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Terms in this set (56)
"rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome
Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means."
a region that included parts of present-day northern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands; was an important industrial and financial center of northern Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance
English poet remembered as author of the Canterbury Tales (1340-1400)
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
A body of religious teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John Calvin.
Council of Trent
Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings, forbade the sale of indulgences
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of Northern Europe
Praise of the folly
Divine Right Theory
The idea that the gods chose the person or family to rule. Rulers were considered a god or descendants of the gods or chosen by the god. To oppose the monarch was to oppose god.
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations a precursor to modern Capitalism.
Writers during the Enlightenment and who popularized the new ideas of the time.
Mona Lisa and The Last Supper
Three Giants of High Renaissance
Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonarroti and Raphael
Treaty of Tordesillas
A 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Ignatius of Loyola
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises.
the overthrow of King James II of England
A political system in which a ruler holds total power
An artistic style of the seventeenth century characterized by complex forms, bold ornamentation, and contrasting elements
the leading English language poet and playwright of the Renaissance
Edict of Nantes
1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property
(1689-1755) wrote 'Spirit of the Laws', said that no single set of political laws was applicable to all - depended on relationship and variables, supported division of government
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Queen of England; ascended throne in 1558 also known as the "virgin" Queen
The first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1925 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625
Williams and Mary
-Ruled Netherlands until invited by Parliament to overthrow
-Overthrew James II in Glorious Revolution
Included the Holy Roman Empire and the Netherlands
Catherine the Great
Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire (1729-1796)
Frederick the Great
This was the Prussian king who embraced culture and wrote poetry and prose. He gave religious and philosophical toleration to all subjects, abolished torture and made the laws simpler
a gift of money or property paid at the time of marriage, either by the bride's parents to her husband or, in Islamic societies, by a husband to his wife
paintings done on wet plaster walls
a pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin
Protestants who insisted that only adult baptism conformed to Scripture
Overthrew the French revolutionary government (The Directory) in 1799 and became emperor of France in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
The site of Napoleon's defeat by British and Prussian armies in 1815, which ended his last bid for power
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented
'My Struggle' by hitler, later became the basic book of nazi goals and ideology, reflected obsession
Placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.
Chief minister of France who reduced the power of the nobles
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
Tennis Court Oath
vow by members of the 3rd estate not to disband until a constitution was written
Committee of Public Safety
Established and led by Robespierre, fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses. Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.
Napoleon and the First Empire
-Military and political leader during the later stages of the French Revolution
-Emperor of the French from 1804-1815
-His legal reform, the Napoleonic Code, has been a major influence on many civil law jurisdictions worldwide
-Best remembered for the wars he led against a series of coalitions, the Napoleonic Wars, during which he established hegemony over much of Europe and sought to spread revolutionary ideals
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Adopted August 26, 1789, created by the National Assembly to give rights to all (except women).
leader of the Committee of Public Safety; chief architect of the Reign of Terror
Napoleon Civil Code
the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs should go to the most qualified.
A medieval fort and prison in Paris used to store gun powder
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed.
realistic politics based on the needs of the state
founder of modern communism
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
while many places were using violence to promote political change, this man famously did not.
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