60 terms

AP US History Hot Topics

The top 60 most often asked topics on APUSH national exam. Information taken from: Barron's AP US History 5 Steps to a 5: US History Sparknotes Guide to AP US History Out of Many, AP Edition (5th)
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Puritan motive
- Build a "city on a hill"
- provide a model for idealistic society
- religious freedoms from England
Motive of settling Virginia
- paid for by Virginia Company
- wanted profit
- mercantilism in England
First Great Awakening
- led by charismatic ministers in 1730
- made religion more emotional, less cerebral
- "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" sermon by Puritan minister Jonathan Edwards
Deism
- 1700 religious revolution which moved away from religious doctrines
- God is a distant entity
- No Godly intervention in daily affairs
Albany Congress, 1754
- led by Benjamin Franklin
- first meeting of all colonies to debate unification
- Franklin's union plan, Albany Plan, rejected
Legal rights of women
-no suffrage under practically every circumstance
-couldn't own land in most cases
-were subordinate to men as caretakers, mothers, and housekeepers
Stamp Act / Stamp Congress
- tax on paper used for various documents
- included recreation like playing cards
- sparked most uproar and opposition of any British tax
Slavery in pre-independence times
- unregulated slave trade (no limits)
- molasses, rum, slaves / Triangular Slave Trade
- slaves were responsible for majority of labor in southern economy
Indentured servants
- extraordinarily popular prior to massive influx of slaves
- workers receive free ride to America and housing once there
- in exchange for house/ride, they work unpaid for 5-10 years
Proclamation of 1763
- created a line through Appalachian mountains
- colonists could not settle any further west
- land from Appalachia to Mississippi was "Indian Reserve"
Articles of Confederation
- first written form of government for newly freed colonies
- created a "firm league of friendship" between states
- heavily favored state government, making federal government useless (no taxing, or federal laws without nullification)
Bill of Rights
- 1st 10 amendments to the Constitution
- protected individual liberties not specified in Constitution
- gave states powers not specifically assigned to federal government
Hamilton's economic plans
- national bank, 20% publicly 80% privately held
- federal government repays all war debts in full
- high tariffs to encourage American industry and discourage British/French/Spanish imports
Shays' Rebellion
- farmers revolt 1786-1787
- many lost farms because couldn't pay debts in gold/silver
- freed debtors prisons, burnt down city halls and courts
XYZ affair
- France was upset by alliances with Britain and seized US ships
- US tried to negotiate with France, French agents bribed US agents
- French agents X, Y and Z wanted $250,000 and a $12M loan
Marbury v. Madison
- Marbury, an Adams midnight judge, wanted his position/paycheck
- said his appointment was unconstitutional
- Chief Justice Marshall established Supreme Court power of judicial review
Louisiana Purchase
- Louisiana territory purchased by Jefferson from France
- not constitutional, but Jefferson wanted land and France needed $
- Jefferson only intended on buying New Orleans for a western port
Hartford Convention
- group of Federalists meeting in opposition to War of 1812
- merchants saw large amount of trade with Britain stop
- passed a resolution requiring a 2/3 vote in Congress for declaration of war in the future
Eli Whitney
- 1793 Eli Whitney invents cotton gin
- helps satisfy the massive demand for cotton/make slaves efficient
- also invented interchangeable parts for rifle
Henry Clay's "American System"
- high tariffs on imports (20%-25%)
- provide federal funding for internal improvements
- support and maintain Bank of the United States
Monroe Doctrine
- done to limit European influence on Western Hemisphere
- said European countries must be "hands off" of America
- became cornerstone of US isolationist foreign policy
Andrew Jackson
- Indian removal, supported westward expansion
- loses VP Calhoun in Nullification Crisis with South Carolina
- vetoed Congress more times than any other president, tried to eliminate United States Bank
Trail of Tears
