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Cell Biology Semester Test Review
Terms in this set (100)
The space surrounding the nucleus of an atom contains
What is the use of radioactive?
Can determine the ages of rocks and fossils
Can be used to treat cancer and kill bacteria that cause food to spoil.
Used as "tracers" to follow the movement of substances within organisms.
What makes up a molecule of water?
2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen
What is a compound?
The physical and chemical properties of a compound are usually very different from those of the elements from which it is formed
What type of electron is available to form bonds
What type of ion forms when an atom loses electrons?
Ice floats on water because
water expands when it freezes
The most abundant compound in most living things is
When salt is dissolved in water, water is the
A substance with ph of 6 is called?
What is a monosaccharide?
What are RNA made of?
When hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water, water is
If a reaction in one direction releases energy, the reaction in the opposite direction
Enzymes affect the reactions in living cells by changing the
Speed of the reaction.
The work of Schleiden and Schwann can be summarized by saying?
All plants and animals are made of cells
What cell structure contains the cell's genetic material and controls many of the cell's activities?
Cells fall into two broad categories, depending on whether they
have a nucleus.
a nucleus, specialized organelles, genetic material.
What is not found in the nucleus?
microtubules and microfilament
Which structure carry out cell movement?
microtubules and microfilaments
Which organelle breaks down compounds into small particles that the cell can use?
Which organelle makes proteins using coded instructions that come from the nucleus?
What organelle converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use?
What is the function of the cell membrane?
regulates the movement of materials into and out of the cell
Diffusion occurs because
molecules constantly move and collide with one another
An animal cell that is surrounded by fresh water will burst because the osmotic pressure causes
water to move into the cell
The cells of multicellular organisms are
specialized to perform particular functions
What organ is the digestive system?
An organ system is a group of organs that
work together to preform a specific function
What is an example of a autotroph?
Energy is released from ATP when
a phosphate group is removed
What is not an example of a heterotroph?
What scientists showed that plants need light to grow?
Priestley and Ingenhousz
What is the overall reaction for photosynthesis?
carbon dioxide, water, light
Most plants appear green because chlorophyll
does not absorb green light
What is a granum?
stack of thylakoids
The light-collecting units of a chloroplast are the
What are the products of the light-dependent reactions?
oxygen gas, ATP, NADPH
What is the beginning of photosynthesis?
pigments in photosystem 2 absorb light
Where does the Calvin cycle take place?
If carbon dioxide is removed from a plant's environment, what would you expect to happen to its production of high-energy sugars?
No sugars will be produced
If you continue to increase the intensity of light that a plant receives, what happens?
The rate of photosynthesis increases and then levels off.
What is not a stage of cellular respiration?
glucose and oxygen
The starting molecule for glycolysis is?
What is the cause of muscle soreness?
lactic acid fermentation
What process is used to produce beer and wine?
The Conversion of pyruvic acid into lactic acid requires
What organism is not likely to carry out cellular respiration?
During one turn, the Krebs cycle produces
electron carriers NADH and FADH2
Cellular respiration uses one molecule of glucose to produce?
36 ATP molecules
Breathing heavily after running a race is your body's way of
repaying an oxygen debt.
What are the sources of energy during exercise?
stored ATP, lactic acid fermentation, and cellular respiration
What does not release energy from glucose?
Photosynthesis is to chloroplasts as cellular respiration is to
Plants cannot release energy from glucose using
As a cell becomes larger, its
volume increases faster than its surface area
What are problems growth causes for cells?
DNA overload, obtaining food, expelling wastes
What is not a way that cell division solves the problems of cell growth?
Cell division increases the mass of the original cell.
When during the cell cycle are chromosomes visible?
only during the M phase.
What pair is correct?
G2, preparation for mitosis
When during the cell cycle is DNA replicated?
Which event occurs during interphase?
During which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up along the middle of the dividing cell?
Which of the following represents the phases of mitosis in their proper sequence?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
What is the role of the spindle during mitosis?
It helps separate the chromosomes
What can stop normal cells from growing?
contact with other cells
Why do normal cells grown in a petri dish stop growing once they have covered the bottom of the dish?
Contact with other cells stop cell growth.
Cyclins are a family of closely related proteins that
regulate the cell cycle
Cancer is a disorder in which some cells have lost the ability to control their
What did Griffith observe when he injected a mixture of heat-killed, disease-causing bacteria and live harmless bacteria into mice?
The mice developed pneumonia.
Which of the following is a nucleotide found in DNA?
DNA replication results in two DNA molecules,
each with one new strand and original strand
During mitosis, the?
DNA molecules become more tightly coiled
Unlike DNA, RNA contains
What type of RNA is involved in protein synthesis?
messenger RNA< ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA
During transcription, an RNA molecule is formed
inside the nucleus
What RNA functions as a blueprint of the genetic code
What are gene mutations?
insertion, deletion, substitution
Gene regulation in eukaryotes
c. allows for cell specialization.
If atom contains 15 protons, it must contain 15 what?
What is a van der Walls force?
the design of a gecko's feet enables it to climb up vertical surfaces.
What does the stomach produce to help digest food?
that absorb energy will not occur without a source of energy
According to the cell theory, new cells are produced from existing?
In a eukaryote, the portion of the cell outside the nucleus is the
During cell division, chromatin condenses to form?
Unlike smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum has ____________________ attached to it.
The cell take in food and water and eliminates wastes through the?
Photosynthesis requires light, water, carbon dioxide, and
If you separate the pigments found in a typical plant cell's chloroplasts, you will find ____________________, orange, and red pigments.
Thylakoids are what color because they contain?
In many plants, the rate of photosynthesis ?
Decreases when the weather becomes very cold.
cellular respiration occurs only in the presence of?
Without oxygen, a cell can extract a net gain of only?
2 molecules of ATP from each glucose molecule.
What accounts for water's properties of adhesion and cohesion?
Ability of water to form multiple hydrogen bonds.
Use the term solvent and solute in describing how to prepare a salt solution.
Salt- solute- to a container of water- the solvent- produce a salt solution.
Distinguish between RNA and DNA.
RNA contains the sugar ribose and DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose
Name two essential roles that enzymes play in cells
Regulate chemical pathways making materials that cells nee, releasing energy
How do prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ?
Prokaryotes- no nucleus
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