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History Final: Important Names
Terms in this set (65)
Legendary hero who founded Rome
last Etruscan king; his son assaulted Lucretia, so the Roman nobility run him and his family out of town and declare an end to kings forever
Grew up in Carthage and raised to hate Rome. He took war elephants over the Alps into Italy
Proposes going to Africa to attack Carthage in order to lure Hannibal out of Italy. He used Hannibal's "ring of steel" tactic.
Roman general; adopted son of Scipio Africanus. General and politican said to have destroyed Carthage.
He was upset by large plantations, "latifundia", that were worked by gangs of slaves for patrician families. He championed this cause for the lower classes, through land distribution. First patrician to renounce his status to become a Plebeian; elected to office of Tribune and killed by the Senate
Becomes Tribune also and introduces a bill to fix prices on grain, as well as extend citizenship to people in Sicily and other nearby areas. An army formed against him, prompted by the Senate, and he was killed
Plebeian; a military Tribune, then was elected quaestor. Later he was elected tribune of the Plebeians, and then married into the Julian line.
Admitted poor people into the army, and instituted paying the soldiers
Powerful commander -- earned his men's loyalty; general who used his army for his political advantage -- started a civil war in Rome. He caused such a spirit of fear that people didn't rebel. "Proscriptions" were posted (get out or get killed). He gave the Senate back their original power, and limited the powers of the Tribune. His goal was to reamplify the power/role of the Senate. He retired once he was satisfied that the Senate had its power back, and died shortly after
He led a military victory against Spartacus, during a massive slave revolt (which didn't work because Pompey showed up at the end and shared credit for the victory). He also tried to patron clients to gain votes, but the clients lost faith in him. Senate rejected his proposal to help tax collectors. Member of the First Triumvirate
A military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. Member of the First Triumvirate, lost to Caesar in battle and was killed in Egypt.
Elected to Plebeian Tribune, and was a political ally of Marius. Promoted important bill to give 60 acres of land in Africa to all African war veterans. He had a tribune assassinated who may have competed with Marius for the consulship, which upset everyone because they didn't want to be associated with this.
One of Caesar's generals who was a member of the Second Triumvirate; fell in love with Cleopatra and stole Octavian's inheritance
joins with Octavius and Antony in the Second Triumvirate, but was significantly weaker than both of them
Related to Marius by marriage, so Sulla hated him (Sulla followed and tried to kill him, and it was only after Sulla's death that Caesar could pursue a political career). He was elected Consul, and was a member of the First Triumvirate
Caesar's adopted son/heir who defeated Marc Antony in the Battle of Actium. Member of the Second Triumvirate, and eventually became dictator of Rome
Strong military general; Augustus' heir. He conquested and left the empire wealthy and secure but without a successor; didn't really want to be emperor
"Little boots"; he was a little crazy, and was known for lavish parties and endless feasting. Eventually was assassinated.
Officially acquired the province of Britain; stabilized the empire and rebuilt the treasury
Last of Julio Claudian emperors. He had his mother executed, participated in many athletic and drama events, blamed the Christians for the Great Fire of Rome; built a "golden house"
Emperor of Rome and founder of the Flavian dynasty; started construction of the Colosseum
finished the Colosseum and the siege of Jerusalem; Mt. Vesuvius erupted during his reign
Pliny the Elder
Admiral in command of the Roman fleet at Misenum; natural historian who died sailing too close to the eruption trying to save people
Pliny the Younger
Witnessed the eruption of Mt Vesuvius and wrote down what he saw - primary source of information about this event
Last emperor of the Flavian Dynasty; his government had totalitarian characteristics such as propaganda, secret police, informers, nighttime executions, etc.; eventually assassinated
First non-Italian emperor; repaired Rome and sponsored many building projects (Column, Forum, bridges, baths). Brutally subjugated places in the Middle East and Dacia
Popular with the Greeks; travelled a lot and commissioned the building of the Pantheon; built a wall across Britain
Famous as a philosopher-emperor; wrote Meditations and was very influenced by Stoicism; set up a co-emperorship
Very formal - always appeared in public in his military uniform; sought to control prices and inflation; divided the Roman Empire in half and built a new capital at Byzantium; blamed the Christians for his failure to bring back the glory of Rome
First Christian emperor, and made this religion legal; minted a new currency of gold and sought to reunite the empire
Theodosius I (The Great)
Emperor who made Christianity the official religion of the empire; last emperor to rule over both halves of Rome; destroyed many temples and shrines; ended the Olympics
Liu Bang (Gaozu)
Came from an ordinary fishing village; first emperor of the Han Dynasty, he had to divide the country into several quasi-feudal states to satisfy his wartime allies
Confucianism adopted as the official philosophy of the state; his reign is characterized by territorial expansion, activist government, and intellectual creativity. His government strengthened/secured border areas and contributed to the development of overland trade to Central Asia on the Silk Road
Wife of Liu Bang; ruled through two of her sons after his death. Not successful in foreign affairs, but very successful domestically and was able to keep peace.
