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Ap Psychology: Psychological Disorders

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Psychopathology
the scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of psychological disorders
psychological disorder/mental disorder
a pattern of behavioral and psychological symptoms that causes significant personal distress, impairs the ability to function in one or more important areas of daily life, or both
DSM-IV-TR
abbreviation for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision; the book published by the American Psychiatric Association that describes the specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for different pyschological disorders
National Comorbidity Survey
Showed that women are more likely to have major depression and anxiety disorders while men are more likely to have substance abuse and antisocial disorders
anxiety disorders
a category of psychological disorders in which extreme anxiety is the main diagnostic feature and causes significant disruptions in the person's cognitive, behavioral, or interpersonal functioning
anxiety
an unpleasant emotional state characterized by physcial arousal and feelings of tension, apprehension, and worry
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, global, and persistent symptoms of anxiety; also called free-floating anxiety
panic attack
a sudden episode of extreme anxiety that rapidly escalates in intensity
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder in which the person experiences frequent and unexpected panic attacks
phobia
a strong or irrational fear of something, usually a specific object or situation, that does not necessarily interfere with the ability to function in daily life
specific phobia
an anxiety disorder characterized by an extreme and irrational fear of a specific object or situation that interefers with the ability to function in daily life; formerly called simple phobia
agoraphobia
an anxiety disorder involving the extreme and irrational fear of experiencing a panic attack in a public situation and being unable to escape or get help
social phobia or social anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder involving the extreme and irrational fear of being embarrased, judged, or scrutinized by others in social situations
posttraumatic stress disorder
an anxiety disorder in which chronic and persistent symptoms of anxiety develop in response to an extreme physical or psychological trauma
obsessive-compulsive disorder
an anxiety disorder in which the symptoms of anxiety are triggered by intrusive, repetitive thoughts and urges to perform certain actions
obsessions
repeated, intrusive, and uncontrollable irrational thouyghts or mental images that cause extreme anxiety and distress
compulsions
repetitive behaviors or mental acts that are performed to prevent or reduce anxiety
mood disorders
a category of mental disorders in which significant and persistent disruptions in mood or emotions cause impaired cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning; also called affective disorders
major depression
a mood disorder characterized by extreme and persistent feelings of despondency, worthlessness, and hopelessness, causing impaired emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning
dysthemic disorder
a mood disorder involving chronic, low-grade feelings of depression that produce subjective discomfort but do not seriously impair the ability to function
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
a mood disorder in which episodes of depression typically occur during the fall and winter and subside during the spring and summer
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder involving periods of incapacitating depression alternating with periods of extreme euphoria and excitement; formerly called manic depression
manic episode
a sudden, rapidly escalating emotional state characterized by extreme euphoria, excitement, physcial energy, and rapid thoughts and speech
cyclothymic disorder
a mood disorder characterized by moderate but frequent mood swings that are not severe enough to qualify as bipolar disorder
personality disorder
inflexible, maladaptive patterns of thoughts, emotions, behavior, and interpersonal functioning that are stable over time and across situations, and deviate from the expectations of the individual's culture
paranoid disorder
a personality disorder characterized by a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of the motives of others without sufficient basis
antisocial disorder
a personality disorder characterized by a pervaisve pattern of disregarding and violating the rights of others; such individuals are also often referred to as psychopaths or sociopaths
borderline disorder
a personality disorder characterized by instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and marked impulsivity
dissociative experience
a break or disruption in onsciousness during which awareness, memory, and personal identity become separated or divided
dissociative disorders
a category of psych disorders in which extreme and frequent disruptions of awareness, memory, and personal identity impair the ability to function
dissociative amnesia
a dissociative disorder involving the partial or total inability to recall important personal information
dissociative fugue
a dissociative disorder involving sudden and unexpected travel away from home, extensive amnesia, and identity confusion
dissociative identity disorder
a dissociative disorder involving extensive memory disruptions along with the presence of two or more distinct identities, or "personalities"; formerly called multiple personality disorder
schizophrenia
a psych disorder in which the ability to function is impaired by severly distorted beliefs, perceptions, and thought processes
positive symptoms
in schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect excesses or distortions of normal functioning, including delusions, hallucinations, and disoragnized thoughts and behavior
negative symptoms
in schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect defects or deficits in normal functioning, including flat affect, alogia, and avolition
delusion
a falsely held belief that persists in spite of compelling contradictory evidence
hallucination
a falso or distorted perception that seems vividly real to the person experiencing it
dopamine hypothesis
the view that schizophrenia is related to, and may be caused by, excessive activity of the neurotransimitter dopamine in the brain