent and development of the superego
Fixation in the Phallic stage can produce...
...a phallic character
A phallic character involves....
...sexual exploitation of others.
During the Latency stage, libidinal energy is _______ rather than....
Diffuse; ....focused on any one area of the body
The emphasis of the Latency stage is on developing _____________ ________ rather than on ......
Social skills;.... achieving sexual gratification
During the Genital stage, libido is centered where?
In the genitals
A successful outcome in the Genital stage occurs when....
...sexual desire is blended with affection to produce mature sexual relationships.
Name 3 ways in which Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development differs from Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development:
1) Erikson stresses the role of social (vs sexual) factors and his stages of development each involve in a different psychosocial crisis
2 Erikson places greater emphasis on the EGO than the id, and he assumes that people are basically rational and that behavior is largely due to ego functioning
3)Erikson views personality development as a process that continues throughout the lifespan
List Erikson's 8 stages of Psychosocial Development:
1) Basic Trust vs Basic Mistrust
2)Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
3) Initiative vs Guilt
4) Industry vs Inferiority
5) Identity vs Role Confusion
6) Intimacy vs Isolation
7) Generativity vs Stagnation
8) Ego Integrity vs Despair
When is Basic Trust vs Basic Mistrust?
When is Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt?
When is Initiative vs Guilt?
When is Industry vs Inferiority?
When is Identity vs Role Confusion?
When is Intimacy vs Isolation?
When is Generativity vs Stagnation?
When is Ego Integrity vs Despair?
What occurs during the Basic Trust vs Basic Mistrust stage?
A positive relationship with one's primary caregiver during infancy results in a sense of trust and optimism.
What occurs during the Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt stage?
A sense of self (autonomy) develops out of positive interactions with one's parents or other caregivers.
What occurs during the Initiative vs Guilt stage?
Favorable relationships with family members result in an ability to set goals and devise and carry out plans without infringing on the rights of others.
What occurs during the Industry vs Inferiority stage?
To avoid feelings of inferiority, the school-age child must master certain social and academic skills.
Who are the most important influences during the Industry vs Inferiority stage?
People in the neighborhood and at school
Who are the dominant social influence during the Identity vs Role Confusion stage?
A positive outcome during the Identity vs Role Confusion stage is reflected by.... (what two things)
... a sense of personal identity and direction for the future
The main task of the Intimacy vs Isolation stage is the...
... establishment of intimate bonds of love and friendship
If one does not successfully navigate the Intimacy vs Isolation stage, what two things are the result?
Self-absorption and isolation
Who are most important during the Generativity vs Stagnation stage?
The people one lives and works with.
A generative person exhibits ....
....commitment to the well-being of future goals.
In the Ego Integrity vs Despair stage, social influence changes in what way?
It broadens to include all of "human kind"
During the Ego Integrity vs Despair stage, what two thing are required for what to occur?
The development of wisdom and a sense of integrity are required to come to terms with one's limitations and mortality
Wisdom (as it occurs in the Ego Integrity vs Despair stage):
An informed detached concern with life in the face of death
Levinson's "Seasons of a Man's LIfe" divides the lifespan into _____ periods.
Name the 4 periods of Levinson's "Seasons of a Man's Life":
1) Infancy through adolescence
2) early adulthood
3) middle adulthood
4) late adulthood
According to Levinson, the transitions from one period of life to the next are particularly _________________, and it is during these times that ..... usually occur.
Stressful; ...major changes in a person's life structure...
Name the 3 transitions in Lewinson's "Seasons of a Man's Life" model:
1) The Early Adult Transition
2) The Age 30 Transition
3) The Mid-Life Transition
When does the Early Adult Transition occur?
When does the Age 30 Transition occur?
When does the Mid-Life Transition occur?
The Early Adult Transition entails...
...leaving the world of childhood and forming the initial foundation for life in the adult world.
Name 2 tasks of the Early Adult Transition:
1) becoming independent from one's parents
2) getting involved in college, the military, an entry-level job, etc.
