PSY 608 Test 1
Terms in this set (69)
What are incremental models?
Models that emphasize continuity, development as continuous incremental change
Dr. Jones encountered a problem with a new client in therapy. Using the model of reflective practice described in Chapter 1, what is the sequence of steps he should use in order to work with this client effectively?
Reflect on well-established theories; apply the theoretical knowledge to the individual's case; and then test out new ways of thinking about the problem if prior theory does not suffice.
Stage theories of development typically describe ____________ changes in behavior, cognition, or social relationships.
Mrs. Washington is conducting her weekly group counseling session for single young adults. Karen, a lonely young professional woman, talks about feeling abandoned by her boyfriend. The other group members listen patiently and respond empathically. Mrs. Washington reflects Karen's feeling with concern and sensitivity. What would operant learning theory predict about Karen's behavior in the next group session?
Karen will speak openly because she has previously received attention and support.
Models of development which hold that change typically occurs in shifts between periods of relative stability and periods of disequilibrium are called
Models of development which hold that change occurs as a function of reciprocal influences, both from within the person and from the external environment are called
Juan, a 7-month-old infant, lives in a city where the availability of high quality child care is very limited. His mother is forced to leave Juan in the care of a young woman who also cares for five other infants and toddlers in her small apartment. According to Bronfenbrenner's theory, which of the following influences on Juan's development represents an example of a proximal process?
The quality of care-giving Juan receives in day care.
Contemporary developmentalists focus on which question concerning nature and nurture?
How do we explain the mechanisms by which nature and nurture interact to affect development?
A kitten whose eyes are covered during the first months of its life loses the ability to see clearly in ways that would have been possible without the loss of early visual stimulation. This effect remains despite later attempts to remediate the loss. This is an example of which of the following?
The idea that children's development is affected by biological factors, and that biological factors are also affected by the environment and experience, is part of
multidimensional systems theories
Gisela is a 6-year-old Peruvian girl who lives with her family on a farm in a rural village. She often helps her father take produce to a market to sell. She does not know how to read, but she understands the cost of items and can make change without errors. Sophie is a 6-year-old who lives in the US. She is in the 1st grade, is making great progress in learning to read and write, and is gaining skill in computer use. What is the best way to explain the development of these two children?
The processes involved in cognitive development are similar across cultures, but the specific kinds of knowledge acquired may differ depending upon children's culture
The Phineas Gage matrix describes a syndrome due to frontal lobe damage that diminishes an individual's emotional intensity. From this syndrome we have learned that with decreased emotional intensity comes
lesser tendency to plan and make rational decisions.
The still-face paradigm has been used primarily to study
emotion regulation in infants.
High levels of the hormone oxytocin plays an important role in early social bonding by
promoting physical closeness and reducing maternal stress.
In Bowlby's attachment theory, which of the following represents a primary outcome of the formation of attachments in infancy?
A working model of self, of others, and of relationships.
At 10 months old, Suzie is very active, responds intensely to stimulation, avoids new stimulation, and tends to be irritable and fussy. Her temperament would be called
Infants form multiple attachments, to both mother and father and perhaps to a sibling, grandparent, and so on. Which of the following statements is most consistent with available data on the impact of these attachments?
More than one secure attachment adds value, serving as a further protective factor.
A parent whose own working model of attachment is "preoccupied/entangled" is likely to have an infant with which of the following kinds of attachment?
The quality of a children's attachments has been found to affect
how children respond to new social situations.
Which of the following is not true with regard to the definition of reactive attachment disorder?
These children behave indifferently, like avoidantly attached youngsters.
Counselors who work with young children to enhance their mental health should take an active role in
providing support and information for parents.
A method used by counselors that emphasizes careful consideration of theoretical and empirical sources of knowledge , as well as ones own beliefs and assumptions , as a precursor to practice.
What are the classic stages theories of development?
Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Development
Piaget's Cognitive Stages of Development
Which of the following statements is most accurate with regard to Piaget's Theory?
Piaget firmly believed that children who were at a particular stage of cognitive development had the same level of understanding in all areas, such as understanding causality, morality, agency, etc...
What are Freud's five Psychosexual Stages of Development?
