Upgrade to remove ads
The Renaissance part 1
Terms in this set (28)
What was the Renaissance?
A cultural movement where people questioned accepted ideas and truths, searched for evidence, experimented with new ideas. There was a rebirth of learning and changed the way people lived their lives.
What invention helped spread new ideas and when was it invented?
The printing press, invented in 1451
How did Renaissance artists help progress in medicine?
A new desire to show the human form in more realistic detail led artists to study the body more carefully
Explain 2 other consequences of the Renaissance that led to progress in medicine
1. New inventions such as gunpowder meant that soldiers got new types of wounds, therefore doctors had to find new ways of treating these wounds
2. The discovery of new lands meant new foods and medicines could be taken back from the 'new world'
3. A new scientific approach to learning developed, this involved hypothesis (coming up with theories) observation and experiment.
What was unusual about the work of Vesalius (1514-1564)?
He did the dissections of the human body himself rather than leaving it to an assistant
What did Vesalius's dissections reveal about the work of Galen?
It revealed many mistakes in Galen's writing, as Galen's ideas had been based on animal dissections.
How did Vesalius spread his ideas?
Through his illustrated textbook 'The Fabric of the Human Body' published in 1543
How did Vesalius influence medicine in England?
An Italian printer Thomas Geminus published 'Compendiosa' which copied all of Vesalius's illustrations. This book was sold to barber surgeons in London as a manual to learn their trade. This was very popular and three editions were published between 1545 and 1559.
What was Vesalius's contribution to medical progress?
His work overturned centuries of belief in Galen's ideas on anatomy. Although Vesalius did not come up with any new cures, it was the basis for better treatments in the future.
In the book 'of wounds in general' (1525) How were gunshot wounds supposed to be treated and why?
It was believed that they were poisonous so should be burned using boiling oil. This was incredibly painful.
Explain how Ambroise Pare (1510-1590) revolutionised the treatment of gunshot wounds
During a French battle of 1537, he ran out of hot oil so improvised by making a balm of rose oil, egg white and turpentine. He smeared this on the wound. His patients slept well and the wounds healed. He wrote a book about his findings in 1545.
Whose work did Pare revive through his work with ligatures?
Pare revived an old method to stop bleeding, by tying ligatures around individual blood vessels, recommended by Galen.
What other inventions did Pare develop to help wounded soldiers?
A 'crow's beak' clamp to halt the bleeding while the blood vessel was being tied by a ligature. He also designed false limbs for amputees.
What was Pare's contribution to medical progress in England?
He admired the work of Vesalius and published a book called 'Works on Surgery' which was widely read in England in the original French language. Many English surgeons such as William Clowes, (surgeon to Queen Elizabeth I) followed Pare's ideas.
According to Galen, where was new blood made?
In the liver
When did William Harvey start to explore ideas about blood circulation?
Describe some of Harvey's experiments with blood circulation
He studied human hearts and the hearts of animals. He tried to pump liquid the wrong way through valves in the veins, proving that blood could only go one way around and worked out, using mathematics, exactly how much blood would have to be produced if Galen's ideas were right.
How long did it take Harvey to publish his work 'De Motu Cordis' and in what ways were there problems with his work?
It took him 12 years (1628). He did not know why blood circulated, he could not explain why blood in the arteries was a different colour to blood in the veins. He also knew that if his theories were correct, he would be challenging the accepted theories of the four humours.
What were the reactions to Harvey's work?
His critics thought he was mad, some ignored him. Some criticised him for challenging Galen's ideas. French anatomist Jean Riolan called Harvey a 'quack'.
How long did it take for Harvey's ideas to be accepted?
Many doctors accepted his ideas within his lifetime but it took another 50 years before his ideas were taught at the University of Paris.
Why was Harvey's discovery not immediately useful?
Blood transfusions would not be possible until 1901 with the understanding of blood groups.
Why is Harvey's work so significant?
Understanding circulation of the blood is vital to understanding illness. Blood tests, blood transfusions and heart transplants would not unless circulation was understood.
What did the quality of treatments given to ordinary people depend upon in the 16th and 17th centuries?
How much money they had
Where could ordinary people get medical advice from during the 1500 and 1600s?
Barber surgeons, apothecaries, wise women and quacks
What was 'Scrofula'?
A disease, sometimes known as the 'king's evil'. People believe that the monarch could cure this disease if he touched the victim.
Which medieval treatments were still being used in the 1600s?
Bloodletting. King Charles II had 10 ounces of blood taken from him 3 days before he died in 1685.
What did explorers bring back with them from the 'New World'?
The bark from a tree in south America contained quinine which could be used to treat malaria. Opium was brought back from Turkey and used as an anaesthetic. Lemons and limes were used to treat scurvy in 1617.
'The English doctor Thomas Sydenham (1624-1689) was both innovative and traditional' why is this statement true?
He was critical of bloodletting and used careful observation of symptoms. But he also criticised the work of Harvey and still used bleeding methods as a treatment
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
the civil rights movement in the 1960s
Roosevelt's New Deal
How did the Cold War develop in the years 1949-195…
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Medicine and Treatment: History GCSE, GCSE History…
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
4TH DECLENSION- FRUCTUS, CORNU
3rd declension- REX, NAVIS, NOMEN
2nd declension- LUPUS, DONUM
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
The Renaissance (Trap.)
Final Review - Part II