Science chapter 4 study guide
Terms in this set (63)
the highest part of a wave
the horizontal distance between crests
the measurement of waves;the number of waves that pass a point in a certain amount of time
the lowest part of a wave
the vertical distance from the crest of a wave to the trough
the movement of sand along the beach
a ridge of sand
a rush of water that flows rapidly into the sea through a narrow opening
a wall of rocks or concrete
the tide with the greatest difference between high and low tides;occurs when the sun and moon are aligned with the earth
the tide with least difference between high and low tide
a large stream of moving water that flows through the ocean
the effect of Earths rotation on the direction of the winds on Earths ocean
The pattern of temperature and precipitation over a period of time
the upward movement of cold waters from the ocean depths
an abnormal climate that occurs every 2-7 years in the pacific ocean
How do waves form?
when winds blow across the waters surface transmitting their energy to the water
The size of a wave depends on what?
The strength of the wind and the length of time it blows
What is a following sea to a sailor?
waves that travel in the same direction as the boat
What are combers?
large cresting waves
What is Spindrift?
ocean spray torn by the wind from the surface of the waves
What do the energy and strength of a wave depend on?
On its wave height
What do waves travel as in deep water?
What happens as waves approach the shore?
the water becomes shallower
What causes waves to slow down?
the friction between the ocean floor and the water
What changes in a wave as it slows down?
What happens near shore?
the wave height increases and the wavelength decreases
What is an undertow?
The pull of the water rushing back into the ocean
What do dunes do?
they make a beach more stable and protect it from erosion
by both wind and water they help to
a tsunami in deep water may have the wavelength of
200 km plus but a wave height less than a meter
Where are tsunamis most common?
How many people died Papua New Guinea due to tsunamis?
Where do tsunamis often hit?
What is it called when the water reaches its highest point?
It is high tide
What causes tides?
the interaction of Earth, the moon, and the sun
Whats the average amount of salt one kg of ocean water contains?
35 grams of salt
What type of salt is most present in the ocean?
What lowers the salinity of ocean water?
rain,snow,and melting ice
What increases salinity?
Evaporation and freezing ice
What does salt act as?
anti freeze by interfering with the formation of ice crystals
Ocean water also has a higher density than
temperature decreases as you
descend through the water column
What is the average depth of the ocean floor?
What interrupts the waters movement?
What increases the range of tides?
a basin at the mouth of a river
What affects the height of the tides during a month?
changes in the positions of Earth the moon and the sun
From what old English word does the word spring tide come from?
springen which means to jump
What are the sources of potential energy?
High and low tide
What is it waiting to be?
used and stored
Why do some currents move water at the surface of the ocean?
because other currents are moving to deep water
What affects water to a depth of several hundred meters?
How does the Coriolis effect water in the Northern hemisphere?
It curves water to the right
How does the Coriolis effect water in the southern hemisphere?
It curves water to the left
What is the largest and most powerful surface current in the north Atlantic ocean
the gulf stream
How do currents affect climate?
by moving cold and warm water around the globe
How does influencing the climate of the land near the coast affect air?
A surface current warms or cools the air above it
What causes the deep currents?
difference in density rather than surface winds
What does the density of water depend on?
temperature and salinity
What happens when a warm water surface current moves from the equator toward the pole?
Its water gradually cools off
What does upwelling bring?
Organisms,minerals and other nutrients from the deeper layers of the water
What is one major area of up-welling?
The pacific ocean off the west coast of south america
Why is rich fishing area important to millions of people?
because it supplies food and jobs
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