Oral; birth-1 year
Anal; 1-3 years
Phallic; 3-5 or 6
Latency; 6 to puberty
Genital; puberty through adulthood
What are Erickson's Psychosoical eight Stages of Development?
Trust vs. Mistrust; Birth to 1 year
Autonomy vs. Shame; 1-3 years
Initiative vs. Guilt 3-5 or 6 years
Industry vs. Inferiority; 6-12 years
Intimacy vs. Isolation; young adulthood
Generativity vs. Stagnation; Middle adulthood
Ego Integrity vs. Despair; Late adulthood
What are Piaget's Cognitive four Stages of Development?
Sensorimotor; Birth- 2 years
Preperational; 2 to 6 or 7 years
Concrete Operational; 7 to 11 or 12 years
Formal Opetational; 12 years through adulthood
What is the multidimensional systems model of development?
Models of development which hold that change occurs as as function of reciprocal influences; both from within the person and from the external environment.
What are classic stage theories?
Theories that emphasize discontinuity with periods of stability and rapid transitions between stages.
What are the incremental models?
Social Learning Theories
Information processing theories
What are Freud's three aspects of personality?
Id, ego, and superego
What is a critical factor for each of Freud's stages?
What is Piagets view cognitive view of developmental theory considered?
A constructivist view of development in which children actively build their own knowledge.
What emerges in each stage of Piagets theory?
Logical reasoning skills emerge naturally in stages, adults help by allowing children to explore and by providing appropriate learning experiences.
What do contemporary developmental theories do?
Acknowledge both quantitative and qualitative developmental changes; Incorporate interacting, reciprocal and bidirectional casual processed in development; have a broad scope, addressing both cognitive and social development; explain interacting causes for change both within the organism and in the enviorment.
What is Brofenbrenner's bioecological model?
Interaction between proximal and distal processes; Proximal processes are reciprocal interactions between organism and enviornment; Distal processes are influences that modify proximal processes
What are the multidimensional systems of development?
1. Microsystem: Immediate environment, home, school, peers
2. Mesosystem: Interactions among components of the microsystem
3. Exosystem: Extended family, community, society
4. Macrosystem: Broader culture, ideology, attitudes
What is nature vs. nurture
Genetic and environmental processes interact
What is neuroplasicity and critical periods?
-Different answers for different behaviors
-Time-limited learning opportunities more likely in some developmental periods than others
What is universality and specificity?
-Recognize the critical influence of culture
-Recognize the importance of context as causal in development
What factors can influence development?
-Protective factors: Individuals strengths and environment's support that help promote healthy outcomes
-Risk Factors: Environmental stressors and individual experiences that can interfere with healthy development.
- Mediating variables: intervening factors that link influences to developmental outcomes
Moderating variable: variables that affect the strength of the relationship between other variables.
What is prevention science?
aims at designing and testing prevention and intervention techniques for promoting healthy development in at risk youth.
****Closely allied with developmental psychopathology
Primary Prevention: forestalling problems by promoting wellness in the general population
Secondary prevention: reducing incidence of disorders among those at high risk, or providing treatment to forestall serious psychopathology
Tertiary prevention: rehabilitating persons with established disorders
What is socioeconomic status?
based on social standing or power and is defined by characteristics of the adults in a household, including educational background, income, and occupation.
What is Izards differential emotions theory?
Posits that emotions are universal, naturally occurring phenomena meditated by evolutionarily old subcortical brain structures
What is primary prevention?
an attempt to forestall the development of problems by prompting health and wellness in the general population through group oriented prevention. ie. schools requiring vaccinations.
Sroufe's orthogenetic theory
-Early emotional expressions are precursors of more mature emotions
-Later emotions depend on cognitive developments
What is multifinality principle?
is that individual pathways of development may result in a wide range of possible outcomes
What is oxytocin?
A neuropeptide hormone that facilitates social bonding.
What was significant about Mary Ainsworth?
Ainsworth and her colleagues invented the strange situation test. Ainsworth and her colleagues identified the four types of attachments; securely attached, anxious ambivalent-insecurely attached, avoidant-insecurely attached, disorganized disoriented-insecurely attached.
