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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
AP US History Exam Review Key Terms
From back of chapters 1-30 in Kaplan AP US History 2010
Terms in this set (690)
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
..., Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
..., a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Treaty of Tordesillas
..., Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
..., Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them.
..., Joint-stock company chartered by King James I of England; established the first permanent English colony in America at Jamestown in 1607.
..., in Calvinist doctrine, those who have been chosen by God for salvation.
..., a grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
..., Puritan Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, envisioned colony as a "city upon a hill"
..., She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
..., He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
..., married Pocahontas and started the planting of tobacco in Jamestown
..., 1694- He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.
Sir William Berkeley
..., the royal governor of Virginia. Adopted policies that favored large planters and neglected the needs of recent settlers in the 'backcountry.' His shortcomings led to Bacon's Rebellion
..., Planter who led a rebellion in 1676 against the governor of the Virginia Colony
William and Mary
..., King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.
The Church of England
..., Also known as the Anglican Church, this Church was founded by 1534 by King Henry VIII, The king sought to divorce his first wife Catherine of Aragon however Pope Clement VII refused to dissolve the marriage. Enraged the King broke away from the Roman Catholic Church.
..., Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
New England Confederation
..., 1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.
..., People who wanted to have a separate, or different church than the church of England. Also known as Pilgrims.
..., English Puritans who founded Plymouth colony in 1620
..., This is another name for the Puritans who arrived in New England in 1629 due to oppression and persecution by the English Crown. While in England, these Puritans believed they must remain within the Church of England to reform it.
..., English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
..., when more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic hard times
an attempt by the Religious Society of Friends or (Quakers) to establish a community for themselves in Pennsylvania. They hoped it would show to the world how well they could function on their own without any persecution or dissension.
..., A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attempt to gain more land
an uprising of most of the Pueblo Indians against the Spanish settlers in the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, present day New Mexico.
..., This was the "revolution" that replaced James II with William and Mary that also recognized the supremacy of the Parliament with minimum bloodshed
..., 1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
..., Used by Puritan Churches to bolster attendance but also keep political leadership under the control respectable families. Conversion needed but not "regeneration" to be a member of the congregation.
Dominion of New England
..., 1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
Act of Toleration
The Act allowed freedom of worship to Nonconformists who had pledged to the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy and rejected transubstantiation, i.e., Protestants who dissented from the Church of England such as Baptists and Congregationalists but not to Catholics. Nonconformists were allowed their own places of worship and their own teachers, if they accepted certain oaths of allegiance.
..., document which established a regime democratically controlled by the substantial citizens of Hartford
..., Idea spread by Anne Hutchinson, considered high heresy. Those who believed they were truly saved, did not believe they had to obey the law
The division of the land into smaller units under private ownership
..., Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
..., Colonies in which the proprietors (who had obtained their patents from the king) named the governors, subject to the king's approval.
..., Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
..., American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)
..., Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."
New Light Preachers
..., These preachers crisscrossed the colonies speaking to large crowds about the "fire and brimstone" eternity all sinners would face if they did not absolve their sins publicly. These preachers sought to undermine the power and prestige of "Old Light" ministers by proclaiming that ordinary people could understand the gospel of the Lord without the leadership of a man of the cloth.
..., A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
The Great Awakening
..., religious revival in the 1730-40s, helped by Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield; inspired controversy over emotionalism/revivalism versus traditionalist Protestantism, nevertheless united the Americans as a people
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
Jonathan Edward's sermon
..., the act or process or arranging persons into classes or social strata
..., an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
..., Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
..., English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
..., English statesman who brought the Seven Years' War to an end (1708-1778)
Stamp Act Congress
..., A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
..., Organizations that led protests, helped American soldiers, instated a boycott, and generally resisted the British.
The French and Indian War
..., (1754-1763) was the North American chapter of the Seven Years' War. The name refers to the two main enemies of the British: the royal French forces and the various American Indian forces allied with them. The conflict, the fourth such colonial war between the kingdoms of France and Great Britain, resulted in the British conquest of all of New France east of the Mississippi River, as well as Spanish Florida.
..., 1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
..., The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans
Boston Tea Party
..., demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
The Albany Plan of Union
..., Ben Franklin's plan to unite the colonists (and Iroquois) and create a defense against the French
Peace of Paris
The Peace of Paris (1783) was the set of treaties which ended the American Revolutionary War.
