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Terms in this set (121)
Match the following non-listening habits with their definitions
Pretending to listen: pseudo-listening
Choosing to listen to parts of a message you think are important: Selective listening
Turning an informative message into a personal attack: Defensive listening
Match the type of listening with its definition
Comprehensive: Listening to try and understand a message
Critical: Listening to evaluate a message
Appreciative: Listening for pleasure or enjoyment
Empathetic: Listening to provide emotional support
Match the descriptions with the appropriate terms
Listening: Active; Complex Process (6 Steps)
Hearing: Passive; Sound-waves hit eardrums
This is a communication technique that emphasizes concentrating on, responding to, and remembering a speaker's message
Place the following steps for listening in the correct order
Mindfulness, receiving, organizing, interpreting, responding, remembering
Why should a speaker check the credibility of a source before utilizing citations found on the internet?
Because the dependability and quality of sources on the internet vary greatly, and one can find things on the internet which say anything
You should always cite a source whenever you make a claim that is beyond the scope of "common knowledge."
Match the description with the appropriate concept
Research and the analysis is done by the author themselves. - Primary Sources
Reports on the research and analysis done by another author. - Secondary Sources
Do a quick check of the publication and compare your source against other sources. - Identifying Bias
______ is testimony that is presented word for word. _____ is testimony restating or summarizing a source's ideas in one's own words.
The only difference between quoting and paraphrasing is that you cite a source when you quote, but you do not cite a source when you paraphrase.
What is paralanguage?
The meaning found in things "outside of" words themselves
Vocalics is a nonverbal type of communication that refers to the tone of a person's voice. Match the following properties to vocal tone with their definitions.
Pronunciation: The sound a speaker chooses to verbalize words (Ex. tow-may-tow versus tow-mah-tow).
Pitch: How high or low the tone of the speaker is.
Rate: The speed in which the speaker talks.
Volume: How loud a speaker talks.
Articulation: How clearly a speaker says words.
What are the ways the text suggests you improve fluency when speaking?
Use pauses to your advantage.
Slow the rate of your speaking.
Replace "uh" and "um" with "and" or "but."
Why is vocalics important?
Because it can reinforce the message of your speech.
Because it can add meaning to your message.
Why is it a good idea to warming up your voice before giving a speech?
Get your tongue ready to enunciate quickly
Get vocal chords moving
Builds confidence by forcing tongue twisters
Non-verbal communication is synonymous with "body language".
What should you do with your hands when speaking to an audience?
Keep them relaxed and down by your sides. Only use deliberate gestures occasionally.
What chemical is released into the body when a person is feels fear or stress?
No matter how your heart is grieving, if you keep on believing, the dream that you wish will come true - Cinderella
Love is putting someone else's needs before yours. - Frozen
The flower that blooms in adversity is the most rare and beautiful of them all. - Mulan
What are the other common policy criteria?
Risk analysis and Utilitarianism.
What is meant by Terminal Value?
An outcome that is good in and of itself
What are Criteria?
Criteria are what judges ought to use in order to determine who wins a debate.
What is meant by instrumental value?
A value that creates desired outcomes.
Policy Criteria often comes from economic schools of thought. What is the net-benefits school of thought?
criterion of net-benefits simply calculates the benefits, or advantages, of a plan and subtracts the costs, or disadvantages of the plan.
Which of the following best describes Deontological vs. Consequentialist criterion approaches?
The deontological approach is a philosophy that requires the means of achieving goals be moral. Whereas the consequentialist approach would place equal or greater weight on the outcomes of an action to determine its value
Stasis is the rest or halt in a debate that results from conflicting arguments.
Archbishop Richard Whately is famous for articulating the idea that, during an argument, one side of the debate tends to be favored. He likened this concept to "preoccupied ground." What is the name of this concept.
What are the two types of presumption?
In debate theory, presumption and assumption are synonymous.
Whately referred to a common type of presumption against spending time, resources, and energy to remove an established institution. What term is used to describe this type of presumption?
Presumption in favor of existing institutions
Value stock issues include Value Justification and Value Objection. What is Value Justification?
This stock issue means the affirmative side supports the value criterion in the debate.
Value stock issues include Value Justification and Value Objection. What is Value Objection?
This stock issue means the affirmative side can show how the negative does not support the value criterion.
Policy Stock Issues include Harms, Inherency, and Solvency. What is a harm stock issue?
An argument, or a set of arguments that attempt to persuade an audience that there are problems with the status quo.
What are stock issues?
Arguments that tend to recur in debates
Policy Stock Issues include Harms, Inherency, and Solvency. What is an inherency stock issue?