The Early Adult Transition leads to the formation of _____ _______
What is The Dream, and when does it occur?
- an image of an ideal life that guides one's decisions and choices
- in the Early Adult Transition
The Age 30 Transition is brought on by what realization?
The realization that the life structure built during the 20s is not adequate
During the Age 30 Transition, a sense of __________ develops as the result of ......; as a result, the life structure is _____________.
Urgency;...pressure to fully enter the adult world; revised
What follow the revision of the life structure that occurs during the Age 30 Transition?
A period of settling down.
The Mid-Life Transition is a time of significant _________ and _________________.
Stress and reorganization.
Name an important change of the Mid-Life Transition and why it occurs.
The deflation of The Dream - it occurs because one realizes that one's goals are not really satisfying and/or will not be fully accomplished.
The Mid-Life Transition is marked by a shift in perspective from "......." to "......." as a result of .........
"Time-since-birth" to "time-left-to-live"; .... an increasing awareness of one's own mortality
Have studies been totally supportive of Levinson's "Season's of a Man's Life" model? Why or why not?
No. E.g., Levinson found that mid-life transition evoked "tumultuous struggles within the self and with the external world" for 80% of the men in his sample, but other studies indicate that only a minority of men and women experience a "mid-life crisis."
Baumrind et al., (1991) presented one of the most widely cited frameworks for........
....understanding the impact of parenting on develpment
Baumrind's approach combines _____ dimensions of parenting: _______________ & _____________ to derive ______ parenting styles.
2: responsivity & demandingness; 4
Baumrind's reponsivitiy is characterized by __________ and _______________
Acceptance and warmth
Baumrind's demandingness is characterized by _______________.
Name Baumrind's4 parenting styles:
Baumrind's parenting styles are predictive of what for children/adolescents?
Personality and behavioral outcomes
Authoritarian parents exhibit _________ demandingness and __________ responsivity.
How to Authoritarian parents gain compliance? (5 ways)
By imposing absolute standards of conduct, stress obedience, physical punishment, threats, deprivation, and other power assertive techniques
The offspring of Authoritarian parents are often _______________, _______________, _______________, and _______________, and have a limited sense of _______________.
Irritable, aggressive, mistrusting, dependent; responsibility
Children of Authoritarian parents have _______________ self-esteem.
Children of Authoritarian parents have _______________ academic achievement.
Authoritative parents combine _____________ ___________ with responsivity.
Although Authoritative parents set clear rules and high standards for their children, they rely on _______________techniques to gain compliance? (Name 3)
Inductive; reasoning, praise, & explanations
Do Authoritative parents encourage or discourage independence?
The offspring of Authoritate parents tends to be _______________, _______________ _______________, _______________, and _______________-oriented.
Assertive, socially responsible, self-confident, achievement oriented.
Children of Authoritative parents have _______________ self-esteem.
Children of Authoritative parents obtain _______________ grades in school.
Permissive parents aka _______________ parents.
Permissive parents are _______________ and _______________, but make few _______________, and are _______________ in response to misbehavior.
Warm& caring; demands; nonpunitive
Permissive parents allow their children to make their own _______________ about when to go to bed, what chores to complete, etc.
Children of Permissive parents tend to be _______________, _______________, _______________, _______________, and easily _______________.
Immature, impulsive, self-centered, dependent; frustrated
Children of Permissive parents tend to have _______________ academic achievement.
Rejecting-neglecting parents exhibit _______________ responsivity and _______________ demandingness, and they may be overly _______________ toward their children.
Low; low; hostile.
Offspring of Rejecting-neglecting parents have _______________ self-esteem and _______________ frustration tolerance.
Children of Rejecting-neglecting parents are often _______________, _______________, and _______________.
Impulsive, moody, and aggressive
The characteristics of rejecting-neglecting parents resemble those predictive of _______________ ______________.
