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RWH Middle East 1991 to present
Terms in this set (32)
President of Iraq from 1979 to 2003. Waged war on Iran in 1980-1988. In 1990 he ordered an invasion of Kuwait but was defeated by United States and its allies in the Gulf War (1991). Defeated by US led invasion in 2003.
War in Iraq
What happened on September 11, 2001?
Members of the terrorist group al Qaeda attacked the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., killing nearly three thousand people.
What reasons did those behind the 9/11 attack give for their actions?
U.S. military presence in Saudi Arabia
U.S. support for Israel
economic sanctions on Iraq as motivations for the attacks.
Why did the United States invade Iraq in 2003?
In 2002, the Bush administration claimed that Iraq had WMD and that the Iraqi government was supporting al Qaeda-thus posing a direct threat to the United States and its allies.
The Bush administration argued that the United States should use its military to promote U.S. values and interests abroad. It claimed that overthrowing Saddam Hussein's regime would bring democracy, capitalism, human rights,
and an end to terrorism.
Which arguments and justifications for the 2003 war in Iraq turned out to be false?
An intensive search for WMD began, but no conclusive evidence of WMD or direct links to al Qaeda were found.
Osama bin Laden, leader of the terrorist group al Qaeda, used his extreme and intolerant
interpretation of Islam to justify attacks against the United States. Some other terrorist organizations also use extremist understandings of Islam to defend their actions.
The majority of Muslims in the United States and around the world strongly disapprove of extremists and are concerned that their religion is wrongly associated with extremist beliefs.
By the summer of 2003, opposition to coalition
forces had grown into an insurgency (military
resistance movement) of local and foreign
groups fighting against the U.S. presence in
Iraq. These groups also fought each other, vying
for power and often targeting civilians.
a! Qaeda in Iraq
a group that developed after the U.S. invasion. (There was no al Qaeda presence in Iraq before the U.S. invasion.)
AQI used violence against U.S. forces and Iraqi Shi'i civilians in an attempt to stoke civil unrest and drive the United States out of Iraq.
AQI's violent tactics concerned many Iraqis, and some Sunni insurgent groups aligned with U.S. forces to fight AQI.
After U.S. forces withdrew from Iraq in 2011, the violent extremist group AQI grew in strength. In 2012, AQI adopted a new name, the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS).
ISIS aims to establish a caliphate (a medieval term for Islamic state) across Iraq and Syria. It follows an extreme and intolerant interpretation of Sunni Islam.
ISIS has used violence and fear to target Shi'i
Muslims and members of other religious
ISIS has also claimed responsibility
for a number of terrorist attacks in Europe, the
Middle East, and the United States.
In some countries, the upheaval of the Arab Spring has led to violence among opposition groups vying for power.
A faction is a group within a larger population, and factional conflicts can arise between different groups.
The Tunisian Revolution, also called the Jasmine Revolution, was an intensive 28-day campaign of civil resistance. It included a series of street demonstrations which took place in Tunisia, and led to the ousting of longtime president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in January 2011. It eventually led to a thorough democratization of the country and to free and democratic elections.
Arab Spring 2011
A series of popular revolts and uprisings, toppling long-serving dictators in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya, that spread throughout the Arab world beginning in 2011. A major component for these swiftly changing events was the accessibility of Internet access and satellite television.
_______ uses politics to promote Islam as a basis for the laws and organization
Movements of ____ _____ have often grown in areas where people have lost trust in their governments.
In general, the United States has regarded political Islam as a threat to U.S. interests because some movements take an anti-U.S. stance.
Bashar al-Assad (Syria)
The 19th and current President of Syria, holding the office since 17 July 2000. He is also commander-in-chief of the Syrian Armed Forces, Regional Secretary of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's branch in Syria.
He remains in power amid a civil war that has engulfed Syria since 2011.
Syrian Civil War, Refugee Crisis
Starts with Arab Spring, In Syria, March, 2011: pro-democracy protest, Syrian security forces fire on protesters, many are killed, more take to the streets July, 2011: Protests all over Syria demanding al Assad's resignation
Sparks Civil War throughout Syria
Estimates today: 450,000-500,000 people killed
Syria and the United States
The United States has become more
directly involved in Syria since 2011, when
the Syrian government responded to the Arab
Spring protests with violence.