An argument, or a set of arguments that attempt to persuade the audience that a problem will persist if no action is taken
Policy Stock Issues include Harms, Inherency, and Solvency. What is a solvency stock issue?
An argument, or set of arguments that the proposed plan will solve the problems
Cross-Examination (CX) questions asked during an opponents speech happen in what styles of debate?
Parliamentary debate, British Parliamentary (BP) debate
Cross-Examination (CX) questions asked in between speeches happen in what styles of debate?
Policy debate, Public Forum, Lincoln-Douglas (LD) debate
If you don't understand what's going on in the debate, what is a good first question to ask?
Ask your opponent about their plan or thesis
What is bidirectionality?
The ability for an argument simultaneously to do two or more things in a debate.
What are good strategic ways to use questions in a debate?
Ask questions to give you or your partner more time to prepare
Ask questions to disrupt your opponent
What is "Fiat"?
A Latin word meaning "let it be done" or in debate, imagining a plan is passed in the real world
What questions should you ask yourself about your plan regarding fiat?
Is it possible?
Does solvency rely on fiat?
If fiat is challenged by the negative, how would you defend it (to your judge)?
Explain what fiat is.
Explain that using fiat creates a better debate than not using fiat.
Explain how fiat could affect debate in general (debaters might begin to prepare which way politicians will vote; making fiat not usable).
Fiating Solvency is an abuse of fiat (or a way that fiat should not be used). What, other than abusing fiat, is the affirmative doing by fiating solvency?
Avoiding arguments or the debate that ought to be taking place.
Utopian fiat is another type of fiat abuse. What is "Utopian Fiat"?
It is where a debater advocates an impossible, or highly improbable plan and dismisses arguments about the practicality of the plan in question
What is another term that people use to refer to the idea that any debate resolution can be classified as one of three types?
"word-by-word" and "term of art"
Defining the resolution as a "term of art"
Defining the resolution word-by-word
Stock issues it a term used to refer to questions that tend to occur with frequency in the course of argumntation.
Which of the following is NOT a stock issue?
Criterion is singular, criteria is plural.
What are the two types factual claims?
What criterion is also commonly known as "cost benefit analysis" or CBA?
Stasis is the rest or halt in a debate that results from conflicting arguments.
Immanuel Levinas is a well-known philosopher that championed what idea?
Ethics is a first philosophy
When organizing a speech in debate, a speaker shouldn't worry about including a thesis or supporting body points because the audiece should be able to understand anyway.
What is included in the four point refutation?
Repeat the opponent's claim.
Say your response.
Explain your reasoning.
State a conclusion.
One direct method of refutation states you could argue that no harms exist. How could you do this?
Refuting harms as a matter of perspective
Refuting harms as a matter of fact
Another direct method of refutation is arguing against the inherency. What is Structural Inherency?
It is the refutation that the harms will or can naturally fix themselves.
There were a number of "spec," or specification, arguments that can be made against the plan . What are they?
f-spec = funding specification
e-spec = enforcement specification
a-spec = agent specification
tf-spec = time-frame specification
Place the stock issues of a topicality position in the correct order.
Debate scenario: the resolution is "The United States should substantially reform its transportation infrastructure." Your opponent lays out a 1AC which makes the case for privatizing interstate highways. In essence, changing highways into toll roads. You think there are several disadvantages to this proposal, but you also think that this case isn't topical because of a topicality position you prepared. Unfortunately, the stock issues are out of order. Place the topicality position in the following order: 1. counter-definition, 2. violation, 3. standard, 4. impact
The opposition considers...
Changing the administration of ownership...
My definition of infrastructure...
The issue is important because...
Topicality is the argument that the affirmative has failed to present a case that addresses the central issues of the resolution, and should therefore loose the debate overall
What is the "We Meet" argument?
When the affirmative agrees with or accepts the counter-definition.
Counter Standards are the reasons the affirmative gives the judge to prefer their interpretation over the negative's interpretation. What is the debatability counter standard?
It is the argument that the affirmative is fulfilling its responsibility to define terms but focusing on a topic that is currently being debated in pop culture, in politics, or just right now.
The reverse voting issue is one response to topicality — what does this issue state?
It states that if the negative loses the topicality, then the judge should vote for the affirmative team
What is meant by "Suicide T"?
When it is the only argument the negative makes or pursues; thereby, making topicality the determining factor for who wins the round.
What is the "Opposition Block"?
When the negative team gives their last constructive followed by their last rebuttal
This is a multiple answer question, so mark all parts of a disadvantage
Link, Uniqueness, Impact
Debate scenario: the resolution is "The United States should substantially increase investment in desalination." You don't know what the affirmative is going to argue, but you have enough information to compose a disadvantage that applies to most cases. Place the disadvantage in the following order: 1. uniqueness, 2. link, 3. internal link, 4. impact.