Research has found that adolescent delinquency is associated with what 3 parent-related factors?
1) lack of parental warmth
2) lack of supervision
3) inconsistent or harsh punishment
There is evidence that the effects of parent style are moderated by several factors include the _______________ _______________.
_______________ parenting, (especially the encouragement of _______________ and the use of _______________ disciplinary techniques) has been linked to conscience development and other aspects of social responsibility.
Authoritative; empathy; inductive
Kochanska (1991) found that authoritative parenting of toddlers is a more reliable predictor of internalized conscience 6 years late for _______________, _______________ toddlers than for those who are _______________ and _______________.
Fearful, anxious; nonfearful and nonanxious
Asian American adolescents do well academically even though their parents often rely on many of the parenting practices characteristic of an _______________style.
In general, Hispanic and African American adolescents do not do as well as Anglo American in school, even when their parents are authoritative, apparently because.......
.... they receive little support from their peers for high levels of academic achievement
Research has shown that some African American students deliberately underachieve academically, why?
Specifically to avoid being accused by peers of "acting white."
Has research found that brith order affects personality and/or behavior?
_______________-borns tend to have more rapid language acquisition than _______________-borns
_______________-borns tend to achieve higher grades in school and _______________ scores on IQ tests.
_______________-borns are usually more achievement-oriented and conscientious
_______________-borns are often less cautious and more rebellious
_______________-borns have better peer relationships
_______________-borns are more confident in social situations.
Studies have confirmed that the effects of birth order tend to be small because why?
Personality and behavior are determined by multiple factors.
With regard to family factors, research has found that children's academic achievement is affected by what two things?
1) family size
2) the spacing (# of years) between siblings
The _______________ the family and the _______________ the gap b/w children, the lower the children's achievement.
Studies have found that mothers who report _______________ symptoms of depression tend to be less positive, sensitive, and engaged with their infants than mothers who report _______________ or _______________symptoms, and that these behaviors are associated with _______________ child outcomes.
Chronic; short-term or intermittent; poorer
Name two physiological signs of distress in children that is associated with maternal depression.
1) elevated hear rate
2) greater right frontal lobe asymmetry
There is evidence that physiological signs of distress in children associated with maternal depression are apparent by the time the child is how old?
Studies of toddlers have linked maternal depression (especially chronic, severe depression) to what associated with:
2) peer interaction
3) cognitive linguistic functions
1) passive noncompliance
2) higher-than-normal rates of aggressiveness when interacting with peers
3) poorer performance on measures of cognitive-linguistic functioning
Research has found that maternal depression is associated with _______________attachment in infants and preschoolers.
Has research linked paternal-depression to any interactions/outcomes?
Based on a meta-analysis of 32 studies, Kane and Garber (2004) concluded that depression in fathers is relate to (name 3 things):
1) frequent father-child conflict
2)internalizing symptoms in children
3) externalizing symptoms in children
Ramchandani et al. (2005) found that paternal postnatal depression predicted social and behavioral problems at age ______ (especially in _________, even when mothers had _____ symptoms of depression.
3; boys; no
... the understanding that one is separate from others
Self-awareness becomes apparent during what year of life?
The 2nd year
According to Stipek et al. (1990), the development of self-awareness involves how many stages?
Name the 3 stages of development of self-awareness as described by Stipek et al. (1990)
1) Physical self-recognition
3) emotional responses to wrongdoing
Regarding self-awareness, physical self-recognition is evident by about ______ months, when infants begin to....
18 months; ... recognize themselves in pictures and mirrors
According to Gergely, mirror-based self-recognition requires certain ___________ skills including: (name the big one)
Cognitive skills; ... the ability to construct a visual feature representation of the typical physical appearance of not-directly visible parts of one's own body
Regarding self-awareness, self-description emerges between _____ and _______ months of age, when children use both _________________ and __________ terms to describe themselves
19 and 30 months; neutral and evaluative
Example of neutral term of self-description:
Example of evaluative term of self-description:
Re: self-awareness, children's emotional responses to wrongdoing mean that they have....
