68 terms

A&P Chpt 3

In what organelle does cellular respiration take place?
mighty mitochondria
Name two storage organelles?
Vesicles, ER-
What is the list of organelles that take part in protein synthesis?
Nucleus (transcription), ribosomes (translation)-free and fixed (Rough ER)
How is the nucleus involved in protein synthesis?
What do ribosomes di? Are they found freely floating in the cytoplasm? OR are they found attached to another organelle? OR both. Explain why this occurs.
Protein synthesis. both; depends on the destination of the protein (to stay inside the cell=free; cell membrane or leave the cell=fixed)
What does the endoplasmic reticulum do?
Rough - make proteins; Smooth-makes lipids, detox. Sends material to golgi to be shipped
What is the difference between rough ER and smooth ER? What is the ER doing that is different in each case?
See above
What are lysomsomes?
What type of molecules would be found inside the lysosome?
Special enzymes (protein) to degrade materials.
In what organelle do molecules move from the ER to the Golgi bodies
What is meant by "membrane turnover"?
Components of the membranes are always, always, always being replaced, recycled, reused.
What is a centriole?
used for mitosis
What is the difference between chromosomes and chromatin?
chromosomes - (condensed: preparing for mitosis)
chromatin - (not condensed)
What do they each have to do with DNA?
they are DNA and histones
What is flagella?
for motion
How does flagella differ in size and number from cilia
there are not very many flagella compared to cilia
Which organelle can convert sugar (glucose) and oxygen into ATP (energy molecule), carbon dioxide and water?
What is the process in number 17 called
cellular respiration
What is the molecular composition of the cell membrane?
phospholipid bilayer, proteins, carbohydrates
What is the cytoskeleton made up of?
proteins - filaments
What organelles are responsible for transport of some kind?
What is the molecular composition of the cell membrane? Howw are these molecules arranged in the membrane?
phospholipid bilayer, proteins, carbohydrates
What is the value of cell membrane structure of having both polar and non-polar phospholipids ends?
selective permeability
What are the different types of functions proteins present in a cell membrane can have?
MANY - carrier, adhesion, channel (see powerpoint)
Which part of the cell membrane actually CONTROLS which molecules can enter and leave a cell?
carrier proteins
Do you think that the membranes around each organelle contain different types of proteins with different types olf properties? Why or why not?
yes, based on the molecules that come and go from the organelle.
What is the difference between a cell that is prokazryotic and a cell this is eukaryotic?
nucleusWhat are teh two types of nucleic acid molecules found in cells? what is the role/function of each? RNA, DNA (see powerpoints)
What is cytoplasm?
Watery matrix inside cell
What is nucleoplasm?
Watery matrix inside nucleus.
Describe what cytoplasm and necleoplasm each are made up of.
Water and dissolved solutes, concentrations of solutes will be different.
List the general functions of the plasma membrane.
Identify the components of the plasma membrane that enable it to perform its characteristic functions.
Which t;ype of integral protein allows water and small ions to pass through the plasma membrane?
Differentiate between the cytoplasm and the cytosol.
What are the major differences between cytosol and extracellular fluid.
Identify the nonmembranous organelles, and cite a function of each.
Identify the membranous organelles, and cite their functions.
Describe the contents and structure of the nucleus
What is a gene?
Define gene activation.
What is transcription?
What process would be affected by the lack of the enzyme RNA polymerase?
Name the three major categories of cellular transport processes.
What is meant by "selectively permeable" when referring to a plasma membrane?
How would a decrease in the concentration of oxygen in the lungs affect the diffusion of oxygen into the blood?
Give the biological terms for (a) cellular reproduction and (b) cellular death.
Describe interphase, and identify its stages.
Define mitosis, and list its four stages
What effect do telemores have on cell division?
An illness characterized by mutations that desrupt normal control mechanisms and produce potentially malignant cells is termed ____________?
Define metastasis.
Distinquish between: hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic
The process that transports solid objects such as bacteria into the cell is called
Plasma membranes are said to be
____________ ion concentrations are high in the extracellular fluids, and _________ ion concentrations are high in the cytoplasm.
In a resting transmembrane potential, the inside of the cell is _________, and the cell exterior is _______
The organelle responsible for a variety of functions centering around the synthesis of lipids and carbohydrates is
The construction of a functional polypeptide by using the information in an mRNA strand is
Our somatic cell nuclei contain ________ pairs of chromosomes.
The movement of water across the membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration is known as
the interphase of the cell life cycle is divided into..
List the four basic concepts that make u modern day cell theory
What are four general functions of the plasma membrane?
What are the primary functions of membrane proteins?
By what three major transport mechanisms do substances get into and out of cells?
List four important factors that influence diffusion rates.
What are the four major functions of the endoplasmic reticulum?
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