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Seed Dispersal Lab
Terms in this set (30)
A __________ is the embryo of a plant with nutritious endosperm and is surrounded by a protective seed coat.
A __________ is the mature ovary of a plant and contains one or more seeds.
The multilayered covering of a fruit, the __________, is not always fleshy; it can also be hard, membranous, or formed into a structure such as a wing or hook.
__________, for example, consist of multiple fleshy fruits surrounding a fleshy core that is not found in other types of fruits.
__________ is the process or result of organisms spreading from one place to another (move to unoccupied space).
All species, including plants, __________ their range through dispersal.
maintain or expand
Species maintain __________ over time by replacing the parent generation with a new generation.
Individuals that disperse to sites where environmental circumstances are favorable and where competition is acceptably low will be more likely to __________.
Unlike most animals, plants have limited abilities to seek out favorable environments. Consequently, plants have evolved adaptations for dispersing by means of __________.
seeds, spores, or vegetative outgrowths.
Plants produce __________ to ensure that their seeds will come to rest at sites where the immediate environment is favorable.
lots of seeds
__________, as opposed to seeds and spores, result from mitotic cell division (growth), not through meiosis, sex, and fertilization. They detach from a parent plant and disperse by some of the same means as seeds.
Weeds have __________ which are better for long distance travel, however, small seeds contain only limited food supply for the germinating seedling. [weeds species adapted for life in recently disturbed habitats]
For species that live primarily in well-established plant communities and, therefore, endure more severe competition, selection usually favors __________.
With a __________ supply of stored food, seedlings of these species can be more robust and can grow fast enough to compete with the established vegetation.
larger seeds have __________ dispersal distance b/c of their weight.
Four categories of dispersal mechanisms are recognized among plants:
1) water dispersal
2) wind dispersal
3) animal dispersal
4) mechanical dispersal
These adaptations are apparent on the pericarp of the fruit rather than the seeds themselves.
__________ plant species sometimes utilize water to disperse their fruits.
Aquatic and wetland
The pericarp of __________ is often modified to be cork-like, waxy, or to contain air pockets.
water dispersal species
The __________, an example of a water dispersal species, produces a large, dry, fiber-filled fruit capable of surviving adrift at sea for long periods.
The seeds of many land plants are dispersed by _________.
__________ have evolved to slow the descent of fruits after they detach from their parents.
Various wing- or propeller-like structures
Other plants produce __________ that are adapted to rise upward in upward drafts.
The familiar __________ of a dandelion is an example of a "lighter than-air" dispersal structure.
achene = a small, dry one-seeded fruit that does not open to release the seed.
First type of seed dispersal by animals:
- pericarp of fruit is fleshy and flavorful
- adaptation entices animal to eat the fruit
- seed inside fruit will pass through digestive tract undamaged (certain species)
- animal defecates seed in new location w/ supply of fertilizer
In some cases, the plant-animal relationship has become more effective over time through a process known as __________, in which adaptations of one species influences the adaptations of the other.
Sweet fruits are especially appealing to __________, which tend to have a better sense of taste than birds.
__________ are often dispersed by birds, and capsiacin, the chemical compound that makes chilies hot, is thought to be adaptation to entice birds.
Other fruit- or seed-eating animals __________ seeds when the seeds are plentiful, so some will be available when the supply runs out.
cache (store away in hiding or for future use)
When these caches are forgotten, or otherwise not used, the seeds may germinate, thus completing the dispersal process
Second type of seed dispersal by animals:
- some fruits have evolved hooks or barbs that cling to animal
- ex: hooks on the fruits of burdock
- other fruits contain stick substance allows seed to adhere to animal as it eat fruits
- ex: berry-like fruits of mistletoe adhere to beak and face of birds that forage on them
- bird move from tree to tree scraping sticky fruits from beaks onto branches, the mistletoe seeds get dispersed
- some plants have adaptations for flinging ripe seeds away from the parent plant with considerable force
- these rely on mechanical forces that develop in seed-bearing structures as the structures dry out
- a sudden change in humidity can trigger the forceful catapult-like release of seeds
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