60 terms

AP Language Rhetorical Devices Week 3

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Ad Hominem
In an argument, this is an attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas. It comes from the Latin meaning "against the man."
Adage
a familiar proverb or wise saying
Allegory
an extended narrative in prose or verse in which characters, events, and settings represent abstract qualities and in which the writer intends a second meaning to be read beneath the surface of the story; the underlying meaning may be moral, religious, political, social, or satiric. Examples: John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress (Temptations of Christians) , Orwell's Animal Farm (Russian Revolution), and Arthur Miller's Crucible ("Red Scare")
Alliteration
the repetition of initial sounds in successive or neighboring words
Allusion
a reference to something literary, mythological, or historical
Analogy
a comparison of two different things that are similar in some way
Anaphora
Repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row. This is a deliberate form of repetition and helps make the writer's point more coherent. Ex: "There was the delight I caught in seeing long straight rows. There was the faint, cool kiss of sensuality. There was the vague sense of the infinite...." Ex: "We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender. " Churchill.
Anecdote
a brief narrative that focuses on a particular incident or event
Antecedent
the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers
Antithesis
the presentation of two contrasting images. The ideas are balanced by word, phrase, clause, or paragraphs. Examples: "To be or not to be..." Shakespeare's Hamlet "Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country...." Kennedy "The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here." Lincoln
Aphorism
a short, often witty statement of a principle or a truth about life. Examples: "Early bird gets the worm." "What goes around, comes around.." "People who live in glass houses shouldn't throw stones."
Apostrophe
usually in poetry but sometimes in prose; the device of calling out to an imaginary, dead, or absent person or to a place, thing, or personified abstraction Ex: "For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar's angel. Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar loved him." Shakespeare's Julius Caesar
Asyndeton
Commas used (with no conjunction) to separate a series of words. The parts are emphasized equally when the conjunction is omitted; in addition, the use of commas with no intervening conjunction speeds up the flow of the sentence. Asyndeton takes the form of X, Y, Z as opposed to X, Y, and Z. Ex: "Be one of the few, the proud, the Marines." Marine Corps Ex: "We shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardships, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty." John F. Kennedy
Caricature
descriptive writing that greatly exaggerates a specific feature of a person's appearance or a facet of personality.
Chiasmus
a statement consisting of two parallel parts in which the second part is structurally reversed
Colloquialism
informal words or expressions not usually acceptable in formal writing
Conceit
a fanciful, particularly clever extended metaphor
Connotation
implied or suggested meaning of a word because of its association in the reader's mind.
Denotation
literal meaning of a word as defined
Diction
word choice, an element of style; it creates tone, attitude, and style, as well as meaning. Different types and arrangements of words have significant effects on meaning. An essay written in academic ______ would be much less colorful, but perhaps more precise than street slang.
Didactic
writing whose purpose is to instruct or to teach. The work is usually formal and focuses on moral or ethical concerns. This type of writing may be fiction or nonfiction that teaches a specific lesson or moral or provides a model of correct behavior or thinking.
Epigram
a brief, pithy, and often paradoxical saying
Epigraph
the use of a quotation at the beginning of a work that hints at its theme. Hemingway begins The Sun Also Rises with two quotations. One of them is "You are all a lost generation" by Gertrude Stein.
Epistrophe
repetition of a word or expression at the end of successive phrases, clauses, sentences, or verses especially for rhetorical or poetic effect (as Lincoln's "of the people, by the people, for the people") Compare to anaphora. Ex: "When I was a child, I spoke like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child." (Corinthians) Ex: I'll have my bond!/ Speak not against my bond!/ I have sworn an oath that I will have my bond.---The Merchant of Venice
Exposition
the immediate revelation to the audience of the setting and other background information necessary for understanding the plot; also, explanation; one of the four modes of discourse
Extended Metaphor
a sustained comparison, often referred to as a conceit. The extended metaphor is developed throughout a piece of writing
Foreshadowing
the use of a hint or clue to suggest a larger event that occurs late in the work
Hyperbole
deliberate exaggeration in order to create humor or emphasis (Example: He was so hungry he could have eaten a horse.)
