CH29 APUSH, APUSH CH30
Terms in this set (126)
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) (p. 938)
An economic organization consisting primarily of Arab nations that controls the price of oil and the amount of oil its members produce and sell to other nations.
energy crisis (p. 939)
an energy shortage in fall 1973 that resulted from oil-exporting nations of the Middle East halting their shipping of oil to the United States to protest U.S. support of Israel in its conflict with its Arab neighbors
An organized movement of concerned citizens, businesses, and government agencies designed to protect and improve people's current and future living environment.
Silent Spring (p. 939)
A book written to voice the concerns of environmentalists. Launched the environmentalist movement by pointing out the effects of civilization development.
Earth Day (p. 939)
A holiday conceived of by environmental activist and Senator Gaylord Nelson to encourage support for and increase awareness of environmental concerns; first celebrated on March 22, 1970
Agency (EPA) (p. 939)
an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
Three Mile Island (p. 942)
A mechanical failure and a human error at this power plant in Pennsylvania combined to permit an escape of radiation over a 16 mile radius.
stagflation (p. 942)
During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.
deindustrialization (p. 944)
process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
Rust Belt (p. 944)
The manufacturing region in the United States that is currently debilitated because many manufacturing firms have relocated to countries offering cheaper labor and relaxed environmental regulations.
tax revolt (p. 946)
1978 Proposition 13 in California that slashed property taxes and forced painful cuts in government services. New right's strategy to combat government expansion.
Proposition 13 (p. 947)
Also known as the "tax revolt", it was a Californian ballot measure in 1978 that slashed property taxes and forced deep cuts in government services.
Watergate (p. 947)
(RN), 1972, The events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment, Ford becomes President
War Powers Act (p. 948)
Limits the ability of the president to commit troops to combat-48 hours to tell Congress when and why the troops were sent, they have 60-90 to bring them home if they disagree
Freedom of Information Act (p. 948)
Gives all citizens the right to inspect all records of federal agencies except those containing military, intelligence, or trade secrets; increases accountability of bureaucracy
Ethics in Government Act (p. 948)
a United States federal law that was passed in the wake of the Nixon Watergate scandal and the Saturday Night Massacre. It created mandatory, public disclosure of financial and employment history of public officials and their family.
affirmative action (p. 950)
A set of policies to open opportunities in business and education for members of minority groups and women by allowing race and sex to be factors included in decisions to hire, award contracts, or admit students to higher education programs
Bakke v. University of California (p. 951)
A 1978 Supreme Court case ruling that limited affirmative action by rejecting a quota system. Allan Bakke said that he was more qualified than the minority groups people who got in. Supreme court ordered that he be admitted.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) (p. 952)
A constitutional amendment originally introduced in Congress in 1923 and passed by Congress in 1972, stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Despite public support, the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislatures.
STOP ERA (p. 953)
A grassroots organization founded by right-wing leader Phyllis Schlafly to block ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Made of women, antifeminists united around evangelical Christianity and family values. It was successful.They said that the ERA would forbid separate men's and women's public restrooms and that it would subject women to the draft. They kept the amendment from passing in order to make it expire without the needed.
Roe v. Wade (p. 956)
established national abortion guidelines; trimester guidelines; no state interference in 1st; state may regulate to protect health of mother in 2nd; state may regulate to protect health or unborn child in 3rd. inferred from right of privacy established in Griswald v. Connecticut
evangelicalism (p. 962)
Style of Christian ministry that includes much zeal and enthusiasm. Emphasizes personal conversion and faith rather than religious ritual
Rachel Carson (p. 939)
Published Silent Spring in 1962; documented the environmental damage done by DDT and other pesticides. Which heightened public awareness at the start of the modern environmental movement.
Gerald Ford (p. 947)
president 1974-77, Nixon's Vice president, only person not voted into the White House, appointed vice president by Nixon: became president after Nixon resigned
Howard Jarvis (p. 947)
a conservative activist launched the first successful tax revolt in California with Proposition 13, a referendum on the state ballot that greatly reduced property taxes
Jimmy Carter (p. 949)
1974 became the 39th President, with Vice President Walter Mondale. He secured energy programs, set the framework for Egypt-Israel treaty, and sought to base foreign policy on human rights.
Phyllis Schlafly (p. 953)
1970s; a new right activist that protested the women's rights acts and movements as defying tradition and natural gender division of labor; demonstrated conservative backlash against the 60s
Harvey Milk (p. 956)
1st openly gay politician in Calif.; one of only a very few in the US at the time. Assassinated while in office; Helped to erase the stigma of being openly homosexual.