- 1838 removal of Native Americans from Georgia into the west
- showed President Jackson's support for state's rights
- led to the death of thousands of innocent Native Americans (too grueling of a journey on foot)
Nullification/Calhoun/Tariff of Abominations
- South Carolina tried to nullify federal laws, Jackson wouldn't allow it
- Jackson passes Tariff of 1828 (Abominations) harshly limiting trade
- South Carolina, with Jackson's VP, Calhoun, tries to secede from US, Jackson sends military to stop them
Transcendentalists
- an intellectual movement criticizing new US materialistic lifestyle
- focus on nature, and finding meaning and self reliance
- primarily led by authors Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson
- transcendentalist leader who encouraged self reliance
- published essays "Nature" (1836) "On Self Reliance" (1841)
- Speech "The American Scholar" considered the Intellectual Declaration of Independence
William Lloyd Garrison
- published "The Liberator" and abolitionist publication
- leader of the movement for immediate, uncompensated abolition
- said that blacks were equal, and entitled to freedom and equal rights
Harriet Tubman
- escaped slave
- started the Underground railroad, a system for escaping slaves
- called the "Conductor", helped hundreds of slaves escape
Dred Scott v. Sanford
- 1857 Supreme Court case: slaves are not citizens
- slaves are property, Missouri Compromise is dead
- said since Scott was property, case shouldn't have even been brought to court
Popular Sovereignty
- measure proposed by Sen. Lewis Cass on slavery in new territories
- allowed residents of a territory to vote on yes/no for slavery
- Congress didn't approve, but it became a bigger idea in 1850s
Kansas-Nebraska Act
- 1854 legislation by Sen. Stephen Douglas on organizing territories
- took Louisiana Purchase land and split into Kansas and Nebraska
- unpopular with North, as it allowed possibility of slavery, therefore completely repealing Missouri Compromise
Douglas's Freeport Doctrine
- statement by Stephen Douglas at 2nd Lincoln-Douglas debate
- used by Lincoln to prove Douglas was a hypocrite
- when asked whether he believed in popular sovereignty or Dred Scott decision, he compromised, favoring popular sovereignty
Causes of Civil War
- maintain the Union, under Lincoln
- stop expansion of slavery
- eventually, with Emancipation Proclamation, to end slavery
Emancipation Proclamation
- 1863 decree by Lincoln that all slaves in Confederacy were free
- not effective, simply symbolic
- made North the moral side of the war
Radical Reconstruction
- Johnson, Lincoln's VP, now president, proposes plan
- Johnson almost thrown out of office for obstructing reconstruction
- Eventually radical republicans used 2/3 majority to pass legislation and override vetoes for an effective reconstruction plan
Compromise of 1877
- 1876 Pres. election Samuel Tilden (D) vs. Rutherford Hayes (R)
- Tilden wins popular vote, Rutherford supposedly wins electoral vote
- no winner clear, compromise makes Hayes the President, but Republicans will end Reconstruction
Knights of Labor
- first major labor union to survive through economic turmoil
- included all workers to join: skilled, unskilled, blacks, women
- ended after wrongfully associated with Haymarket Square Bombing in Chicago, 1886
Dawes Act
- 1887 legislation to assimilate stranded Native Americans
- not wanted by the Native Americans, killed their tribal identity
- eliminated by Indian Reorganization Act (1934) as it was discriminatory and hurtful for Native Americans
Social Gospel
- Protestant Christian movement around 1900
- applied Protestant Christian logic to social issues in US
- tried to aid poverty, alcoholism, equality, and poor working conditions
Populists
- political party and movement led by disadvantaged farmers
- William Jennings Bryan and "Cross of Gold" speech
- fought for elimination of gold standard, unlimited silver coinage, graduated income tax, government regulation of major industry
Yellow Press
- started by William Randolph Heart's New York Journal stories
- often highly exaggerated, encouraging impulsive American action
- led US into Spanish American war with "Remember the Maine", firing up citizens
"New Immigration"
- immigration jumped in Gilded Age, post Civil War
- mainly immigrants from South, East and Southeast Europe
