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the deployment of organizational resources to achieve strategic goals

Organization structure

the framework in which the organization defines how tasks are divided, resources are deployed, and departments are coordinated

Organization chart

The reporting structure diagram shown on paper or on a computer

Work specialization

the degree to which organizational tasks are subdivided into individual jobs; also called division of labor

Chain of command

the unbroken line of authority that links all individuals in the organization and specifies who reports to whom

Unity of command

a management principle that workers should report to just one boss


the formal and legitimate right of a monager to make decisions, issue orders, and allocate resources


the duty to perform the task or activity an employee has been assigned


obligation employees have to their manager for the successful completion of an assigned task


The process managers use to transfer authority and responsibility to positions below them in the hierarchy

line authority

a form of authority in which individuals in management positions have the formal power to direct and control immediate subordinates

staff authority

a form of authority granted to staff specialists in their area of expertise

span of management

The number of subordinates a manager supervises

Tall structure

a management structure with a large number of hierarchical levels

flat structure

a management structure with few hierarchical levels


the location of decision authority near top organization levels


Degree to which decision-making authority is given to lower levels in an organization's hierarchy.

Vertical functional approach

grouping of positions into departments based on skills, expertise, work activities and recourse use

Divisional approach

Grouped together based on a common product, program, or geographical region

Horizontal matrix approach

functional and divisional chains of cofmmand. some employees report to two bosses

Team based approach

This has to do with job design and redesign. It is giving empowerment to teams. It includes teams needing training and development along with communication.

Network approach

Small, central hub electronically connected to their other organizations that perform vital functions.

Virtual approach

Brings people together temporarily to exploit specific opportunities then disbands


The presence of written rules and regulations governing how people in the organization interact.


The basis on which individuals are grouped into departments and departments into the total organization

Functional structure

the grouping of positions into departments based on similar skills, expertise, and resource use.

Divisional structure

an organization structure in which departments are grouped based on similar organizational outputs

Cross functional teams

group of employees from various functional departments that meet as a team to resolve mutual problems

Modular approach

the process by which a manufacturing company uses outside suppliers to provide large components of the product, which are then assembled into a final product by a few workers

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