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Chapter 11 Vocab

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sterilization
process of destroying all microorganisms
sterile
the name given to any material that has been subjected to sterilzation
bactericide
a chemical that destroys bacteria except for those in the endospore stage
bacteriostatic
agents that prevent the growth of bacteria on tissues or objects in th environment
disinfection
refers to the use of a physical process or a chemical agent (a disinfectant) to destroy vegetative pathogens but not bacterial endospores
sepsis
the growth of microorganisms in the blood and other tissues
asepsis
any practice that prevents the entry of infectious agents into sterile tissues and thus prevents infection
antisepsis
chemical agents are applied directly to exposed body surfaces, wounds, and surgical incisions to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens
antiseptics
chemical agent used in antisepsis
sanitization
any cleansing technique that mechanically removes microorganisms as well as other debris to reduce contamination to safe levels
degermation
process used to reduce the numbers of microbes on the human skin
surfactants
compounds that lower the surface tension of cell membranes
denature
occurs when the bonds between secondary and tertiarystructure of the protein are broken
thermal death time
the shortest length of tie required to kill all test microbes at a specified temperature
thermal death point
the lowest temperature required to kill all microbes in a sample in 10 minutes
tyndallization
fractional sterilization designed to destroy spores indirectly. A preparation is exposed to slowing stream for an hour, and then the mineral is allowed to incubate to permit spore germination. the resultant vegetative cells are destroyed by repeated steaming and incubation
pasteurization
a technique in which heat is applied to liquids ti kill potential agents of infection and spoilage, while at the same time retaining the liquid's flavor and food value
thermoduric
resistant to the harmful effects of high temperatures
incineration
destruction of microbes by subjecting them to extremes of dry heat. Microbes are reduced to ashes and gas by this process
desiccated
dehydration; to dry thoroughly
lyophilization
a method of preserving microoganisms and other cells in a viable state for many years
radiation
energy emitted from atomic activities and dispersed at high velocity through matter or space
irradiation
bombardment with radiation at the cellular level
ionizing radiation
when the radiation ejects orbital electrons from an atom to cause ions of form
nonionizing radiation
excites atoms by raining them to a higher energy state, but it does not ionize them
cold (or low-temperature) sterilization
the use of nonheating methods such as radiation or filtration to sterilize materials
ultraviolet radiation (UV)
radiation with an effective wavelength from 240 nm to 260 nm. UV radiation induces mutations readily but has very poor penetrating power
pyrimidine dimers
the union of two adjacent pyrimides on the same DNA strand, brought about by exposure to UV light. It is a form of mutation
Iodophors
complexes of iodine and a neutral polymer such as a polyvinylalcohol
quarts
a word the pertains to a family of surfactants called quaternary ammonium compounds. These detergents are only weakly microbicidal and are used as sanitizers and preservatives
oligodynamic
the property of having antimicrobial effects in exceedingly small amounts
ethylene oxide
a colorless substance that exists as a gas at room temperature