- result of poor European economic conditions
Open Door Policy
- European countries began claiming ports in China
- US did not have a port, and China had huge economic opportunity
- says China is open to trade with the United States
DuBois & Booker T. Washington
- W.E.B. DuBois wanted equality and full integration
- Booker T. Washington pushed for blacks to find economic purpose
- differed in that DuBois saw all as a equal, and Washington knew blacks were lesser at the time, and wanted them to fit it
Muckrakers
- term coined by T. Roosevelt for investigative journalism on business
- showed political and social injustices in big business and politics
- led by Sinclair Lewis, Mother Jones, Jacob Riis, and more
Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare
- U-boat campaign by Germany in relentlessly attacking Britain
- led to the US involvement in WWI, along with Zimmerman Telegraph
- sunk approximately 178 boats, and killed about 5000 in opposition Navy
Wilson's 14 Points
- 1918 plan by Wilson as a plan for restructuring post-WWI world
- ideas rejected by European powers except for the League of Nations
- plan included freedom of seas, removal of trade barriers, self-determination for Europeans, and international organization
Bonus Army
- 1932 organization of WWI veterans in Washington DC
- result of Hoover's inaction during economic turmoil in US
- WWI veterans demanded their bonuses be paid immediately, even though they were due in 1945
100 Day Congress, New Deal
- passed recovery legislation, more than ever in history
- restricted more rights, and gave government more power than ever
- GSA, NIRA, AAA, TVA, FERA, CCC, SEC all legislation passed in first 100 days of FDR presidency
Civilian Conservation Corps
- FDR agency created in first 100 days
- provided/created outdoor work for 2.75M 18-24 year old men
- projects included soil conservation, flood control, trail/road building, and forest projects
Cuban Missile Crisis
- 1962 event when US U2 spy planes saw Cuba was getting missiles
- Missiles were from USSR, US ordered them to stop sending them
- ended in 13 days after USSR stopped missiles in Cuba, and US stopped missiles in Turkey, and stopped Cuba interference
Brown v. Board of Education
- ordered immediate desegregation of schools and other public places
- overturned "separate but equal" in Plessy v. Ferguson
- major turning point in civil rights movement
Sputnik
- 1957 launching of Soviet sattelite into space
- led to space race and education movement in US
- government called for more and better technological and science education, from high school to graduate school
Sit-Ins
- form of civil disobedience by African Americans for civil rights
- African Americans sat at white-only counters and areas
- refused service or moving, when one group left, another would sit down, hurting business and making a point
Civil Rights Act of 1964
- most meaningful legislation to end Jim Crow in the South
- passed by LBJ to end discrimination by race or sex
- guaranteed equal opportunity with employment, public education, public services and voting
Malcolm "X"
- leader of Nation of Islam, member from 1952-1964
- fought for black separatism, and supremacy for blacks and islam
- assassinated by Nation of Islam after changing opinion on black separatism
Gulf of Tonkin incident
- said that American destroyers were attacked in Gulf of Tonkin
- Congress passed Gulf of Tonkin resolution, escalating confict
- unofficially started Vietnam War, allowed LBJ to have a "blank check" in doing whatever he wanted in Vietnam
Watergate
- scandal regarding spying on Democrats led by Richard Nixon
- 5 men were caught breaking in to Democratic HQ at DCCC
- Nixon used executive privilege to not turn over evidence, supreme court made him, he deleted some, then resigned
Tet Offensive
- Vietcong and N. Vietnamese offensive against US
- began on Tet, lunar calendar new year, everyone was celebrating
- 1600 dead US, 40000 dead Vietcong, and while US stopped the attack, it showed that Vietcong could organize large attacks
Camp David Accords
- 1978 meeting of Middle East leaders organized by Carter
- Egypt, Israel and US met at presidential retreat Camp David
- after 13 days of meetings, the three had arranged a peace treaty, which worked, but tensions were still high