Billy Graham (p. 962)
One of the most popular evangelical ministers of the era. Star of the first televised "crusades" for religious revival. He believed that all doubts about the literal interpretation of the bible were traps set by Satan. He supported Republicans and a large increase to money in the military.
era of limits
For the first time in its history, the U.S. in the Seventies began to realize that economic growth could not solve all its problems; environmental concerns; resource scarcity, and a more complex balance of military and economic power led many Americans to become more pessimistic about their futures
Yom Kippur War
(RN), , This was a war fought by Israel and neighboring Arab nations where the Arabs launched a surprise attack during Yom Kippur. U.S. support for Israel during the war led to OPEC boycotting the U.S., creating an energy crisis.
What did the USA do to conserve oil during the crisis?
55 mph speed limits, more Japanese (fuel efficient) cars and less detroit (gas guzzler) cars were bought
What new power did the USA think to use after the oil crisis?
Nixon's New Economic Policy
he imposed temporary price and wage controls to rein in inflation
Where did the steel come from after Pittsburgh lost its heavy industry?
West Germany and Japan
What did the closing of factories of ford, us steel and uniroyal do?
made cities broke and depleted the working class
What happened to the unions in the mid 1980s
It declined a ton
Why did vice Agnew not become president?
he accepted kickbacks and resigned
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act; passed in 1978, in the wake of the Church Committee hearings revelations about the secret activities of the U.S. government spying on Americans without judicial authorization; amended as part of the 2001 Patriot Act to restore wiretapping of Americans without a search warrant in cases of imminent danger to national security.
Why did Ford Pardon Nixon?
He didn't want to cause the party even more trouble with a trial, but
flood of democrats that came into the house that were under the age of 45, they were very reform minded and got rid of Huac
How were the post-Watergate reforms different from other reforms?
government less efficient and more susceptible to special interests, influence shifted to party-leaders and the parties became more divided
What did Jimmy Carter promise to do?
restore morality (he was born-again) to the white house as he was not a washington man
Why was Carter's establishing a women's comission hypocritical?
He fought and disagreed with it
The strategies by which a government works actively with industries to promote their growth and tailor trade policy to their needs.
Could Jimmy Carter fix the economy?
Why did whites not like affirmative action?
They thought it was against them
our bodies, ourselves
connected to feminism and spirituality; the Boston Women's Health Collective; "Our Bodies Ourselves" book about self-actualization and sexuality; information book about women's bodies; affirming and positive about health and sexuality
a critic of homosexuality and tried to repeal an ordinance in Florida to stop discrimination based on sexual orientation, she was also the leader of the group, Save Our Children 1977
a conservative jurist appointed by Nixon (one of 3 strict constructionalists) that nonetheless continued the judicial activism of the Warren Court as seen by Roe v. Wade; this was due to the other members of the court rather than his own liberal beliefs
An American Family
A television show that documented a middle-class white family coping with the stresses of a changing society, captured a Trumatic moment in the 20th century history of the family. Between 1965 and 1985, the divorce rate doubled, and children born in the 1970s had a 40% chance of spending part of their youth in a single-parent household
Was family wage a reality in the 70s?
Not really, women had to work if the middle class wanted to keep their standard of living, due to the higher visibility in the work place they began to pursue more diverse careers
the Sexual Revolution
participants in the counterculture demanded more freedom to make personal choices in how they dressed and lived; their views on sexual conduct rejected traditional restrictions on behavior. Sex for fun, not procreation
Why were feminists not satisfied by the sexual revolution?
they saw it as by and for men and would prefer more equal sexual values
What was the result of more divorce/sexual revolution on middle class marriage? What was the response?
More people worried and churches + secular groups set up counseling servies and couples groups to communicate
Christian ministers who devote a large portion of their ministry to television broadcasting; also used derisively by critics as an insinuation of aggrandizement by such ministers
What did evangelists believed represented the fundamentalist unit of society?
the nuclear family (paternalism)
What did evangelicals think of feminism?
They were paternalistic, they believed women should be submissive, no sex ed in schools, no porn, no abortion and less divorce
The Conscience of a Conservative (p. 975)
Republican Senator Barry Goldwater's 1960 book, in which he advocated an abolition of the income tax, sale of the Tennessee Valley Authority, and a drastic overhaul of Social Security.
National Review (p. 976)
a conservative magazine founded by editor William F. Buckley in 1955, who used it to criticize liberal policy
Religious Right (p. 976)
United States political faction that advocates social and political conservativism, school prayer, and federal aid for religious groups and schools
hostage crisis (p. 977)
diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States where 52 U.S. diplomats were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979 to January 20, 1981, after a group of Islamist students took over the American embassy in support of the Iranian revolution
Reagan coalition (p. 981)
Combination of economic and social conservatives, religious fundamentalists, and defense-minded anti-communists who rallied behind Republican President Ronald Reagan.
