54 terms

GEOSC 040: Quiz 2

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

The Energy cycle of life in the ocean involves plankton, which convert sun light to organic matter, organic matter is eventually broken down by bacteria and other organisms. This recycles the nutrients for further plankton grower.
A) True
B) False
A
Red Tides:
A) Typically last 3-4 months
B) Indicate Blooms of potentially toxic dinoflagellates
C) Occur mainly in the summer
D) Can be caused by or exacerbated by aquaculture
E) All but A
E
Red Tides are caused by:
A) A rapid surge of nutrients into the photic zone
B) Longer days and more sunlight
C) Warm water (which may increase production rate)
D) All the above
E) None of the above
D
Lateral line organs are used by fish to
A) Extract dissolved oxygen from the water
B) Remove carbon dioxide from the bloodstream
C) Detect predators and other fish
D) All the above
E) None of the above
C
Corals:
A) Dont need nutrients and sunlight because they are really just rocks and not alive
B) Eats mainly small fish and shrimp
C) Obtain 98% of their food from symbiotic, photosynthetic algae
D) Thrives in environment where suspended sediment is high such as near river
C
Which is true?
A) Fishes require dissolved oxygen to survive in seawater
B) Many species of fishes require dissolved oxygen levels of 4mg/L or higher
C) Hypoxia and low levels of dissolved oxygen in the bottom of water in that Chesapeake Bay are exacerbated by thermal stratification of the bay water
D) All of the Above
D
Which is true about eutrophication?
A) It starts with excess nutrients, which causes blooms of algae
B) It involved bacteria that use (and eventually severely deplete dissolved oxygen in the process of decomposing organic matter
C) It can be caused by sewage discharge into streams lakes
D) The nutrients released during respiration in deeper water are cycle's back to the surface and product more blooms and further organic matter loading
E) All of the above
E
Which is true?
A) Rain water from state college ends up in the Chesapeake Bay
B) Excess nutrients in the bay, and other bodies of water can cause eutrophication which means that dissolved oxygen becomes very low
C) Hypoxia is primarily caused by strong winds
D) A and B
D
Oxygen concentrations in Chesapeake Bay
A) Are generally higher in surface waters, because oxygen mixes into water from the air
B) Are generally lower in the bottom waters
C) Generally increase in bottom waters during summer
D) A and B
D
Oxygen concentrations in Chesapeake Bay
A) Can become dangerously low during winter when thermal stratification is strongest
B) Are especially low near the surface because of wind, waves and mixing
C) Become higher during periods of extreme eutrophication
D) Are only important for larger fishes
E) None of the above
E
Why are oxygen concentrations during times of eutrophication generally lowest in the upper part of the bay?
A) This is where nutrients enter the bay, from Susquehanna river mostly
B) This is where stratification is lowest
C) This is where water is warmest
A
Eutrophication:
A) Is a sign of a healthy ecosystem
B) Results from an excess of solar energy
C) Is accompanied by low surface water productivity
D) Results from an excess of nutrients
E) All of the above
D
Which of the following typically causes excess nutrients and pollutant flows to rivers which leads to hypoxia and eutrophication
A) Excess fertilization from croplands and farms
B) Clear- cut forest tracks
C) Storm water runoff
D) Automobile emissions
E) All of the above
E
Eutrophication causes dissolved oxygen levels to be
A) Higher in the water, in part because bacteria migrates south in water
B) Higher in water in part because of sunlight is stronger in water
C) Lower in the summer in part because thermal stratification is greatest in summer
D) Lower in summer in part because thermal stratification is weakest in summer
C
S=LT
s=1.56T
l=1.56T^2
Think about a deep water wave with 1-second period. What is the speed of the wave crest
A) Celerity is 0.64m/s
B) Celerity is 1.56m/s
C) Celerity is 0.156m/s
D) Celerity is 156m
E) Celerity is 15.6m/s
B
Which of the following is true?
A) Catadromous fishes use gills for gas exchange, whereas anadromous fishes do not
B) Anadromous fishes spawn where they normally live
C) Anadromous fishes migrate from saltwater to freshwater to spawn
D) Catadromous fishes migrate from saltwater to freshwater to spawn
C
Water depth and wavelength have nothing to do with the type of wave
A) True
B) False
B
Catadromous means down wandering while Anadromous means up-wandering
A) True
B) False
A
Which is considered an anadromous fish?
A) Salmon
B) Shad
C) Herring
D) All of the above
C
