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Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide Spring Exam 2019
Terms in this set (150)
The lacrimal glands produce tears to moisten and cleanse the eyes.
Rods in the retina are sensitive to color and are used mainly for vision when it is light.
The area of sharpest vision in the eye is the fovea centralis.
The vitreous humor is a clear, watery fluid that fills the space between the cornea and iris.
The ear is divided into two main sections: the outer ear and the inner ear.
Radial Keratotomy (RK) can correct myopia and eliminate the need for corrective lenses.
The sense of taste is more sensitive than the sense of smell.
The lower part of the septum is called the interatrial septum.
The double-layered membrane that covers the outside of the heart is the endocardium.
During diastole, the atria are filling with blood and the ventricles contract.
Electrical impulses originating in the heart cause the cyclic contractions of the muscles.
The smallest branches of arteries are called arterioles
Capillaries have thin walls containing only one layer of cells.
Capillaries allow oxygen and nutrients to pass through to body cells.
Fibrinogen and prothrombin are blood proteins necessary for the clotting of blood.
Plasma is approximately 75 percent water with many suspended substances.
Phagocytosis is a process by which erythrocytes destroy pathogens or germs.
Hypotension is high blood pressure.
A common symptom of myocardial infarction is a severe, crushing pain that radiates to the arm, neck, and jaw.
Leukemia is a malignant disease of the blood vessels that destroys white blood cells.
Fixed pacemakers deliver electrical impulses only when the heart's own conduction system is not responding correctly.
Contraction of skeletal muscles causes lymph to flow through the lymphatic vessels.
Lymph nodes range in size from a pinhead to a golf ball.
Lymphatic vessels join together to form lymphatic capillaries.
The spleen ceases to function after puberty.
The thoracic duct empties purified lymph into the left subclavian vein.
The spleen stores erythrocytes.
The palatine tonsils are located in the nasopharynx.
The thymus gland produces antibodies and manufactures lymphocytes during early childhood.
Hodgkin's disease is a chronic, malignant disease of the lymph nodes.
The body has a 6-10 minute supply of oxygen.
The nasal septum divides the nose into two hollow spaces called nasal cavities.
The largest layer of cartilage on the larynx, the thyroid cartilage, is commonly called the Adam's apple.
A series of C-shaped cartilages, open on the ventral, or front surface, help keep the trachea open.
The left lung has three lobes, while the right lung has two.
During expiration, the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles contract.
The process of respiration is controlled by the respiratory center in the medulla oblongata of the brain.
A new strand of tuberculosis that is resistant to drug therapy has created concern that tuberculosis will become a widespread infectious disease.
Another name for influenza or flu, is rhinitis.
Pneumonia is an inflammation or infection of the lungs characterized by exudate in the alveoli
The alimentary canal is a long, muscular tube that begins at the mouth and ends at the anus.
Most of digestion and absorption takes place in the stomach.
The vermiform appendix extends off of the ascending colon.
Two symptoms of an ulcer are hematemesis and melena.
A ruptured appendix or gallbladder can lead to diverticulitis.
Vaccines are available to help prevent both hepatitis A and hepatitis B.
The urinary system is responsible for maintaining the body's acid base balance.
The medulla of the kidney contains most of the nephrons.
As blood passes through the glomerulus, water, mineral salts, glucose, proteins, and red blood cells are filtered out.
As filtered materials pass through the convoluted tubules, substances needed by the body are reabsorbed.
The urethras are two muscular tubes that extend from the kidneys to the bladder.
The mucous membrane lining of the bladder is arranged in a series of folds called rugae.
The ureter is different in males and females.
Uremia is a toxic condition that occurs when the kidneys fail and urinary waste products are present in the bloodstream.
Lithotripsy is a procedure in which shock waves are used to crush stones that form in the urinary system.
Hemodialysis is frequently used for cystitis.
Bacteria, viruses, or chemicals such as bubble bath solutions can cause urethritis.
Pyuria is puss in the urine.
The hilum is a notched or indented area on the kidney through which the ureter, nerves, blood vessels, and lymph vessels enter and leave the kidney.
The parathyroid gland is often called the "master gland" since it produces many hormones that affect other glands.
The adrenal glands are frequently called the "suparenal" glands because one is located above each kidney.
The pancreas is both an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland.
The pineal body atrophies during puberty.
Giantism results from a lack of somatotropin.
Hyperparathyroidism results in hypercalcemia, which leads to renal calculi.
The symptoms of Crushing's syndrome include hyperglycemia, hypertension, muscle weakness, a "moon" face, and obesity.
Dwarfism is characterized by small body size, short extremities, lack of sexual development, and mental retardation.
The lower temperature in the scrotum is essential for the production of sperm.
The vas deferens is the tube that is cut to produce sterility in the male.
Both the prostate gland and Cowper's glands produce an alkaline fluid that provides a more favorable environment for the sperm.
The lateral ends of the fallopian tubes are attached to the ovaries.
The narrow bottom section of the uterus that attaches to the vagina is the cervix.
The American cancer society recommends that men begin monthly testicular self-examinations at the age of 15.
