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Chemistry Final Study Guide
Terms in this set (39)
Polar molecules have an uneven distribution of charge (dipole).
Nonpolar molecules have a completely symmetric distribution of charge.
Distinguish polar and nonpolar bonds.
Electrostatic interactions between atoms.
A group of atoms bonded together.
Hydrogen does not need added electrons: 8 total electrons around nonmetals.
Drawing Lewis Structures
The 3D arrangement of the atoms in a molecule and it plays an important role in its properties
Molecule or ion that can be represented by 2 or more valid Lewis structures that differ only in the distribution of electrons.
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion - assumes each atom in a molecule will achieve a geometry that minimizes the repulsion between electrons in the valence shell.
VSEPR theory to predict shapes of molecules
Begin with hydro- ic acid.
Write formula for an acid
Finding molar mass
1 mole in numerator when converting g to moles.
1 mole in denominator when converting moles to g.
Converting grams and moles.
Law of Conservation of Mass
The law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes.
Balancing + ions.
Writing and balancing chemical equations.
Know the states of matter symbols used in chemical equations
Synthesis: 2 chemicals combine.
Decomposition: 1 substance breaks down into 2 substances.
Single replacement: 1 element replaces another in a compound.
Double replacement: positive ion in 1 compound replaces the positive ion of another. (Precipitation + neutralization)
Types of reactions.
Salt and water.
What compounds are formed when an acid reacts with a base?
Compare coefficients in a chemical reaction.
Determine mole ratios. (+ for two substances)
Units of molar mass.
Mole to mole conversion.
First product used up, reaction stops after use.
In a chemical reaction, the maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant.
actual yield/theoretical yield x 100
The gas becomes cool, losing kinetic energy. The particles begin to move slowly, forming liquid.
According to the kinetic theory, what allows gases to condense into liquids?
Solid: low energy, particles vibrate - packed together w/ little movement (strong forces)
Liquid: more energy + space between particles than solids, less than gases.
Gas: high energy, particles constantly moving - large spaces between (weak forces)
Explain what states of matter the kinetic theory explain the behavior of.
The process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, spreading.
A process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening.
If the pressure increases, the temperature will rise and volume will decrease.
If the pressure on a gas is increased through compression what happens to the temperature and volume?
As the temperature increases, the air pressure increases.
Why does the air pressure inside a tire increase when the car is driven?
The particles are closer together in a liquid, making it less compressible.
How does compression of a liquid compare to compression of a gas?
The force exerted on a surface by the air above as gravity pull it to earth.
Commonly measured with a barometer.
What produces air pressure?
0 degrees C
101.3 kPa or 1 atm.
Three gases are producing pressure on a container. If you know the pressure exerted by two of the gases and the total pressure how do you determine the pressure of the third gas?
Determine the solute-solvent combination of a solution.
Acid and base tastes.
It increases the amount of solute able to be dissolved into the solvent.
How does an increase in temperature affect solubility?
Determine molarity when given volume and moles.
Common compound that can act as an acid or a base.
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