In 2012, the United States started offering
arms and training to moderate rebel groups
fighting government forces in Syria's ongoing
Since 2014, the United States has joined other countries attempting to organize peace talks between the al-Assad regime and rebel groups, but the fighting has continued.
Syrian Refugee Crisis
As a result of the war, more than half of
Syria's population has fled their homes, with
millions seeking protection in countries such
as Turkey, Lebanon, and Jordan.
For example, at the end of 2016, Turkey was home to 2.8 million Syrian refugees-more than the rest of the world combined.
In 1981, Hosni Mubarak came to power in Egypt. Mubarak and his secular government ruled Egypt under increasingly authoritarian conditions.
In late January 2011, as part of the Arab Spring uprisings across the region, widespread protests
began in Egypt, involving millions of people.
Protesters demanded political and economic
changes-including Mubarak's resignation.
in February, Mubarak left office and fled
Morsi represented the Muslim Brotherhood, an
Islamic political organization with a long history
in Egypt and widespread public appeal.
Just over a year after his election, massive protests erupted to express dissatisfaction
with the government and economy under Morsi. The military ousted and imprisoned Morsi, suspended the constitution, and called for new elections.
The army and police killed hundreds of pro-Morsi protesters. Tens of thousands of Muslim Brotherhood members were imprisoned, and hundreds were executed without trial.
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
In May 2014, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, who led the army in ousting Morsi, became president in a controversial election.
El-Sisi rebuilt the police state and suppressed all
dissent, with the goal of restoring political stability.
Did the Arab Spring result in a stable, democratic Egyptian state?
No but many Egyptians are concerned about the future of democracy in their country. While the election of President el-Sisi halted many
efforts for political change, the majority of Egyptians still remain hopeful that they and their country are capable of making strides toward a more democratic society.
Ethnic group that lives in parts of Iraq and Turkey. They often suffer persecution in both countries, and are currently under the protection of the United Nations in Iraq.
The 2017 Iraqi-Kurdish conflict
_____________ occurred in and around the Kurdish region of northern Iraq, and began on 15 October 2017, as a result of the Iraqi Kurdistan referendum in 2017 held on September 25.
The diplomatic crisis between the Iraqi Government and the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) escalated into all out conflict when the Peshmerga ignored repeated warnings by Iraqi prime minister Haider al-Abadi to hand over Kirkuk peacefully to Iraqi forces.
The Peshmerga stated they would not take commands from the central Government of Iraq but from the autonomous Kurdish region, this was tantamount to a declaration of rebellion against the state of Iraq.
Beginning with Rome's destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D., the scattering of Jewish people throughout Europe and western Asia.
A policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine.
After WWII, Arabs want independence, Jews want their own state; UN decides on two states; civil war breaks out in 1947; 1948 Jews declare Israel; violence there still continues today
UN Partition of Palestine
After World War II the United Nations agreed to form Israel from the British-controlled mandate of Palestine. Israel was a homeland for Jewish people, and Palestinians were allowed to stay in the Arab areas. The area around Jerusalem was designated as an international zone. In 1967 war erupted when Israel claimed land along the West Bank of the Jordan River and the Gaza strip that bordered Egypt.
A Jewish state on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, both in antiquity and again founded in 1948 after centuries of Jewish diaspora.
1967 Six Day War
fought between June 5-10, 1967, by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt, Jordan and Syria. The outcome was a decisive Israeli victory. At the end, Israel took effective control of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank and east Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria.
West Bank and Gaza Strip
The two main areas where the Palestinians now live after losing most of their lands. Both areas are highly dependent on Israel's economy and the West Bank is walled and is used by Israel to defend against violence and to subdue the Palestinians. Both zones are faced with military action from the Israelis as a punishment for suicide bombings and rocket fire launched from Gaza
Loss of Land: Palestinian People
The Palestinian-Israeli conflict has dragged on for more than 115 years where both claim historic and religious ties to the land. The geopolitical disputed area stretches over a 100,000 square mile landscape, sitting between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River with an unresolved conclusion and far-reaching implications. Over the period of the conflict, Israeli share of land has gradually expanded.
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