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Strategic management

A process that involves managers from all parts of the organization in the formulation and implementation of strategic goals and strategies.


The plan of action that prescribes resource allocation dealing with the environment an organization finds itself in and the map of how to attain it's goals

Core competence

A business activity that an organization does paticularly well in comparison to competitors

Corporate level strategy

the level of strategy concerned with the question "What business are we in?" Pertains to the organization as a whole and the combination of business units and product lines that make it up.

Business level strategy

the level of strategy concerned with the question " how we compete?" pertains to each business unit or product line within the organization

Functional level strategy

The level of strategy concerned with the question"How do we support the business-level strategy?" Pertains to all of the organization's major departments.

Strategy formulation

the stage of strategic development that involves the planning and decision making that lead to the establishment of the orgs goals and of a specific strategy plan

Strategy implementation

the stage of strategic management that involves the use of managerial and organizational tools to direct resources toward achieving strategic outcome

SWOT analysis

strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats

Situation analysis

Typically includes a search for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) that affect organizational performance


Boston Consulting Group

BCG matrix

a concept developed by the boston consulting group that evaluates the SBUs with respect to the dimension of business growth rate and market share


Rapid growth and expansion investments for the organization

Cash cows

Steady profit producers, functioning investments for the organization

Question marks

New ventures, risky investments for the organization, some become stars, others divested


Non performer investment for the organization, some profit, consider divestment

Strategic business unit

a division of the organization that has a unique business mission, product line, competitors, and markets relative to other sbus in the same corporation

Portfolio strategy

a type of corporate level strategy that pertains to the organization's mix of BSUs and product lines that fit together in such a way as to provide the corporation with synergy and competitive advantage

Michael E. Porter

Author and Harvard Business School Professor. Created the Five Forces, and is an expert in Competitve Strategy

Potential new entrants

capital requirements and economies of scale are examples of two potential barriers to keep new competitors out.

Threat of substitute products

power of alternatives and substitutes for company's product may be affected by changes in cost or in trends such as increased health consciousness that will deflect buyer loyalty. Internet created a greater threat of new subs. enabling new approaches to meeting customer needs.

Bargaining power of buyers

ability of buyers to bargain down prices charged by firms in the industry or to raise the costs of firms in the industry by demanding better product quality and service

Bargaining power of suppliers

a measure of the influence that suppliers of parts, materials, and services to firms in an industry have on the prices of these inputs


A type of competitive strategy with which the organization seeks to distinguish its products or services from competitiors

Cost leadership

a type of competitive strategy with which the organization aggressively seeks efficient facilities, cuts costs, and employs tight cost controls to be more efficient than competitors.


A type of competitive strategy that emphasizes concentration on a specific regional market or buyer group

Partnership strategies

A strategy which firms cooperate instead of competing with eachother for greater results

Synergy effect



the ability to influence people toward the attainment of organizational goals

Structural design

Begins with the organization chart, shows manager's responsibilities and degree of authority and the consideration of facilities, departments, and divisions

Information and control systems

Includes reward systems, pay insentives, budgets, allocating resources, I.T., rules and procedures

Human resources

the broad category of human efforts, both physical and mental, used to produce goods and services

Growth strategy

a strategy that focuses on increasing profits, revenues, market share, or the number of places in which the company does business


the reduction of expenditures in order to become financial stable


termination of a business operation by selling its assets to pay for its liabilities


the exit of a business from a firm's portfolio, opposite of investment

Globalization strategy

growth to a global or worldwide scale, the standardization of products and advertising for the international market

Transnational strategy

Seeks to balance global efficiencies and local responsiveness- customization for product/ advertising strategies

Multidomestic strategy

Handles markets independently for each country, adapts products/ advertising to local tastes and needs


Positive internal characteristics that the organization can use to achieve it's strategic performance goals


Internal characteristics that might inhibit or restirct the organization's performance


Things in the external environment that might help the organization achieve or exceed it's strategic goals


Things in the external environment that may prevent the organization from achieving it's strategic goals

Rivalry among competitors

High when competition is fierce in a market and low when competition is more complacent`

Degree of collaboration

Preferred supplier arrangements, Strategic business partnership, joint ventures, mergers, acquisitions

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