The ureter carries both urine from the urinary bladder and semen from the reproductive tubes of the male.
An adult female should perform a breast self-examination every month at the end of menstruation or on a scheduled day of the month after menopause.
If not treated, STDs can cause serious chronic conditions and, in some cases, sterility or death.
The outermost layer of the eye is the?
The mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the front of the eye is the?
The circular, transparent part on the front of the sclera that allows light rays to enter the eye is the?
A circular structure behind the pupil that refracts light rays is the?
The colored portion of the eye with an opening in the center called a pupil is the?
The tube that connects the middle ear with the pharynx is the?
The receptor for sound waves in the inner ear is the?
Organ of Corti
Which of the following is not a cause of conductive hearing loss?
Auditory Nerve Damage
When an incision is made into the tympanic membrane and tubes are inserted to relieve pressure in the middle ear, the procedure is called a?
The sense of smell is made possible by?
The tongue is a mass of muscle tissue with projections called?
The layer of the eye that is interlaced with blood vessels to nourish the eye is the?
The muscle layer of the heart is the?
The chamber of the heart that receives deoxygenated blood as it returns from body cells is the?
The chamber of the heart that receives oxygenated blood as it returns from body cells is the?
The valve between the right atrium and right ventricle that prevents blood from flowing back into the right atrium is the?
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle that prevents blood from flowing back into the left atrium is the?
The blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart are the?
The blood vessels that contain valves to prevent blood from flowing in a backward direction are the?
The blood vessels that are more muscular and elastic than are the other blood vessels are the?
How much blood does the average adult have in his or her body?
4 to 6 quarts
The largest artery in the body is the?
Which of following blood proteins does not aid in clotting?
The blood cells that contain hemoglobin are?
The number of erythrocytes in one cubic millimeter of blood is?
4.5 to 5.5 million
The bright red color of blood indicates?
hemoglobin carrying oxygen
The blood cells that fight infection are the?
a normal thrombocyte count per cubic millimeter of blood is?
Which of the following is not true of thrombocytes?
Thrombocytes fight infection
an inherited disease that occurs almost exclusively in males and in which the blood is unable to clot is?
An inflammation of a vein with the formation of a clot is?
The leukocytes that provide immunity for the body by developing antibodies and protect against the formation of cancer cells are?
Dilated, swollen veins that have lost elasticity and cause stasis, or decreased blood flow, are called?
Which of the following is not a risk factor that increases the incidence of hypertension?
Which of the following statements is not true of sinuses?
Sinuses provide the sense of smell
The pharyngeal tonsils are located in the?
The esophagus and trachea branch off of the?
The correct name for the voice box is the?
The structures that allow for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and blood are?
In order to carry air to both lungs, the trachea branches into two tubes called?
The membrane or sac that encloses each lung is a?
When cells use oxygen and nutrients to produce energy, water, and carbon dioxide, the process is called?
A respiratory disorder caused by a sensitivity to an allergen is?
A noninfectious, chronic respiratory condition that occurs when the walls of the alveoli deteriorate and lose their elasticity is?
The correct term for a nosebleed is?
Which of the following statements is not true about lung cancer?
It cannot be prevented
The bony structure that forms the roof of the mouth is the?
Which of the following is not a pair of salivary glands?
Salivary Glands produce salivary amylase, which?
begins the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates
The folds in the mucous membranes lining of the stomach are called?
The circular muscle between the stomach and small intestine that keeps food in the stomach is the?
The enzyme in the stomach that begins the chemical breakdown of fats is?
The first section of the large intestine is the?
The walls of the small intestine are lined with fingerlike projections called?
The enzyme from pancreatic juices that acts on sugars is?
Amylase or Amylopsin
all three enzymes present in the intestinal juice act on?
The organ behind the stomach that produces enzymes and the hormone insulin is the?
Which of the following is not a function of the large intestine?
Production of intestinal juices containing enzymes
The function of bile is to?
emulsify fats and make them water soluble
A chronic destruction of liver cells accompanied by the formation of fibrous connective and scar tissue is?
The presence of gallstones in the gallbladder is?
The major cause of a peptic or duodenal ulcer is?
The male gonads are the?
the male tubes where the sperm mature and become motile are the?
The male tubes that produce a thick, yellow fluid rich in sugar to nourish the sperm are the?
The gland in the male that contracts during ejaculation to aid in the expulsion of the semen into the urethra is the?
The proper name for the foreskin on the penis that is removed during a circumcision is?
Fingerlike Projections on the ends of the fallopian tubes that help move the ovum are called?
The innermost layer of the uterus that deteriorates and causes the bleeding known and menstruation is the?
The glands in the female that secrete mucus for lubrication during intercourse are the?
The two folds of fatty tissue covered with hair that enclose and protect the vagina are the?
The proper term for the area between the vagina and anus in the female is the?
The sexually transmitted disease characterized by a greenish-yellow discharge, burning when urinating, sore throat, and swollen glands is?
A drop of silver nitrate or antibiotic is routinely placed in the eyes of newborn babies to prevent?