Waves move in a(n) _______ motion.
A) Orbital
B) Straight
C) Oscillatory
D) A & C
D
Wave height to wavelength is a ratio of
A) 1/5
B) 1/6
C) 1/7
D) 1/8
C
Marine fishes do not drink saltwater, however, freshwater do not drink water
A) True
B) False
A
Why do fish die out of water?
A) The gills dry out and become ineffective because they have no way to keep them moist
B) Fish die when they breathe in oxygen
C) The gills of fish close when they are out of water
D) This does not kill fish
A
Fish like Atlantic Cod and Black Sea Bass are on the endangered species list and have major laws protecting them
A) True
B) False
A
Reefs start out as living swimming animals
A) True
B) False
B
Warm water and lots of sunlight are needed to grow reefs
A) True
B) False
A
Which of the following is NOT one of the three main factors of wave generation by wind?
A) Wind strength
B) Fetch
C) Steepness
D) Wind duration
E) None of the above
C
Which of the following uses a swim bladder to maintain depth in the ocean?
A) Sharks
B) Skates
C) Puffer fish
D) Rays
C
Phytoplankton play a minor role in the reef
A) True
B) False
A
Cartilaginous fishes have no swim bladder and must swim constantly to provide lift
A) True
B) False
A
The highest confirmed wind-wave height is about:
A) 10 meters
B) 34 meters
C) 800 meters
D) 120 meters
B
Sharks are cartilaginous fishes
A) True
B) False
A
A(n) _______ is an example of a catadromous fish
A) Salmon
B) Eel
C) Shad
D) Shark
A
All ocean fish have swim bladders to help them maintain depth.
A) True
B) False
B
____ means that waves interact to build crest or troughs higher or deeper than those of the original waves
A) Constructive Interference
B) Destructive Interference
C) Longshore Transport
D) Diffraction
A
Celerity refers to the velocity of waves
A) True
B) False
A
Which of the following is a key issue of global fisheries?
A) Bycatch
B) Deeper stocks
C) Habitat Destruction
D) Aquaculture consequences
E) All of the above
E
A wave period refers to the time it takes for two successive troughs or crest to pass a fixed point
A) True
B) False
A
Waves travel in sets called wave trains, the celerity of which is equal to:
A) One half the speed of one of the individual waves
B) The same speed as one of the individual waves
C) Two times the speed of one of the individual waves
D) The inverse speed of one of the waves
A
Waves tend to move ___ in shallow water than in deep water
A) Faster
B) Slower
C) At the same rate
D) Two times faster
B
Corals forming reefs require:
A) Clear, warm, shallow water in the tropics
B) High nutrients supplied in up-welling zones
C) Abundant dissolved silicon for their skeletons
D) All of the above
A
What events can trigger a tsunami?
A) Earthquake
B) Landslides/ submarine slides
C) Volcanic eruptions
D) All of the above
D
Destructive interference means that waves cancel one another out
A) True
B) False
A
What causes whitecaps in waves?
A) The foam on sea water
B) Light reflecting on the wave
C) When a wave breaks when over-steepened
D) All of the above
C
Due to tsunami's high rates of speed, they can cover an entire ocean basin in just a few hours
A) True
B) False
A
Eutrophication:
A) Is a sign of healthy ecosystem
B) Results from an excess of solar energy
C) Is accompanied by low surface water productivity
D) Results from an excess of nutrients
E) All of the above
D
Hypoxia is an oxygen deficiency in water
A) True
B) False
A
Agriculture is the main source of nutrient excess in the Chesapeake Bay
A) True
B) False
A
Eutrophication in the Chesapeake bay is a big problem because it is a vicious cycle
A) True
B) False
A
Thermal Stratification is the increased mixing of water
A) True
B) False
B
Generally, in the Chesapeake Bay, oxygen deficiencies are more severe in the upper part of the bay where more nutrients are entering the water
A) True
B) False
A
Semi-diurnal tides
A) Are those with high tides about twice a day with a period of 12 hours 25 minutes
B) Occur once every 27.3 days
C) Are those with high tides about once a day with a period of 24 hours
A
Why does earth have 2 tidal bulges?
A) The earth-moon system rotates during the 28 day lunar cycle, this creates centrifugal force that causes the bulge in the ocean water on the side of the earth that is opposite to the moon
B)Gravity pulls ocean water up creating a bulge beneath the moon
C) There is just 1 tidal bulge
D) A and B
D
Earth has 2 tidal bulges because
A) The sun generates a tidal bulge on one side and the moon generates a bulge on the other side
B) Gravity of the moon and the sun together with centrifugal forces, caused by rotation of the earth-moon system
C) One bulge is produced by the full moon and the other is produced by the moon
D) A and B
B