...adverse reactions to a caregiver's disapproval.
Stipek et al., conclude that a child's emotional response to wrongdoing reaction signals the beginning of the development of a....
...sense of conscience
Self-awareness undergoes predictable changes during childhood and adolescence, and these changes re reflected in how youngsters _______________ _______________.
From ages 2-6, self-descriptions focus on _______________ _______________ _______________, _______________ _______________, and _______________.
1) concrete physical characteristics
2) specific behaviors
In middle childhood (ages 6-10), children's self-descriptions often refer to _______________.
Towards the end of middle childhood (10-12), children often describe themselves in terms of _______________ _______________ and _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________.
1) personality traits (I'm shy, I'm popular)
2) emotions directed toward themselves (e.g., I'd be ashamed of myself if I failed)
Adolescents describe themselves more _______________, using terms that refer to their _______________ thoughts and feelings.
Abstractly; inner (e.g., "I'm moody, I'm an introvert")
Adolescents recognize that their attributes are sometimes _______________.
Inconsistent (e.g., I'm usually sensitive about other people's feelings, but sometimes I say horrible things to my friends and family members.")
Studies have found that gender identity is fairly well-established by the age of ________.
According to Freud's psychodynamic theory, the development of gender identity depends on...
...the successful resolution of the psychosexual crisis of the phallic stage of development, which results in identification w/ the same sex parent
According to Kohlberg's (1966) cognitive development theory, the acquisition of gender identity involves a _______________of _______________that parallels _______________ _______________.
Sequence of stages; cognitive development
Name the 3 stages of gender identity according to Kohlberg:
1) gender identity
2) gender stability
3) gender constancy
When does Kohlberg's gender identity occur by? (age)
By age 2 or 3
When does Kohlberg's gender stability occur by?
Soon after gender identity, so between 3 and 5
When does Kohlberg's gender constancy occur by?
6 or 7
Kohlberg's gender identity:
By age 2 or 3, children recognize that they are either male or female
Kohlberg's gender stability:
Between ages 3-5, children realize that gender identity is stable over time. (I.e., boys grow up to be boys and girls grow up to be girls)
Kohlberg's gender constancy:
By age 6 or 7, children understand that gender is constant over situations and know that people cannot change gender by superficially altering their external appearance or behavior
Social Learning Theory predicts that the acquisition of gender is the result of a combination of _______________ _______________ and _______________ _______________.
differential reinforcement and observational learning
Support for social learning theory's approach to gender identity development is provided by studies confirming that ....
... parents have gender-related stereotypes that impact how they respond to male and female children, soon after the child's birth.
Karraker, Vogel, and Lake (1995): In their study, mother's and father's of newborn girls described their children as what three things(?) than the mother and fathers of newborn boys; and these differences in perceptions were apparent how quickly following their child's birth?
1) less strong
2) more delicate
3) more feminine
- within the first few hours following birth
Bem's gender schema theory attributes the acquisition of gender identity to a combination of _______________ _______________ and _______________ _______________.
Social learning & cognitive develoment
According to Bem, children develop _______________ of masculinity and femininity as the result of their _______________ experiences.
Egan and Perry's (2001) multidimensional model view gender identity of consisting of _______ components.
Name the 5 components of Egan and Perry's multidimensional model:
1) membership knowledge
2) gender typicality
3) gender contentedness
4) felt pressure for gender conformity
5) intergroup bias
Multidimensional model: Describe membership knowledge:
Knowledge of one's membership in a gender category
Multidimensional model: Describe gender typicality:
The degree to which one feels similar to others in one's gender
Multidimensional model: Describe gender contentedness:
The degree to which one is satisfied with one's gender
Multidimensional model: Describe felt pressure for gender conformity:
The degree to which one feels pressure from parents, peers, and others to conform to gender stereotypes.
