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How much does the average five month old weigh?

15 pounds

How much does the average 1 year old weight?

22 pounds

cephalocaudal principle

the principle that growth follows a pattern that begins with the head and upper body parts and then proceeds down to the rest of the body

proximodistal principle

the principle that development proceeds from teh center of the body outward

principle of hierarchical heritage

the principle that simple skills typically develop separately and independently but are later intergrated into more complex skills

principle of the independence of systems

the principle that different body systems grow at different rates


the basic cell of the nervous system


the gap at the connection between neurons through which neurons chemically communicate with one another


a fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds the transmission of nerve impulses

cerebral cortex

the upper layer of the brain


the degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to experience

sensitive period

a specific but limited time usually early in an organism's life during which the organism is particularly susceptible to environmental influences relation to some particular facet of development


repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior


the degree of awareness an infant displays to both internal and external stimulation

rapid eye movement

the period of sleep that is found in older children and adults and is associated with dreaming

sudden infant death syndrome

the unexplained death of a seemingly healthy baby/ 1 in 1000 infants per year/ no way to prevent/ boys, african americans, low birthweight, mothers who smoke, and low apgar scores are at greater risk

rooting reflex

3 weeks/ neonate's tendency to turn its head toward thing that touch its cheek/ food intake

stepping reflex

2 months/ movement of legs when held upright with feet touching the floor/ prepares infants for independent locomotion

swimming reflex

4-6 months/ infants tendency to paddle and kick in a sort of swimming motion when lying face down in a body of water

moro reflex

6 months/ activated when support for the neck and head is suddenly removed the arms of the infant are thrust outward and then appear to grasp onto something/ similar to primates protection from falling

babinski reflex

8-12 months/ an infant fans out its toes in response to a stroke on the outside of its foot

startle reflex

an infant in response to a sudden noise flings out its arms arches its back and spreads its fingers/protection

eye-blink reflex

remains/ rapid shutting and opening of eye on exposure to direct light/protection

sucking reflex

remains/infants tendency to suck at things that touch its lips/food intake

gag reflex

remains/an infants reflex to clear its throat

dynamic systems theory

a theory of how motor skills develop and are coordinated


the average performance of a large sample of children of a given age

brazelton noenatal behavioral assessment scale (NBAS)

a measurement designed to determine infants neurological and behavioral responses to their environment


the condition of having an improper amount and balance of nutrients


a disease in which infants stop growing


a disease in which a child's stomach limbs and face swell with water

nonorganic failure to thrive

a disorder in which infants stop growing due to a lack of stimulation and attention as the result of inadequate parenting


the physical stimulation of the sense organs


the sorting out interpretation analysis and integration of stimuli involving the sense of organs and brain


newborns 20/200 - 20/600 and 6 months 20/20

binocular vision

the ability to combine the images coming to each eye to see depth and motion and is achieved at around 14 weeks


infants hear prenatally


well developed and 12-18 years babies can distinguish their mothers scent


infants have an innate sweet tooth and dislike bitter


produces distress in infants


highly developed and is one of the first to develop

mutimodal approach to perception

the approach that considers how information that is collected by various individual sensory systems is integrated and coordinated


the action possibilities that a given situation or stimulus provides

Piaget's Approach to Child Development

Action=Knowledge, knowledge is the product of direct motor behavior

Key Elements of Piaget's Theory

all children pass through a series of four universal stages in a fixed order from birth through adolescence: sensorimotor, preoperation, concrete operations, and formal operational


Piaget's initial major stage of cognitive development which can be broken down into 6 substages

Substage 1 of sensorimotor:Simple reflexes

first month of life/ the various reflexes that determine the infant's interactions with the world are at the center of its cognitive life/sucking reflex cause infants to suck at anything put on their lips

Substage 2 of sensorimotor: first habits and primary circular reactions

1-4 months/infants begin to coordinate what were separate actions into single, integrated activities/combination of grasping an object with sucking on it

Substage 2 of sensorimotor:secondary circular reactions

4-8 months/takes major strides in shifting their cognitive horizons beyond themselves and begin to act on the outside world/repeatedly picks up a rattle and shakes it in different ways to see how the sound changes

substage 4:coordination of secondary circular reactions

8-12 months/ infants begin to use more calculated approaches to production events coordinating several schemes to generate a single act. they achieve object permanence during this stage/will push one toy out of the way to reach another toy that is only partially exposed

substage 5 of sensorimotor: tertiary circular reactions

12-18 months/deliberate variation of actions that bring desirable consequences that than just repeating enjoyable activities/will drop a toy repeatedly varying the position in which the toy is dropped and observing where it lands

stage 6 of sensorimotor: beginnings of thought

18 months- 2 years/ mental representation or symbolic thought. can imagine where objects that they cannot see might be


an organized pattern of sensorimotor functioning


the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking


changes in existing was of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events

goal-directed behavior

behavior in which several schemes are combined and coordinated to generate a single act to solve a problem

object permanence

the realization that people and objects exist even when they cannot be seen

mental representation

an internal image of a past event of object

deferred imitation

an act in which a person who is no longer present is imitated by children who have witnessed a similar act

information-processing approaches

the model that seeks to identify the way that individuals take in, use, and store information

information processing has three basic aspects

encoding, storage, and retrieval


the degree to which an activity requires attention

infantile amnesia

the lack of memory for experiences occurring prior to 3 years old


the proces by which information is initially recorded, stored, and retrieved

explicit memory

memory that is conscious and which can be recalled intentionally

implicit memory

memory that is recalled unconsciously

developmental quotient

an overall development score that relates to performance in four domains: motor skills, language use, adaptive behavior, and personal-social

bayley scales of infant development

evaluate an infants development from 2 to 42 months

visual-recognition memory

the memory and recognition of a stimulus that has been previously seen, also relate to IQ

cross-modal transference

the ability to identify a stimulus that previously has been experienced through only one sense by using another sense


the systematic meaningful arrangement of symbols which provides the basis for communication


the smallest language unit that has meaning


the rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences

prelinguistic communication

communication through sounds, facial expressions, gestures, imitation, and other nonlinguistic means


making speechlike but meaningless sounds


one word utterances that stand for a whole phrase whose meaning depends on the particular context in which they are used

telegraphic speech

speech in which words not critical to the message are left out


the overly restrictive use of words, common among children just mastering spoken language


the overly broad use of words overgeneralizing their meaning

referential style

a style of language use in which language is used primarily to label objects

expressive style

a stle of language use in which language is used primarily to express feelings and needs about oneself and others

learning theory approach

the theory that language acquisition follows the basic laws of reinforcement and conditioning

nativist approach

the theory that a genetically determined innate mechanism directs language development

universal grammar

noam chomsky's theory that all the worlds languages share a similar underlying structure

language-acquisition device

a neural system of the brain hypothesized to permit understanding of language

infant-directed speech

a type of speech directed toward infants characterized by short simple sentences

interactionist perspective

suggest that language development is produced through a combination of genetically determined predispositions and environmental circumstances that help teach language

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