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10th grade final
Terms in this set (117)
A seed plant is held in the ground by its
Ground tissue is found in a plant's
roots, stems, and leaves
If some of the xylem of a young oak tree were destroyed, it would most likely interfere with the tree's ability to
absorb sunlight or conduct water to the leaves.
Vascular tissue in plants consists of
xylem and phloem
The outer covering of a plant consists of
Which of the following are areas of unspecialized cells in which mitosis produce new cells that are ready for differentiation?
One of the three main functions of stems is to
carry water and nutrients between roots and leaves.
In a plant's stem, the vascular tissue
is continuous from the roots to the leaves.
Unlike roots stems
may play a part in photosynthesis.
During primary growth, a stem
increases in length.
What might a thin tree ring indicate?
A year of drought
Which of the following describes the heartwood of a tree?
?Old xylem pg678
Oxygen and carbon dioxide move in and out of a leaf through the
Most of the photosynthesis in plants takes place in the
The stomata of leaves are usually open
during the day if a plant has enough water.
The attraction of water molecules to other kinds of molecules is called
Through which plant cells does water move by capillary action?
Water will move higher in a narrow glass tube than it will move in a wide glass tube because of
The movement of sugars in a plant can be explained by
the pressure-flow hypothesis
Plants use the energy of sunlight to
carry out photosynthesis.
Without gas exchange, a plant would be unable to
Which of the following is true? Plants take carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and do not use oxygen
The ancestors of land plants likely evolved from
an organism similar to green algae.
Living on land required that plants
What would have most likely occurred if plants had not begun to live on land?
Animals also would not live on land.
Based on Figure 22-1, which of the following features evolved first in land plants?
How have the saprophyte and gametophyte changed as plants have evolved?
The gametophyte has become smaller, and the saprophyte has become larger.
Which of the following groups of plants contains species that do not undergo alternation of generations?
What is a basic difference between a saprophyte and a gametophyte?
A sporophyte is part of the diploid phase while a gametophyte is part of the haploid phase of the plant life cycle.
Which of the following statements about green algae is true?
Evidence suggests they were the first plants.
In which of the following environments are green algae NOT found?
Dry areas on land.
When environmental conditions are unfavorable, why is it an advantage for green algae to reproduce sexually?
Of the following locations, you would most likely find mosses growing in
shaded ground near a small pond.
Because bryophytes do not have vascular tissue, they
grow close to the ground.
In bryophytes, which of the following structures is like a root?
Xylem tissue is important because it
Which type of vascular tissue carries solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis?
What is one reason that vascular plants are larger than non-vascular plants?
Which of the following includes a plant embryo, a food supply, and protective covering?
Seed-bearing plants differ from all other plants in that
In seed plants the entire male gametophyte is contained in a
In gymnosperms the female gametophyte develops inside he
Which of the following gymnosperm reproductive structures is haploid?
Angiosperms produce seeds inside protective structures called
Which type of plant lives the longest?
One reason common names are not useful to biologists is that they
can apply to more than one animal
One goal of scientists is to assign every organism a universally accepted name according to the system known
For many species there are often regional differences in their
To be useful a scientific name has to refer to
a single species.
According to the rules of binomial nomenclature which of the terms is capitalized?
The genus name only.
Based on their names you know that the baboons Papio annubis and Papio cynocephalus do NOT belong to the same
How do binomial or two-part names compare with early versions of scientific names?
They tend to be shorter,
Which are the two highest level taxa in the Linnaean system?
Phylum and kingdom.
Which kingdom contains heterotrophs with cell walls of chitin?
Aristotle first classified organisms by saying all life was divided into which two kingdoms?
Animals and plants
Organisms in the kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria were previously grouped in a kingdom called
The domain that contains unicellular organisms that live in extreme environments is
The two domains composed of only unicellular organisms are
Archaea and Eukarya
The three-domain system arose when scientists found that Eubacteria and Archaebacteria were more
dissimilar than scientists thought.
Darwin noticed that many organisms seemed well suited to
surviving in the environments in which they lived.