Multidimensional model: Describe intergroup bias:
The extent to which one believes that ones gender category is superior to the other category
The Multidimensional model predicts that a person's _______________ _______________ is related to their status on the components of the model.
Hall and Hlberstadt (1980) found that gender identity had a greater impact than _______________ _______________ on self-esteem.
Hall and Halberstadt found that for both males and females, androgyny and to a lesser degree, masculinity, were associated with _______________ levels of self-esteem than was femininity.
The benefits of androgyny have been confirmed by subsequent studies that have linked it to a number of positive characteristics. Name 3:
1) greater flexibility when coping with difficult situations
2) higher levels of life satisfaction
3) greater comfort with one's sexuality
Studies have fond that, while there may be some decline in gender-role differences in late-adolescence and early adulthood, the distinction often reappears when?
When adults marry
Beginning in the _______________ age, there may be some gender-role reversal, with men become more _______________, _______________, _______________, and _______________; and women becoming more _______________, _______________, _______________, and _______________.
2) men: passive, expressive, sensitive, dependent
3) women: active, outgoing, independent, competitive
Initial steps in adopting a racial/ethnic identity are recognizing .......... and understanding..........
1) the existence of racial differences
2) the concept of race
Some studies suggest that infants may exhibit awareness of racial differences as early as how old?
Some studies suggest that children are able to label people in terms of racial group by the time they are how old?
3 to 4 years
A more sophisticated understanding of race does not develop until around age _______, which children begin to understand.....
10;... the social connotations of racial differences
The earliest studies on racial preferences were conducted by Clark & Clark (1947) for the purpose of...
...identifying the effects of segregation on children's racial identity.
Clark & Clark (1947) found that young Black children preferred a _______________ doll, and concluded from this that Black children have _______________ _______________
White; negative self-image
The results of Clark & Clark's studies were used to support what? In what court thing?
To support the integration of school in the Brown vs. Board of Education Supreme Court ruling.
Unfortunately, there is evidence of a continuing discrepancy in the racial preferences of White and Black children. For example, Katz (2003) found that the preference from same-race peers _______________ from ages 3 to 6 for White children, but _______________ during this period for Black children.
Who introduced the term "identity crisis?"
What did Erikson consider to be the primary developmental task of adolescence?
The achievement of a coherent identity.
Marcia (1987) distinguished b/w ______ identity statuses (patterns) that reflect.....
4; .... the degree to which the individual has experienced (or is experiencing) and identity crisis and is committed to an identity.
Name Marcia's four identity statuses:
1) Identity Diffusion
2) Identity Foreclosure
3) Identity Moratorium
Describe Identity Diffusion:
Adolescents exhibiting diffusion have not yet experienced an identity crisis or explore alternatives.
Are those in Identity Diffusion committed to an identity?
Describe Identity Foreclosure:
Adolescents are manifesting foreclosure when they have not experienced a crisis, but have adopted an identity (e.g., occupation, ideology, etc.) that has been imposed by the same-sex parent or other person
Identity Moratorium occurs when...
... an adolescent experiences an identity crisis and actively explores alternative identities.
During what identity status do adolescents exhibit a high degree of confusion, discontent, and rebelliousness?
Describe Identity Achievement:
Adolescents who have resolved the identity crisis by evaluating alternatives and committing to an identity are "identity achieved."
The view of adolescence as a period of crisis can be traced to _______________, who in 1904, proclaimed that adolescence is a time of "_______________ and _______________" involving emotional maladjustment and instability.
Hall; "storm and stress"
Has research supported the idea of adolescence as a period of "storm and stress"? Why or why not?
Not totally; Only a small proportion of adolescents experience significant distress, and the rates of serious psychological disturbance among teens are not very different from those for younger children and adults.
Gilligan found that at about ___ or ___ years of age, girl experience a _______________ _______________ in response to increasing pressure to fit cultural stereotypes about the "perfect good woman."