Moral Majority (p. 981)
A movement begun in the early 1980's among religious conservatives that supported primarily conservative Republicans opposed to abortion, communism and liberalism. They wanted a constitutional ban on abortion, voluntary prayer in public schools, and a mandatory death penalty for certain crimes.
Reagan Democrats (p. 982)
The nickname given to southern and blue-collar workers who began to vote Republicans in 1980 due to their socially conservative values.
supply-side economics (Reaganomics) (p. 982)
An economic philosophy that holds the sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest. Greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government.
Economic Recovery Tax Act (ERTA) (p. 983)
A measure signed by Reagan in 1981 which cut personal income taxes by 25 percent, lowered the maximum rate from 70 to 50 percent for 1982, cut the capital gains tax by a third, and offered the wealthy a broad array of other tax concessions.
national debt (p. 983)
the debt of the national government (as distinguished from the debts of individuals and businesses and political subdivisions)
deregulation (p. 983)
The lifting of restrictions on business, industry, and professional activities for which government rules had been established and that bureaucracies had been created to administer.
HIV/AIDS (p. 985)
A chronic immune system disease caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
service industries (p. 987)
Occupations that provide a service rather than a manufactured or agricultural product
Sandinistas (p. 992)
Members of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. The Sandinistas lost national elections in 1990
Contras (p. 992)
Give an account of the differences between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout.
Iran-Contra affair (p. 993)
(RR) Americans kidnapped in Beirut by Iranian govt, so deal, scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected, Poindexter and North involved
glasnost (p. 993)
A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev which called for more openness with the nations of West, and a relaxing of restraints on Soviet citizenry.
perestroika (p. 993)
A policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
family values (p. 996)
The political position advocated by Jerry Falwell, Pat Robertson, and other conservative Republicans emphasizing a life of religious observance along with no drugs, no divorce, no abortions, no homosexuality, no working mothers, and no sex before marriage.
Persian Gulf War (p. 998)
(1990 - 1991) Conflict between Iraq and a coalition of countries led by the United States to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait which they had invaded in hopes of controlling their oil supply. A very one sided war with the United States' coalition emerging victorious.
Barry Goldwater (p. 974)
1964; Republican contender against LBJ for presidency; platform included lessening federal involvement, therefore opposing Civil Rights Act of 1964; lost by largest margin in history. He later supported Reagan
Ronald Reagan (p. 974)
1981-1989,"Great Communicator" Republican, conservative economic policies, replaced liberal Democrats in upper house with conservative Democrats or "boll weevils" , at reelection time, jesse jackson first black presidential candidate, Geraldine Ferraro as VP running mate (first woman)
William F. Buckley (p. 976)
Conservative who launched the conservative National Review magazine in 1955 which helped restore conservative ideas in America; founded Young Americans for Freedom in 1960; and started a conservative TV talk show, Firing Line, in 1966
Milton Friedman (p. 976)
(1912- 2006) American economist. Conservative thinker famous for his advocacy of monetarism (an revision of the quantity theory of money) in works like A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960 (1963). he is strongly associated with the ideals of laissez-faire government policy.
David Stockman (p. 983)
Reagan's budget director, pushed through $35 billion in budget cuts in educational and cultural programs, housing, food stamps, and school lunches in 1981 (Reagan)
Sandra Day O'Connor (p. 984)
Graduate of Stanford law, first woman to serve on supreme court
Mikhail Gorbachev (p. 993)
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
George H. W. Bush (p. 996)
republican, former director of CIA, oil company founder/owner, foreign policy (panama, gulf war), raised taxes eventhough said he wouldnt, more centrist than his son, NAFTA negotiation
Popular movements originating from the people (like the US Civil Rights Movements did in the 1950s and 1960s) but for politically and socially conservative causes. Phyllis Schlafly; against women's liberation movement and the Tea Party Movement are examples of Grassroots conservatives.
A faction of the American Republican Party (GOP) who held moderate to liberal views on domestic issues similar to those of Nelson Rockefeller, Governor of New York (1959-1973).
What did Reagan think of Berkeley when he was a governor?
3 legs of the stool of the conservative movement of 70s-80s
anticommunism, freemarket economics, and religious traditionalism
He was idealistic, liked human rights/peacemaking, Human rights office, took away economic and military aid from regimes and gave away the panama canal, he even acked as a peacemaker between Begin and el-Sadat, he wasn't fully anticommunist
What was Carter's undoing?
the Iranian hostage crisis
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi
Very friendly towards Israel and pro-west, he was the emperor or iran and was overthrow because of the iranian revolution. he launched the white revolution which were many attempts to westernize. he wanted to legitimatize the pahlavi dynasty., - Ruled Iran from Sept. 1941 - Feb. 1979
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
An Iranian religious leader and politician, and leader of the Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Following the revolution and a national referendum, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader—a position created in the constitution as the highest ranking political and religious authority of the nation—until his death.
