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2019 FINAL EXAM vocabulary (mod)
Terms in this set (60)
A heritable trait that increases an individual's fitness.
A change in a population's gene pool over time.
The disappearance of a species from Earth.
The degree to which an organism can reproduce successfully in its environment.
A sequence of DNA that codes for a particular trait.
Biological evolution that occurs by chance.
The movement of genes from one population to another.
A change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information.
The process by which new species are generated.
The process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other.
A relationship between two organisms from different species in which one benefits and the other is unaffected.
The struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources.
Organisms with wide tolerance ranges, that are able to live in a variety of habitats or use many types of resources.
The interaction in which an animal feeds on a plant.
A relationship between two organisms from different species in which both organisms benefit.
An organism's habitat, resource use, and fundamental role in a community.
A relationship between two organisms from different species in which one organism depends on another for nourishment or some other benefit, while the other organism is harmed.
The process by which an individual of one species hunts, captures, kills, and consumes an individual of another species.
Organisms that have very narrow tolerance ranges, that must live in restricted habitats or use only specific types of resources.
A long-lasting and physically close relationship between two organisms from different species in which at least one organism benefits.
The ability to survive and reproduce under changing environmental conditions.
A group of ecosystems that share similar abiotic and biotic conditions,
The average conditions, including temperature and precipitation, over long periods in a given area.
A diagram that shows an area's average temperature and precipitation.
The day-to-day conditions in Earth's atmosphere.
A large aboveground root that provides stability in the shallow rainforest soil.
A dense covering formed by the leafy tops of rain forest trees.
A tree that produces seed-bearing cones and has needlelike leaves with a waxy coating.
Trees and shrubs that lose their leaves and stop photosynthesis at the end of the growing season.
The tallest layer of the rain forest that receives the most sunlight.
Plants that grow on other plants instead of in soil.
A deep sleeplike period of dormancy that some animals experience in the summer, triggered by a lack of water.
A deep sleeplike period of dormancy that an animal enters for most of the winter, triggered by colder temperatures.
A permanently frozen layer of soil beneath the surface of the ground.
A layer of shorter plants that grow in the shade of a forest canopy.
The layer of an aquatic ecosystem where no sunlight penetrates and photosynthesis cannot occur.
The bottom layer of an aquatic ecosystem.
Slightly salty water that has higher salinity than freshwater, but not as much as seawater; occurs when seawater mixes with fresh water in estuaries.
Warm water rich in dissolved gases that flows vertically from the surface into the ocean depths, which occurs where surface currents converge, or come together.
A body of water, partly enclosed by land, that occurs where fresh water from land drainage meets the water of an ocean or inland sea.
An area nearest a river's course that are flooded periodically.
A wide, curvy path made by a slowly flowing river.
An extreme loop that gets cut off when water erodes a shortcut from one end of a meander to another.
The uppermost layer of an aquatic ecosystem, where there is enough sunlight for photosynthesis to occur.
A measurement of the amount of salts dissolved in water.
A smaller river that flows into a larger one.
Cold, nutrient-rich water that flows vertically toward the surface, which occurs where horizontal currents diverge, or flow away from one another.
The area of land drained by a river and all of its tributaries.
An area of land that is flooded with water at least part of the year.
Recent changes to Earth's temperature and weather system that are beginning to have global effects on biodiversity.
A species in serious danger of becoming extinct in the near future.
The disappearance of a particular population from a given area, but not of the entire species globally.
A nonnative species whose populations increase rapidly, spreads widely, and displaces native species in a community.
Occurs when humans hunt, fish, or harvest a species faster than it can replenish its population.
Heavy metals, fertilizers, pesticides, and toxic chemicals that enter the air and water and can poison people and wildlife.
A species that is vulnerable and likely to become endangered soon throughout all or part of its range.
An area that both supports an especially high number of endemic species and is rapidly losing biodiversity.
The process of breeding and raising organisms in controlled conditions.
The newest idea for saving species from extinction by making more individuals which involves inserting DNA from an endangered species into a cultured egg cell that has had its nucleus removed, and then implanting it into a closely related species that can act as a surrogate mother.
A species that is found in only one area of the world.
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