Species of finches that Charles Darwin found on different Galapagos Islands
birds different-shaped beaks.
Based on the adaptations charles darwin observed
if allbirds on the different islands were finches.
Which of the following ideas ws NOT part of Darwin's contrivution
survival of the fittest.
Have many similar physical characeristics supports the hypotesis
descended from a common ancestor.
On the Galapagos Islands, Charles Darwin observed
species similar to mainland South American species.
Which of the following ideas is supported by Darwin's observation of local variation among tortoises
James Hutton's and Charles Lyell's work suggests that
Earth is several million years old
One scientist who attempted to explain how rock formations, such as rock layers,
James Hutton's and Charles Lyell's work was important to Darwin
suggested that earth was old enough for evolution to have occurred.
Which is a major concept included in Lamarch's evolutionary hypotheses?
Body structures can change according to the actions of the organism.
In an experiment, suppose that the wings of fruit flies were clipped short for fifty generations
inheritance of natural variations.
The economist Thomas Malthus suggested that
without certain checks on population size there would soon be insufficient food for the growing human population.
When a dairy farmer chooses to breed the cows that give the most milk
Darwin's theory of natural selection, individuals who survive
possession of inherited adaptations that maximize fitness.
Members of a population that live long enough to reproduce is consistent with the theory of evolution of natural selection.
They are the ones that are best adapted to survive in their environment.
Charles Darwin called the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce
The individuals that tend to survive are those that have
variations best suited to environmental conditions.
Best describes the results of natural selection
changes in the inherited characteristics of a population over time.
The principle of common descent helps explain why
birds and reptiles share a number of inherited characteristics.
The hypothesis that all species are descended from common ancestors was proposed by
Biogeography is the study of
where species and their ancestors live.
The number and location of bones of many fossil vertebrates are similar to those
the inheritance of acquired traits.
In humans the pelvis and femur or thigh bone..in whales
Modern sea star larvae resemble
share a common ancestor with sea stars.
Molecular evidence in support of natural selection includes
the nearly universal genetic code.
Similar patterns of embryological development in different in different but related organisms
Helped the Grants show the results of natural selection
the size and shape of their beaks.
Sex-linked genes are located on
both the X chromosome and the Y chromosome.
Human males have
one X and one Y chromosome.
Which of the following diseases and conditions does not appear until late in a person's life?
Sickle cell disease is caused by a
change in the size of a chromosome.
In cystic fibrosis a change in a single gene causes the protein called CFTR to
destroy the cell membrane.
Compared with normal hemoglobin the hemoglobin of a person with sickle cell disease is
Which of the following combinations of sex chromosomes represents a female?
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
Organisms that must obtain nutrients and energy by eating othe organisms are
in fishes pharyngeal pouches may develop into
Look at the illustration in Figure 25-1 above. Which letter represents the hollow nerve cord?
In chordates in which pharyngeal pouches develop slits that lead outside of the body
nerves branch in intervals from which of the following structures in a chordate embryo?
hollow nerve cord
The notochord is responsible for which funcion in an embryo?
which chordate characteristic is visible on the outside of an adult cat?
a tail that extends beyond the anus
Homeostasis is a
stable internal environment
All animals eat to obtain
Muscles work together with a support structure called a
Vertevrates have skeletons that
When an animal's environment changes sexual reproduction improves a species avility to
adapt to new living conditions.
Muscle tissue exerts force by becoming
The skeletion of a vertevrae is
Ammonia is a waste product that must be eliminated by the
One advanage of asexual reproduction is that animals can
increase their numvers rapidly
Look at the illustration in Figure 25-3. Which internal characteristics would youexpect
An animal that has body parts that extend outward from its center shows
The difference between a protostome and a deuterostome is that
the blastopore in a deuterostome develops into the animal's anus
How many planes of symmetry could you draw through a jellyfish
more than 5
Arms of primates ad wings of birds are variations of
Body plans evolve as adaptaions
prevent members of a phylum from surviving and reproducing.
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