Idiom
an expression in a given language that cannot be understood from the literal meaning of the words
Imagery
the use of figures of speech to create vivid images that appeal to one of the senses
Induction
the process that moves from a given series of specifics to a generalization
Inference
a conclusion one can draw from the presented details
Invective
an intensely vehement, highly emotional verbal attack
Inversion
reversing the customary (subject first, then verb, then complement) order of elements in a sentence or phrase; it is used effectively in many cases, such as posing a question: "Are you going to the store?" Usually, the element that appears first is emphasized more than the subject.
Irony
a situation or statement in which the actual outcome or meaning is opposite to what was expected.
Jargon
The special language of a profession or group. The term usually has pejorative associations, with the implication that jargon is evasive, tedious, and unintelligible to outsiders. The writings of the lawyer and the literary critic are both susceptible to jargon.
Juxtaposition
placing two elements side by side to present a comparison or contrast
Litotes
a type of understatement in which an idea is expressed by negating its opposite
Malapropism
the mistaken substitution of one word for another word that sounds similar
Maxim
a concise statement, often offering advice; an adage
Metaphor
a direct comparison of two different things
Metonymy
a figure of speech that uses the name of an object, person, or idea to represent something with which it is associated, such as using "the crown" to refer to a monarch ; Also, "The pen is mightier than the sword."
Mood
similar to tone, it is the primary emotional attitude of a work (the feeling of the work; the atmosphere). Syntax is also a determiner of this term because sentence strength, length, and complexity affect pacing.
Motif
main theme or subject of a work that is elaborated on in the development of the piece; a repeated pattern or idea
Non-sequitur
Latin for "it does not follow." When one statement isn't logically connected to another
Oxymoron
a figure of speech composed of contradictory words or phrases, such as "wise fool," bitter-sweet," "pretty ugly," "jumbo shrimp," "cold fire"
Paradox
a statement that seems to contradict itself but that turns out to have a rational meaning, as in this quotation from Henry David Thoreau; "I never found the companion that was so companionable as solitude."
Paraphrase
a restatement of a text in a different form or in different words
Parody
a work that ridicules the style of another work by imitating and exaggerating its elements. . It can be utterly mocking or gently humorous. It depends on allusion and exaggerates and distorts the original style and content.
Pedantic
a term used to describe writing that borders on lecturing. It is scholarly and academic and often overly difficult and distant
Point of View
the perspective from which a story is presented
Polysyndeton
Sentence which uses and or another conjunction (with no commas) to separate the items in a series. Polysyndeton appear in the form of X and Y and Z, stressing equally each member of a series. It makes the sentence slower and the items more emphatic than in the asyndeton.
Rhetoric
the art of effective communication, especially persuasive discourse; Rhetoric focuses on the interrelationship of invention, arrangement, and style in order to create felicitous and appropriate discourse.
Satire
A work that reveals a critical attitude toward some element of human behavior by portraying it in an extreme way. It doesn't simply abuse (as in invective) or get personal (as in sarcasm). It targets groups or large concepts rather than individuals.
Subjectivity
a personal presentation of evens and characters, influenced by the author's feelings and opinions
Syllogism
A form of reasoning in which two statements are made and a conclusion is drawn from them. A syllogism is the format of a formal argument that consists of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion. Example: Major Premise: All tragedies end unhappily. Minor Premise: Hamlet is a tragedy. Conclusion: Therefore, Hamlet ends unhappily.
Syntax
the grammatical structure of a sentence; the arrangement of words in a sentence. It includes length of sentence, kinds of sentences (questions, exclamations, declarative sentences, rhetorical questions, simple, complex, or compound).
Hypophora
Hypophora occurs when the speaker asks a
question and then answers it.
Prolepsis
Prolepsis occurs when a speaker anticipates an
objection and then comments on it.
Paralipsis
Paralipsis generally occurs when the speaker
describes what she will not say and so says it, or
at least a bit of it.
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