Proclamation of 1763
..., A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
..., In 1764 this act was meant to tighten enforcement of English customs by reducing the tax on molasses and increasing enforcement it was meant to raise revenue, and marked the end of Salutary Neglect
..., an act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists
..., an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
..., Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
..., A tax that the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint and tea
Massachusetts Circular Letter
..., A letter written in Boston and circulated through the colonies in February, 1768, which urged the colonies not to import goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. Boston, New York, and Philadelphia agreed to non-importation. It was followed by the Virginia Circular Letter in May, 1768. Parliament ordered all colonial legislatures which did not rescind the circular letters dissolved.
..., Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party
..., This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.
..., Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.
..., in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
..., An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
writs of assistance
..., legal document that enabled officers to search homes and warehouses for goods that might be smuggled
As the author of two highly influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution, he inspired the Patriots in 1776 to declare independence from Britain.
..., Head of Shay's Rebellion; he and several other angry farmers violently protested against debtor's jail; eventually crushed; aided in the creation of constitution because land owners now wanted to preserve what was theirs from "mobocracy"
..., 4th President of the United States
..., United States statesman and leader of the Federalists
..., 3rd President of the United States
First Continental Congress
..., Delagates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain and to promote independence
..., Colonists who wanted independence from Britain
..., American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
..., a person who supported the British cause in the American Revolution; a loyalist
Battle of Saratoga
..., a battle during the American Revolution (1777)
..., this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
..., the convention of United States statesmen who drafted the United States Constitution in 1787
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
..., created by delegates from nine colonies, set forth view of British power in colonies. Parliament didn't have right to tax colonists without their legislative consent and demanded repeal of Stamp and Sugar Acts
Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Arms
..., A declaration by the representatives of the united colonies of North America, now met in Congress at Philadelphia, setting forth the causes and necessity of their taking up arms." Our cause is just, our union is perfect"
Olive Branch Petition
..., On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
..., a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Declaration of Independence
..., the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Treaty of Paris
..., This treaty ended the Seven Years War
Articles of Confederation
..., a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states
Land Ordinance of 1785
..., A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
..., Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery
..., a place where arms are manufactured
..., organized opposition to authority
..., 4th President of the United States
..., America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
..., 3rd President of the United States
..., Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations
House of Representatives
the lower legislative house of the United States Congress
..., assembly possessing high legislative powers
..., the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
..., Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
..., people who opposed the Constitution
Bank of the United States
..., Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.
..., Founded by Thomas Jefferson, the Democratic Republicans favored states rights and opposed the Federalist Party. The victory of the Democratic Republicans marked the first party overturn in American history.
the french revolution
..., In 1789, the French Revolution was where the French people rebelled against their King to overthrow him. Afterwards, a republic was started, where revolutionists began to controversially cut the heads off of nobles. The Republican party was formed because of the French Revolution, and brought much inspiration to the U.S. at first. However, this didn't last long, as Federalists became afraid of the possibility of such extremes that were shown in France.
..., Referred to as Washington's Farewell Address. Its main points included: assuming leadership in the Western Hemisphere, developing its own trade, and not entering into permanent alliances with foreign nations, especially with Europe.
..., In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
..., An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
the convention of 1800
..., the two sides finally came to a agreement that annulled the 1778 treaty of alliance and excused the French from damage claims of American ships. Kept from going to war and dividing nation.
Lewis and Clark
..., Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.
..., Created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court
Tecumseh and the Prophet
..., People feared that the British in Canada would recruit Indians to halt the march of American settlement. A Shawnee chief, Tecumseh and his half-brother the Prophet, sought to unite several tribes in Ohio and the Indiana territory against American settlers. They tried to unify their people and revive traditional virtues.
..., The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
..., New England's merchants opposed the War of 1812 because it cut off trade with Great Britain. Critics of the war were mainly Federalists who represented New England. The Essex Junto was a group of extreme Federalists led by Aaron Burr who advocated New England's secession from the U.S.
..., scheme by Vice-President Aaron Burr to lead the succession of the Louisiana Territory from the US and create his own empire. He was captured in 1807 and charged with treason. Because there was no evidence or two witnesses he was acquitted. Marshall upholds the strict rules for trying someone for treason.
