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process of destroying all microorganisms


the name given to any material that has been subjected to sterilzation


a chemical that destroys bacteria except for those in the endospore stage


agents that prevent the growth of bacteria on tissues or objects in th environment


refers to the use of a physical process or a chemical agent (a disinfectant) to destroy vegetative pathogens but not bacterial endospores


the growth of microorganisms in the blood and other tissues


any practice that prevents the entry of infectious agents into sterile tissues and thus prevents infection


chemical agents are applied directly to exposed body surfaces, wounds, and surgical incisions to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens


chemical agent used in antisepsis


any cleansing technique that mechanically removes microorganisms as well as other debris to reduce contamination to safe levels


process used to reduce the numbers of microbes on the human skin


compounds that lower the surface tension of cell membranes


occurs when the bonds between secondary and tertiarystructure of the protein are broken

thermal death time

the shortest length of tie required to kill all test microbes at a specified temperature

thermal death point

the lowest temperature required to kill all microbes in a sample in 10 minutes


fractional sterilization designed to destroy spores indirectly. A preparation is exposed to slowing stream for an hour, and then the mineral is allowed to incubate to permit spore germination. the resultant vegetative cells are destroyed by repeated steaming and incubation


a technique in which heat is applied to liquids ti kill potential agents of infection and spoilage, while at the same time retaining the liquid's flavor and food value


resistant to the harmful effects of high temperatures


destruction of microbes by subjecting them to extremes of dry heat. Microbes are reduced to ashes and gas by this process


dehydration; to dry thoroughly


a method of preserving microoganisms and other cells in a viable state for many years


energy emitted from atomic activities and dispersed at high velocity through matter or space


bombardment with radiation at the cellular level

ionizing radiation

when the radiation ejects orbital electrons from an atom to cause ions of form

nonionizing radiation

excites atoms by raining them to a higher energy state, but it does not ionize them

cold (or low-temperature) sterilization

the use of nonheating methods such as radiation or filtration to sterilize materials

ultraviolet radiation (UV)

radiation with an effective wavelength from 240 nm to 260 nm. UV radiation induces mutations readily but has very poor penetrating power

pyrimidine dimers

the union of two adjacent pyrimides on the same DNA strand, brought about by exposure to UV light. It is a form of mutation


complexes of iodine and a neutral polymer such as a polyvinylalcohol


a word the pertains to a family of surfactants called quaternary ammonium compounds. These detergents are only weakly microbicidal and are used as sanitizers and preservatives


the property of having antimicrobial effects in exceedingly small amounts

ethylene oxide

a colorless substance that exists as a gas at room temperature

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