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87 terms

Chapter 5 Electrons in atoms

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3.00 x 10^8 m/s
At what speed does ALL electromagnetic radiation travel?
electromagnetic spectrum
all forms of electromagnetic radiation
alpha rays, gamma rays and x-rays
Which kind of electromagnetic radiation has the highest frequency?
radio waves, tv, FM waves
Which kind of electromagnetic radiation has the lowest frequency?
alpha rays, gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, microwaves, radar, radio waves, television, FM waves, short waves, long waves
Name three kinds of electromagnetic radiation.
electromagnetic radiation
forms of energy that have wavelike behavior as they travel through space
wavelength
distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves
frequency
number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time period, like one second
amplitude
distance from the origin to the crest of a wave or from the origin to the trough of a wave
C = (lambda) (nu)
What is the relationship between frequency and wavelength for electromagnetic radiation?
frequency increases
What happens when a wavelength decreases?
frequency decreases
What happens when a wavelength increases?
wavelength increases
What happens when frequency decreases?
wavelength decreases
What happens when frequency increases?
photoelectric effect
when photoelectrons are emitted from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency or higher shines on the surface of that metal
Max Planck
Who discovered the photoelectric effect?
separates into individual colors
What happens when white light is passed through a prism?
6.0 x 10^10 Hz
A form of energy has a wavelength of 5.0 x 10^-3 meters. What is the frequency of the energy?
quantum
minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
Planck's constant
h = 6.626 x 10^-34 Joules per second
photon
massless paricle that carries a quantum of energy
E = hv
What is the relationship between the energy emitted and its frequency?
4.19 x 10^-13 Joules
How much energy does a photon with a frequency of 6.32 c 10^20 Hz have?
6.29 x 10^-20 Joules
How much energy does a photon with a frequency of 9.50 x 10^13 Hz have?
6.96 x 10^-18 Joules
How much energy does a photon with a frequency of 1.05 x 10^16 s^-1 have?
4.42 x 10^-17 Joules
The blue color in some fireworks occurs when copper(i) chloride is heated to approximately 1500 K and emits blue light of wavelength 4.50 x 10^2 nm. How much energy does one photon of this light carry?
atomic emission spectrum
set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by atoms of the element
absorption spectrum
set of frequencies of electromagnetic waves that an atom's electrons absorb
ground state
lowest allowable energy state of an atom's electrons
excited state
atom with electrons that have gained energy
quantum number
n; the number assigned to each orbit(energy level) of an atom
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
states that it is fundamentally impossible to know the precise location AND velocity of an electron (particle) at the same time
quantum mechanical model of the atom
an atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves
atomic orbital
3-D region around the nucleus where electrons can be found
principal quantum number
energy level; how far the electrons are from the nucleus of an atom
energy sublevel
energy levels contained within a principal energy level
1 (s)
How many orbitals are in the first principal energy level?
Lyman series
Which series uses ultraviolet light to create line emission spectrum?
Paschen series
WHich series uses infrared light to create line emission spectrum?
Balmer series
Which series uses visible light to create a line emission spectrum?
orbit
In the Bohr model it is the path that electrons circle the nucleus in
if enough energy is gained in a photon it moves out to a higher energy level
What happens to an electron when it gains energy?
2
How many total electrons in the first principal energy level?
8
How many total electrons in the second principal energy level?
18
How many total electrons in the third principal energy level?
32
How many total electrons in the fourth principal energy level?
50
How many total electrons in the fifth principal energy level?
72
How many total electrons in the sixth principal energy level?
98
How many total electrons in the seventh principal energy level?
2n^2
How do you calculate the total number of electrons per energy level?
n^2
How do you calculate the total number of orbitals per energy level?
energy and distance from nucleus increase
What happens to energy as the principal quantum number increases?
He mathematically determined the probability of finding electrons in certain places around the nucleus
What did Erwin Schrodinger do for atomic theory?
quantum number
What does n stand for?
2 (s & p)
How many orbitals are in the second principal energy level?
3 (s, p, d)
How many orbitals are in the third principal energy level?
4 (s, p,d f)
How many orbitals are in the fourth principal energy level?
5 (s, p, d, f, g)
How many orbitals are in the fifth` principal energy level?
sphere
What is the shape of an s orbital?
dumbbell
What is the shape of a p orbital?
double-peanut
What is the shape of a d orbital?
flower
What is the shape of an f orbital?
1
How many s orbitals are there per energy level?
3
How many p orbitals are there per energy level?
5
How many d orbitals are there per energy level?
7
How many f orbitals are there per energy level?
9
How many g orbitals are there per energy level?
it emits a photon of energy and moves to a lower energy level closer to the nucleus
What happens when an electron loses energy?
model depicts hydrogen nucleus with a single electron circling in a specific orbit
Describe the Bohr model of a hydrogen atom.
only 2-D view and used only one electron instead of 2 or more
Why couldn't Bohr's model be used for all elements?
Aufbau principle
States that each electron occipies the lowest energy orbital available
Pauli exclusion principle
states that a maximum of two electrons can occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite spins
Hund's rule
states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy EACH equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbital
orbital notation
writing of electron configuration using circles or boxes to indicate principal energy levels and lines or arrows to indicate electrons
electron configuration
arrangement of electrons in an atom
electron configuration notation
using superscripts to indicate the number of electrons in each orbital at each principal level
noble-gas notation
shorthand method to write electron configuration using the preceding noble gas and then any electrons after the noble gas
valence electrons
electrons found in the outermost energy level
Lewis structure
using element's symbol and dots to indicate number of valence electrons
1s,2s,2p,3s,3p,4s,3d,4p,5s,4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p, 8s . .
What is the order for filling the orbitals, based on lowest energy level first?
far right column
Where are the noble gases found in the Periodic Table of elements?
[Kr]5s1
Write the noble-gas notation for rubidium.
[Ne]3s2
Write the noble-gas notation for magnesium.
[Ne]3s23p4
Write the noble-gas notation for sulfur.
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4
Write the electron configuration notation for sulfur.
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2
Write the electron configuration notation for calcium.
1s2
Write the electron configuration notation for helium.