Modern Biology Chapter 9
Terms in this set (31)
The field of biology devoted to understanding how characteristics are transmitted from parents to offspring.
The transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring.
A genetically determined variant of a characteristic, such as yellow flower color.
Occurs when pollen grains produced in the anthers, are transferred to the female reproductive part of a flower, called the stigma.
Occurs when pollen is transferred from the anthers of a flower to the stigma of either that flower or another flower on the SAME plant.
Pollination that occurs between flowers of two plants.
Pure for a trait that always produces offspring with that trait when they self-pollinate.
The true breeding parent generation in Mendel's experiment.
First filial generation; the offspring of the P generation by cross-pollination in Mendel's experiment.
Second filial generation; the offspring of the F1 generation by self-pollination in Mendel's experiment.
Masks the factor for another trait in a pair of traits; represented by capital letters
The trait that sometimes has no observable effect on an organism's appearance (represented by lowercase letters)
law of segregation
States that a pair of factors is segregated, or separated, during the formation of gametes.
law of independent assortment
States that factors separate independently of one another during the formation of gametes.
The study of the structure and function of chromosomes and genes.
Each of two or more alternative forms of a gene.
An organism's genetic makeup (the alleles or letters)
an organism's genetic makeup; the alleles or letters (e.g. BB, Bb, and bb)
When both alleles of a pair are alike (e.g. BB and bb)
When the two alleles in a pair are different (e.g. Bb)
The likelihood that a specific event will occur.
a cross in which only one characteristic is tracked (e.g. only look at eye color); the Punnet square is 2 x 2
diagram used to aid biologists in predicting the probable distribution of inherited traits in the offspring; the parent alleles go on the outside and offspring inside
The ratio of the genotypes that appear in offspring.
The ratio of the offspring's phenotypes.
A cross in which an individual of unknown genotype is crossed with a homozygous recessive individual.
A relationship in which one allele is completely dominant over the other.
neither allele is completely dominant over the other (e.g. when a red and white flower make a pink flower)
When both alleles for a gene are expressed in heterozygous offspring.
A cross in which two characteristics are tracked (e.g. eye color and hair color); the Punnet square is 4 by 4
A monk who studied heredity in garden peas. He used statistics to discover dominant and recessive traits, the law of segregation, and the law of independent assortment.