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87 terms

Child Development Chapter 5 & 6

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How much does the average five month old weigh?
15 pounds
How much does the average 1 year old weight?
22 pounds
cephalocaudal principle
the principle that growth follows a pattern that begins with the head and upper body parts and then proceeds down to the rest of the body
proximodistal principle
the principle that development proceeds from teh center of the body outward
principle of hierarchical heritage
the principle that simple skills typically develop separately and independently but are later intergrated into more complex skills
principle of the independence of systems
the principle that different body systems grow at different rates
neuron
the basic cell of the nervous system
synapse
the gap at the connection between neurons through which neurons chemically communicate with one another
myelin
a fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds the transmission of nerve impulses
cerebral cortex
the upper layer of the brain
plasticity
the degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to experience
sensitive period
a specific but limited time usually early in an organism's life during which the organism is particularly susceptible to environmental influences relation to some particular facet of development
rhythms
repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior
state
the degree of awareness an infant displays to both internal and external stimulation
rapid eye movement
the period of sleep that is found in older children and adults and is associated with dreaming
sudden infant death syndrome
the unexplained death of a seemingly healthy baby/ 1 in 1000 infants per year/ no way to prevent/ boys, african americans, low birthweight, mothers who smoke, and low apgar scores are at greater risk
rooting reflex
3 weeks/ neonate's tendency to turn its head toward thing that touch its cheek/ food intake
stepping reflex
2 months/ movement of legs when held upright with feet touching the floor/ prepares infants for independent locomotion
swimming reflex
4-6 months/ infants tendency to paddle and kick in a sort of swimming motion when lying face down in a body of water
moro reflex
6 months/ activated when support for the neck and head is suddenly removed the arms of the infant are thrust outward and then appear to grasp onto something/ similar to primates protection from falling
babinski reflex
8-12 months/ an infant fans out its toes in response to a stroke on the outside of its foot
startle reflex
an infant in response to a sudden noise flings out its arms arches its back and spreads its fingers/protection
eye-blink reflex
remains/ rapid shutting and opening of eye on exposure to direct light/protection
sucking reflex
remains/infants tendency to suck at things that touch its lips/food intake
gag reflex
remains/an infants reflex to clear its throat
dynamic systems theory
a theory of how motor skills develop and are coordinated
norms
the average performance of a large sample of children of a given age
brazelton noenatal behavioral assessment scale (NBAS)
a measurement designed to determine infants neurological and behavioral responses to their environment
malnutrition
the condition of having an improper amount and balance of nutrients
marasmus
a disease in which infants stop growing
kwashiorkor
a disease in which a child's stomach limbs and face swell with water
nonorganic failure to thrive
a disorder in which infants stop growing due to a lack of stimulation and attention as the result of inadequate parenting
sensation
the physical stimulation of the sense organs
perception
the sorting out interpretation analysis and integration of stimuli involving the sense of organs and brain
vision
newborns 20/200 - 20/600 and 6 months 20/20
binocular vision
the ability to combine the images coming to each eye to see depth and motion and is achieved at around 14 weeks
sound
infants hear prenatally
smell
well developed and 12-18 years babies can distinguish their mothers scent
taste
infants have an innate sweet tooth and dislike bitter
pain
produces distress in infants
touch
highly developed and is one of the first to develop
mutimodal approach to perception
the approach that considers how information that is collected by various individual sensory systems is integrated and coordinated
affordances
the action possibilities that a given situation or stimulus provides
Piaget's Approach to Child Development
Action=Knowledge, knowledge is the product of direct motor behavior
Key Elements of Piaget's Theory
all children pass through a series of four universal stages in a fixed order from birth through adolescence: sensorimotor, preoperation, concrete operations, and formal operational
sensorimotor
Piaget's initial major stage of cognitive development which can be broken down into 6 substages
Substage 1 of sensorimotor:Simple reflexes
first month of life/ the various reflexes that determine the infant's interactions with the world are at the center of its cognitive life/sucking reflex cause infants to suck at anything put on their lips
Substage 2 of sensorimotor: first habits and primary circular reactions
1-4 months/infants begin to coordinate what were separate actions into single, integrated activities/combination of grasping an object with sucking on it
Substage 2 of sensorimotor:secondary circular reactions
4-8 months/takes major strides in shifting their cognitive horizons beyond themselves and begin to act on the outside world/repeatedly picks up a rattle and shakes it in different ways to see how the sound changes
substage 4:coordination of secondary circular reactions
8-12 months/ infants begin to use more calculated approaches to production events coordinating several schemes to generate a single act. they achieve object permanence during this stage/will push one toy out of the way to reach another toy that is only partially exposed
substage 5 of sensorimotor: tertiary circular reactions
12-18 months/deliberate variation of actions that bring desirable consequences that than just repeating enjoyable activities/will drop a toy repeatedly varying the position in which the toy is dropped and observing where it lands
stage 6 of sensorimotor: beginnings of thought
18 months- 2 years/ mental representation or symbolic thought. can imagine where objects that they cannot see might be
scheme
an organized pattern of sensorimotor functioning
assimilation
the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking
accommodation
changes in existing was of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events
goal-directed behavior
behavior in which several schemes are combined and coordinated to generate a single act to solve a problem
object permanence
the realization that people and objects exist even when they cannot be seen
mental representation
an internal image of a past event of object
deferred imitation
an act in which a person who is no longer present is imitated by children who have witnessed a similar act
information-processing approaches
the model that seeks to identify the way that individuals take in, use, and store information
information processing has three basic aspects
encoding, storage, and retrieval
automatization
the degree to which an activity requires attention
infantile amnesia
the lack of memory for experiences occurring prior to 3 years old
memory
the proces by which information is initially recorded, stored, and retrieved
explicit memory
memory that is conscious and which can be recalled intentionally
implicit memory
memory that is recalled unconsciously
developmental quotient
an overall development score that relates to performance in four domains: motor skills, language use, adaptive behavior, and personal-social
bayley scales of infant development
evaluate an infants development from 2 to 42 months
visual-recognition memory
the memory and recognition of a stimulus that has been previously seen, also relate to IQ
cross-modal transference
the ability to identify a stimulus that previously has been experienced through only one sense by using another sense
language
the systematic meaningful arrangement of symbols which provides the basis for communication
morphemes
the smallest language unit that has meaning
semantics
the rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences
prelinguistic communication
communication through sounds, facial expressions, gestures, imitation, and other nonlinguistic means
babbling
making speechlike but meaningless sounds
holophrases
one word utterances that stand for a whole phrase whose meaning depends on the particular context in which they are used
telegraphic speech
speech in which words not critical to the message are left out
underextension
the overly restrictive use of words, common among children just mastering spoken language
overextension
the overly broad use of words overgeneralizing their meaning
referential style
a style of language use in which language is used primarily to label objects
expressive style
a stle of language use in which language is used primarily to express feelings and needs about oneself and others
learning theory approach
the theory that language acquisition follows the basic laws of reinforcement and conditioning
nativist approach
the theory that a genetically determined innate mechanism directs language development
universal grammar
noam chomsky's theory that all the worlds languages share a similar underlying structure
language-acquisition device
a neural system of the brain hypothesized to permit understanding of language
infant-directed speech
a type of speech directed toward infants characterized by short simple sentences
interactionist perspective
suggest that language development is produced through a combination of genetically determined predispositions and environmental circumstances that help teach language