A champion for the peasants/Confucian chief minister who overthrew the government. He seized power from the Han to help the peasants through a "well-field" system. His reform attempts failed, and was killed in battle.
Descendent of Liu Bang who moved the capital to Luoyang and re-established the Han Dynasty.
Confucian scholar who compiled the world's first dictionary
Figurehead emperor who was forced to abdicate, which brought the Han Dynasty to an end
Grand historian to the emperor; wrote the first narrative history of China, called the Shiji, and included his own interpretation and analysis
First female court historian; wrote "Lessons for Women," which influenced women in China, Japan, and Korea for the next 2000 years. makes a powerful argument in favor of equal educational opportunities for boys and girls
created the largest Indian empire in ancient history with his grandfather, Chandragupta Maurya. He is known for being a brutal ruler who converted to Buddhism and spread peaceful reform around his empire.
Wrote the Aretha-Shastra, an advice manual for rulers.
Chandra Gupta I
Founded the Gupta Dynasty on the Mauryan foundation. He made alliances with several powerful families, who helped him rise to power. His dominions were sufficiently large enough to justify his assumption of the imperial title, maharajadhiraja ("king of kings")
Built the largest empire in world history; conquered Indus Valley. Ruled more than 70 ethnic groups. Built new capital at Persepolis. Invaded Greece to punish the Greek; won the battle of Thermopylae but did not live long enough to finish the job.
Cyrus the Great
A tough leader, military strategist. King of the Persians in 558 BC, and all Medes in 548 BC. Conquered Lydia, Chaldean Empires; his empire stretched from India to the Mediterranean. He allowed Jews to return home.
a harsh, despotic ruler. Conquered Egypt in 525 and then was murdered
Retreated from the policy of cultural toleration. Caused ill-will and rebellions among subject peoples. Lost both land and sea battles to Greece (Marathon & Salamis).
Byzantine emperor who wrote an expansive law code and built the Hagia Sophia. He had to control the peasant uprising, murdering thousands.
Layman who advised that people should strive to gain God's grace by their own efforts - living a life free of sin (as far as possible) and endeavoring to improve those around them. He promoted the lie that original sin did not taint human nature and that moral will is still capable of choosing good or evil without special divine aid. Denounced by Augustine.
(Roman Catholic Church) one of the great fathers of the early Christian church, Bishop of Hippo. He denounced many heresies of the time, including Donatism and Pelagianism.
Deeply religious ruler who banned use of icons to try and gain military favor from God. He did end up strengthening the military, which is what he is known for. Broke the Arab siege and is said to have protected Europe from being totally taken over by Muslims.
Pope Gregory III
Convened a council in Rome and declared iconoclasm a heresy.
United the empire through Christianity, and most of Western Europe under one government. Responsible for the "Carolingian Renaissance." Crowned Emperor of Rome on Christmas Day in 800 AD.
First king of the Franks. Accepted Catholicism and the Nicene Creed.
Pepin the Short
Drove the Lombards out of Rome, beginning the Carolingian line of kings.
Responsible for the victory in Tours. Defeated the Muslim invaders and became sole ruler.
Yaroslav the Wise
Wrote a code of law like Justinian, and built a copy of the Hagia Sophia. Ruled during the "Golden Age of Russia."
Lost war with the French; was excommunicated. Was forced to sign the Magna Carta.
United the Muslim forces and took Jerusalem in 1184. Involved in (and won) the 3rd Crusade; he refused to give up Jerusalem but did allow pilgrimages.
Richard the Lionheart
King of England who left to fight in the Crusades. He led the 3rd Crusade, which they ultimately lost but worked out an agreement with Saladin.
Ferdinand and Isabella
King and Queen of Spain after the Hundred Years War that unified the country and expelled Muslim Moors
Joan of Arc
peasant girl who led the French army to victory over the English in the Hundred Years War. The English burned her to death as a witch. She was supposedly a "fulfillment of prophecy."
William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy. Invaded England at the Battle of Hastings and won. Extended control through feudal system, conducted a census, and created the Great Council.
Alfred the Great
First king of England. United the Anglo Saxons and defeated the Danish.
Threw off Mongol rule to become the founder of Russia - 1st Czar. Centralized government - became "Third Rome."
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