11 or 12; relational crisis
As a result of the relational crisis, young girls disconnect from _______________ in order to maintain _______________ _________ _______________.
Themselves; relationships with others
Adolescent girls experience a "__________ __ ____________" when they realize that women's opinions are not highly valued.
"Loss of voice"
Name three consequences of the 'relational crisis' experienced by girls:
1) drop in academic achievement
2) a loss of self-esteem
3) an increased vulnerability to psychological problems
Regarding the relational crisis, Gilligan concluded that a primary task for parents, teaches, and therapists is to help adolescent girls maintain a "_______________ _______________ ____ _______________"
"Health resistance to disconnection"
What does Gilligan say about a relational crisis in boys?
That they often experience a similar crisis but do so in early childhood rather than in adolescence.
Research investigating the consistency of personality traits during adulthood has produced conflicting results, but this may be due, in part, to...
...differences in how consistency is measured.
Studies examining relative strength (ranking) of personality traits within individuals tend to find...
...considerable stability in personality, especially after age 30
Studies examining mean differences in the strength of personality traits at different ages suggest some _______________.
Roberts, Walton, & Viechtbauer's (2006) meta-analysis of the longitudinal studies of mean-level changes in personality traits found that the greatest change in traits occurs during _______________ _______________.
Roberts, Walton, & Viechtbauer's (2006) meta-analysis of the longitudinal studies of mean-level changes in personality traits found that _______________, _______________ _______________ (one facet of _______________), _______________, and _______________ _______________ continue to increase over the lifespan. .
Agreeableness, social dominance (one facet of extraversion); conscientiousness, and emotional stability
Roberts, Walton, & Viechtbauer's (2006) meta-analysis of the longitudinal studies of mean-level changes in personality traits found that _______________ _______________ (a facet of _______________) and _______________ ___ _______________ are fairly stable from early to middle adulthood but _______________ after age 55.
Emotional stability (extraversion); openness to experience; decline
Research suggests that children progress through _____ (#) phases in their understanding of death, with each phase reflecting differences in the understanding of _______________, _______________, and _______________.
3; nonfunctionality, irreversibility, and universality
... the understanding that life involves thinking, breathing, eating, and other essential functions that cease at death
Irreversibility is ...
... the understanding that a living being cannot physically return from death
... the understanding that all living beings eventually die.
Children 2-5 typically view death as _______________ and _______________.
reversible and temporary
Children 2-5 tend to perceive death as _______________ or _______________ by the deceased
Separation or abandonment
Children ages 5-9 gradually develop an awareness of the _______________ of death, but tend to _______________ it (e.g., .....).
Irreversibility; personify (e.g., as a skeleton or ghost)
Children 5-9 believe that they can _______________ or _______________ death.
Cheat or escape
By age 10, most children recognize that death involves a cessation of _______________ that is _______________ and _______________.
Functioning: irreversible and universal
There is evidence that children may develop a mature understanding of death as early as age ________, and that the age at which children do so is affected by several factors: (name 3)
- age 5
1) cognitive developmental level
2) death-related experiences
3) cultural and religious experiences
Anxiety about death is related to both ________ and _______________.
Age and personality
Anxiety about death seems to be greatest among what age range?
Not surprisingly, anxiety about death is lower among better-adjusted people; that is among people with (name 3 factors):
1) high self-esteem, a sense of mastery, and a sense of purpose
Based on interview with over 200-terminally ill patients, Kubler-Ross (1969) determined concluded that people progress through ______ stages of grief when facing their own death or other important loss.
Name Kubler-Ross's 5 stages of grief:
1) denial and isolation ("No, this isn't happening to me.")
2) anger ("Why me?!")
3) bargaining ("Yes me, but not until my grandchild is born.")
4) depression ("Yes... me.")
5) acceptance ("My time is close and that's alright.")
What do subsequent studies suggest about Kubler-Ross's 5 stages of grief? (2 main things)
1) That they don't necessarily occur in the order that he identified
2) that the stages may be repeated
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