Was a dictator in Iraq who tried to take over Iran and Kuwait violently in order to gain the land and the resources. He also refused to let the UN into Iraq in order to check if the country was secretly holding weapons of mass destruction.
How did Reagan mirror Trump in his views of America?
He said it was the greatest country in the world, with talent and drive, just needing leadership
The Reagan Coalition
The core of the Republican Party remained the relatively affluent, white, Protestant voters who supported balanced budgets, opposed government activism, feared crime and communism, and believed in a strong national defense. He also attracted suburbanites and immigrants
How did Reagan use Nixon's legacy?
he used his southern strategy
Why did Reagan not cut Social Security and medicare?
He didn't want to piss off elderly middle class
What did Reagan do to the debt and military?
He spent 25% of all federal money on the military and the national debt tripled
How did Reagan screw-over the working class?
He took the prominence during the New Deal; others, such as the
Occupational Safety and Health administration
(OSHA) and the environmental Protection agency (EPA) that protected the rights of workers in factories and corporations and he cut their budgets. He also headed them with people who were opposed to their goals
Conservative who attacked environmentalism as "a left-wing cult" and opened public lands to private businesses
Did Reagan do anything to help the EPA and enviorment?
As an apology for his Hellish actions he added acreage to wildlife protection service and added to the epa's budget (but it was Sierra club protests that led to this)
Did Reagan really try to get rid of big government and the welfare state?
No, he made it bigger and the debt tripled
What did Reagan do the court system?
Scalia (conservative), O'Connor (swing vote), Kennedy (moderate) on the supreme court as well as many other (368) conservative federal judges- put Rehnquist as chief justice
Why did Reagan not call AIDS a national health problem?
Bc it affected the gays and was "God's punishment," Reagan even prevented the attorney general from doing anything
Election of 1984
Reagan ran against Walter Mondale , who chose Geraldine Ferraro the 1st woman for VP. Reagan won by a landslide with 525 electoral votes
It's Morning In America
common name of a political campaign television commercial, formally titled "Prouder, Stronger, Better" and featuring the opening line "It's morning again in America." The ad was part of the 1984 U.S. presidential campaign of Republican Party candidate Ronald Reagan. It featured a montage of images of Americans going to work and a calm, optimistic narration that suggested the improvements to the U.S. economy since his 1980 election were due to Reagan's policies and asked voters why they would want to return to the pre-Reagan policies of Democrats like his opponent Walter Mondale, who had served as the Vice President under Reagan's immediate predecessor Jimmy Carter.
In the 1980s, where did most of the USA's trade deficit from?
What shift happened about the natures of American services in the 80s? This hurt the economy?
More Americans were producing services than manufacturing them (making things)
Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous
An American television series that featured the extravagant lifestyles of wealthy entertainers, athletes, and business entrepreneurs. This was one of the first shows to feature the lives of the wealthy (like Trump).
What entrepenuers led to the computer revolution that changed the economy? Why?
Paul allen, Steve Jobs, and Steve Wozniak made what once was military exclusive open for everyone
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
Did Reagan like Detente?
No, conservatives hated it and he wanted to fight
A program to protect the United States against attack by enemy missiles, proposed in 1983 by President Ronald Reagan, but never implemented- formally known as the Strategic Defense Initiative.
Strategic Arms Reduction Talks
Agreement between the United States and Russia to cut their long-range nuclear arsenals by half.
Did Reagan encourage a coup against the Sandinistas?
El Salvador, an armed squad that kills civilians, terrorists or guerillas. These groups tend to commit extrajudicial assassinations / extra-judicial killings and forced disappearances of persons. They were US-backed
Would Reagan go to any means to block Soviet influence in Central America (even if the left-wing governments were successful)?
A radical Shiʿite Muslim organization in Lebanon engaged in guerrilla warfare against Israel
In 1984, Congress banned the CIa and all other government agencies from providing any military support to the Contras. True or false?
True, but Lieutent Colonel Oliver North ignored it and Reagan allowed him to
How did Reagan's cabinet respond to Gorbachev removing troops from Afganistan?
He brought in policy-makers who were ok with detente
east european countries have uprising against soviet. He does not send red army, instead elections. Germans tear down berlin walls
Who won the cold war?
No one, but the Soviet Union was destroyed after
election of 1988
George Bush (winner) vs. Michael Dukakis. Bush was elected on the strength of his association with Reagan, seeming poised to confirm the ascendancy of his predecessor's conservative values.
UN Resolution 687
Council set the terms, in a comprehensive resolution, with which Iraq was to comply after losing the Gulf War. imposed economic sanctions against Iraq unless it allowed unfettered inspection of its weapon systems and destruction of all biological and chemical arms and unconditional pledge not to develop nuclear arms