What is scaffolding?
The process whereby more advanced thinkers or more capable members of a culture provide novice learners with a supportive temporary prop that enables the novice to learn and reach higher levels of thinking.
What is operant conditioning?
The process by which a person learns to produce a formerly random behavior in response to a cue because the behavior was previously reinforced in that situation
What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative?
qualitative research does not use any statistical procedures or quantitative methods to arrive at a conclusion.
What is a constructivist view of development?
An approach to explaining acquisition of knowledge. Constructivist theories assume that individuals actively create their own knowledge by interpenetrating new information in light of prior learning and by reconstructing prior knowledge, or by co-constructing knowledge in interactions with others. Individuals are not seen as passive receptors of information who acquire knowledge via external manipulations.
What is reactive attachment disorder?
highly disturbed and inappropriate social relatedness not due to other mental disorders
What causes reactive attachment disorder?
Result from grossly pathological early caregiving, possibly extreme child abuse, severe neglect, or frequent changes in caregivers
What are treatments for reactive attachment disorder?
-Controversial popular treatments (e.g., rage-reduction, holding therapy), often involving physical constraint and coercion
-Best practices include empirically based behavioral approaches and parent training
What is Bowlby's attachment theory?
A system in innate behaviors bond an infant to a primary caregiver for proximity maintenance, providing a secure base and safe haven.
What is the strange situation test?
-Series of eight 3-min episodes introducing changes in a social situation
-Infant reactions carefully recorded; tendency to explore, reactions to mother and stranger
What 3 patterns did Ainsworth identify?
Securely attached (B babies)
Anxious-ambivalent insecurely attached (C)
Avoidant insecurely attached (A)
**Other researchers later identified fourth pattern
Disorganized-disoriented insecurely attached (D)
What are some influences on attachment quality?
-Mothers of securely attached babies provide consistent, sensitive care
-Mothers of insecurely attached babies are more likely to be insensitive
-Maternal caregiving in 1st year correlated with infants' attachment quality at 12 months
-Mothers of disorganized-disoriented babies may be abusive, neglectful
What does early social bonding do?
links biology and behavior
Define infant temperament?
-Infant temperament may influence attachment
-Difficult babies highly reactive, fearful, irritable
-Easy babies more placid, positive, regular
-Slow-to-warm-up babies between the extremes, more fearful, wary, but less reactive and irritable
-Parents can adjust to infants' temperament to improve goodness of fit
-Effects of temperament and caregiving interact, mutual influence over time
What is rythmicity?
The predictability of an individuals sleep, feeding, elimination, and other biological cycles; an aspect of infant temperament.
What are broader influences on attachment?
Mothers and fathers
-Infants securely attached to one parent likely to be securely attached to both, but not always
-Mothers and fathers tend to parent similarly, both highly involved and responsive, or both not
-Attachment can change if care giving changes
Cultural influences on infant attachment
-Majority are securely attached across cultures
-Variations in distribution of attachment patterns
Substitute care, non-maternal care, day care
-Quality of care is a critical factor
Does daycare pose a risk to infants?
-Increase in the risk of insecure attachment
-Infants in poorer quality care, and for longer periods, develop more insecure attachments
-A significant risk when care quality is inadequate
Longer term effects of early substitute care
-Cognitive and behavioral effects moderated by quality of substitute care
-Later behavioral problems also depend on family risk factors, e.g., poverty, stress, conflict, etc.
What is the importance of early attachment?
-Early attachment predicts later functioning; dependency, self-confidence, social skills
Define disorganized attachment
Disorganized (D) attachment based on study of cases not classifiable as Avoidant (-), Secure (B), or Ambivalent (C)
-Behavioral manifestations include contradictory, conflicted behaviors (approach and avoidance), misdirected movements, disorientation, "freezing in place"
-Disorganized attachment may be rooted in child maltreatment, including serious abuse or neglect, or frightened or frightening behavior of parent
What effect does depression have on a baby?
Depressive mothers report fewer child-oriented positive emotions and concerns than no depressant mothers.
Define the Goodness of Fit Model
suggests that temperament and care giving should interact in determining the quality of a childs attachment relationships.
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