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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
The Renaissance & Reformation 2019
Terms in this set (68)
the art of negotiating with other countries
"rebirth" period of renewed interest in art and learning in Europe
interested in worldly rather than religious matters
When did the Renaissance take place?
Italy had been the center of the Roman Empire. Cities had money to afford to pay artists. City-states competed to increase their fame.
Why did the Renaissance take place in Italian city-states?
Trade, Banking and Shipbuilding
3 Industries that helped to make Italian City-States wealthy
Were on the Coast, Had Ports where Merchant Ships could Dock, Sold Chinese Silk & Indian Spices at High Prices, Sold Manufactured Goods at High Prices, Traded with Arab Merchants, Mongols protected the Silk Road- making trade from China & the Middle East Cheaper & Easier
6 Reasons Italian City-States became wealthy through trade
How did people travel in Venice?
What are the long, narrow boats used for transportation in Venice called?
What was the gold coin currency used in Florence?
What was the most famous city-state in Italy during the Renaissance, located on the Arno River?
Banking and Trade
What 2 industries made Florence rich?
Who was the rich banking family from Florence?
So that they could borrow money
Why did European kings allow Italian city-states to remain independent?
Who was the merchant from Venice that traveled to China and worked for Kublai Khan?
It increased interest in China and Chinese goods
How did Marco Polo's story affect the Renaissance?
The New Urban Noble
Included the blending of families of wealthy merchants with land-owning nobles through marriage
author of "The Prince" who believed that rulers should do whatever is necessary to remain in power
ruled Florence from 1469-1492 and used his wealth to support artists, architects & writers
Renaissance movement based on the values of the ancient Greeks and Romans, such as that individuals and human society were important
everyday language use in a country or region
Greek and Roman Works
What did the humanists study to increase their knowledge of different topics?
Who was the famous medieval poet and scholar that studied ancient Roman writers?
Who developed the printing press in the 1450s?
it aided in the spreading of humanist ideas
How did the printing press affect the Renaissance?
What was the first book printed on the printing press?
The "ultimate Renaissance man," Italian painter, inventor, engineer & scientist
"The Divine Comedy"
Story of a man's journey from hell to heaven
Author of the Divine Comedy
an organized branch of Christianity
reduced the Church's punishment for sin
belief that no matter what a person does, the outcome of his or her life is already planned by God
movement to reform the Catholic Church; led to the creation of Protestantism
the study of religion and God
the young monk who challenged the Roman Catholic Church in 1517
the first leader of the Christian humanism movement
they were crushed by the nobles & thousands died
What was the outcome of the peasant revolts of the 1500s?
Faith in Jesus, Bible is the final source of truth & the Believers & clergy make up the church
3 main teachings of Lutheranism
To raise money to repair St. Peter's Church in Rome
Why did the pope start selling indulgences in the 1500s?
Teachings of John Calvin
God's will is absolute, Predestination & the Congregation should choose their own leaders of the church
Who became Holy Roman Emperor in 1519 and went to war with Lutheran rulers in Germany?
They feared a strong leader, they wanted to maintain control over their tiny individual kingdoms
Why did local kings and nobles of the Holy Roman Empire worry about Charles V's power?
Kings supported it
Why did Protestantism succeed?
Strict rules for how Bishops and Priests should behave, Council of Trent simplified Catholic teachings & beliefs, Seminaries were established to train priests & the Jesuit Order of Priests were created to spread Catholicism & fight heresy
4 improvements of the Catholic Church during the Counter-Reformation
Henry of Navarre
Huguenot leader and head of the Bourbon Family in France...eventually becomes King Henry IV
He became Catholic
What did Henry IV do in order to remain in power in France?
Edict of Nantes
Made Catholicism the official religion of France & allowed for Huguenots to worship freely
What is the Thirty Years War?
Worst religious war of the Reformation Era
Holy Roman Emperor during the Thirty Years War
Outcome of the Thirty Years War
France, England, Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands defeated the Holy Roman Empire and Spain
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
Wanted all their subjects to be Catholic, so they forced all Muslims and Jews to convert or leave the country
The Spanish Inquisition
Set up in order to help unify the country of Spain under the banner of Catholicism
Ignatius of Loyola
Founder of the Jesuits
Outlawed freedom of religion in France & ruled for her son Charles IX until he was old enough to rule himself
Name is given to the Catholic Church's attempts to convince people to return to the Catholic Church between the 1500-1600s
Number of people killed during the Spanish Inquisition
Queen Mary I
English monarch that tried to make the country Catholic again in 1553
King James I and King Charles I
Persecuted the Puritans
belief that contradicts the accepted teachings of a religion
school for training and educating priests and ministers
Queen Elizabeth I
Protestant Queen of England who became one of the greatest rulers in the country's history
Created the Anglican Church of England, Married 6 wives and had 2 beheaded
Wanted to "purify" the Anglican Church of it's Catholic traditions
Asia and the Americas
Areas of the world that Catholic missionaries went to convert people as part of the Counter-Reformation
First Catholic missionary in Japan
The only Asian country with a Catholic majority
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