..., This war, fought between1801, and 1805, started when Barbary pirates in North Africa seized US ships traveling in the Mediterranean. Presidents Washington and Adams had paid North African nations a "protection fee" to reduce the number of times US ships would be seized. Once Thomas Jefferson took office, the leader of Tripoli demanded more money. Jefferson refused, sending navel ships to stop the pirates, resulting in a four-year fight. The force was able to put a dent in the work of the pirates and gained the US credibility overseas.
..., (1796-1815) Wars between Napoleon and the rest of Europe which helped spread the ideas of the French Revolution. 
Battle of Tippecanoe
..., 1811 Tecumseh and the Prophet attack, but General Harrison crushes them in this battle ends Tecumseh's attempt to unite all tribes in Mississippi.
Battle of New Orleans
..., Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.
The Hartford Convention
New England Federalists met to discuss their grievances concerning the ongoing War of 1812 and the political problems arising from the federal government's increasing power. Despite radical outcries among Federalists for New England secession and a separate peace with Great Britain, moderates outnumbered them and extreme proposals were not a major focus of the debate.
..., agreement between the united states and spain that changed floridas border and made it easier for american ships to use the port of new orleans
Judiciary Act of 1801
..., a law that increased the number of federal judges, allowing President John Adams to fill most of the new posts with Federalists
..., Beginning in 1804, electors would vote separately for President and Vice President, 1806-issued by Napoleon, instituted the Continental System, in the response to British blockade of commercial ports under French control.
..., 1806-issued by Napoleon, instituted the Continental System, in the response to British blockade of commercial ports under French control.
Orders in Council
..., British laws which led to the War of 1812. Orders-in-council passed in 1807 permitted the impressment of sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports from which Britain was excluded unless they first went to Britain and traded for British goods.
..., in 1807 which proclaimed that any vessel that submitted to British regulation or allowed itself to be searched by the Royal Navy was subject to seizure by France.
..., signed by Thomas Jefferson in 1807 - stop export of all American goods and American ships from sailing for foreign ports
Non-Intercourse Act of 1809
..., reopened trade with all nations except Britain and France
Macon's Bill Number 2
..., 1810 This bill sought to lift trade restrictions against Britain or France but only after those nations agreed to honor US neutrality.
The Star-Spangled Banner
..., The national anthem of the United States written by Francis Scott Key, inspired by the battle of Fort McHenry
Treaty of Ghent
..., December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
..., The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
writ of mandamus
..., an extraordinary writ commanding an official to perform a ministerial act that the law recognizes as an absolute duty and not a matter for the official's discretion
..., review by a court of law of actions of a government official or entity or of some other legally appointed person or body or the review by an appellate court of the decision of a trial court
..., a formal document charging a public official with misconduct in office
..., devoted to a cause or party
..., formal separation from an alliance or federation
..., a former political party in the United States
..., Group of prejudice people who formed a political party during the time when the KKK grew. Anti-Catholics and anti-foreign. They were also known as the American Party.
Era of Good Feeling
..., the period from 1817 to 1823 in which the disappearance of the federalists enabled the Republicans to govern in a spirit of seemingly nonpartisan harmony.
Panic of 1819
The Panic of 1819 was the first major peacetime financial crisis in the United States  followed by a general collapse of the American economy persisting through 1821. The Panic announced the transition of the nation from its colonial commercial status with Europe
Tariff of 1816
is notable as the first tariff passed by Congress with an explicit function of protecting U.S. manufactured items from foreign competition. Prior to the War of 1812, tariffs had primarily served to raise revenues to operate the national government. Another unique aspect of the tariff was the strong support it received from Southern states.
..., This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.
..., an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
..., 1817; The US and British agreed to set limits on the number of naval vessels each could have on the Great Lakes.
The Adams-Onis Treaty
..., Got Florida for the USA after the Seminole War. Spain ceded all of Florida to the USA and gave up its claim to the territory north of the 42nd parallel in the Pacific Northwest. In return, the American government gave up Texas.
The Monroe Doctrine
..., Primarily the work of JQAdams, said the the USA would consider any foreign challenge to the sovereignty of existing American nations an unfriendly act. No European colonization in the Americas
..., an artificial waterway connecting the Hudson river at Albany with Lake Erie at Buffalo
..., an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.