The world's oceans...
Any species that cannot...
Debate scenario: the affirmative is defending the construction of a high-speed rail system in California. You are the leader of opposition and want to argue that such a plan will result in a disadvantage of the California government kicking poor people off of their land to make room for the project. You have all the parts of this disadvantage, but they are in the wrong order. Place the disadvantage in the following order: 1. uniqueness, 2. link, 3. internal link, 4. impact
The plan to build...
The use of eminent...
One tactic against a disadvantage (DA) is attacking their uniqueness. What are the methods in arguing that the DA is in fact, non-unique?
Arguing that if the DA were true, the impacts should have happened already.
Arguing that the DA is going to occur regardless of the advocacy.
What is the "No Brink" argument?
It argues that the plan is not enough to trigger the impacts.
One type of link response is called a "turn." What is a turn?
When what would have seemed to be a reason to vote for one side, has now become a reason to vote for the other.
What do the lessons suggest as two responses to impacts?
In the discussion on the Disadvantages [DA] and Counterplans strategy, what is meant by "opportunity cost"?
It means voting for the affirmative leads to losing the opportunity to achieve something better.
The second strategy discussed was the "Double Bind," more specifically, running a Topicality [T] and Disadvatage [DA]. What is a double bind?
It is when two independent arguments negate each other. So by successfully responding to one argument, you consequently strengthen the other argument
What is a Topicality?
Topicality essentially argues that the affirmative's definition(s) take away the negative's ground.
What is Aristotle's concept of "Emergence"?
The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
__________________ are those arguments that are reasons for the judge to vote for you. __________________are those arguments that are reasons for the judge to vote against your opponent.
The organization of the rebuttal must always follow the organization of the previous speeches.
Trying to convince a debate judge that you side has successfully argued more impacts in the round is known as:
What are the two primary ways to argue about impacts in the rebuttal?
In debate, offense is when someone makes arguments that score "points" for their particular side; whereas, defense is when someone makes arguments to prevent an opponent from making "points."
Non-verbal communication is synonymous with "body language".
Tropes and schemes are also known as figures of speech
Ludwig Wittgenstein is famous for a concept that describes how language is used and learned. He argued that people learn simple uses of language, into which language is woven. What name does he give this concept?
All human societies, past and present, use language.
Match the provided terms with their definitions
Memorized - Written word for word and recited without notes
Manuscript - Speech written word for word and read to an audience
Impromptu - Speech delivered with little to no preparation
Extemp - Delivered using only an outline
_________ is the way that a speaker draws conclusions based on evidence, __________ is the emotional appeals employed by a speaker, and ___________ is the credibility of the speaker.
Logos, pathos, ethos
It is best to start speeches with your name
What are the two components of credibility?
What is the purpose of having a 3-light configuration when recording?
To avoid shadows on the subject
Match the following camera set-ups to their drawbacks when recording a video.
Computers - Difficult to simultaneously...
Videocameras - Costly and difficult
Smart Phones - Upshot view
Controversy exists in topics that most do not consider controversial, like mathematics.
Which element of argument describes how people and arguments tend to "stick together?"
What is the name for any combination of propositions aimed at persuading an audience to a particular viewpoint, belief, or action; and, that particular conclusion is claimed to be supported by the other propositions?
Which element of argument distinguishes it from assertions or threats of force
Which element of argument which seeks to create new knowledge?
The concept that one field of study will favor certain types of arguments, whereas another field of study will favor other types of arguments is known as _________.
The reason or logic behind using the grounds to support the claim is the
The Toulmin model calls additional support for the grounds or warrant ____________.
This is a multiple answer question, so mark ALL parts of a syllogism
major premise, minor premise, conclusion
The supporting examples, analysis, and evidence that leads to the claim are the
grounds or data
Will you always explicitly find each element from the Toulmin Model in the argument? In other words, will each element be stated as an independent sentence within the argument?
No. Sometimes the data or warrant are implied. In other words, for any claim, there might be other elements that are implied.
How do you find a claim?
You can find the claim by comparing two sentences and determining which one fits the characteristics of a claim best. You then repeat this process until all sentences have been compared.
What are all of the elements in the Toulmin Model?
All of them
What is the best way to find all other elements of the Toulmin model in an argument?
The same way you find the claim: compare two sentences, looking for the sentence that possesses the characteristics that best fits each element, then repeat the process until no sentences remain. Thus, giving you the sentence that best fits each element.
According to the reading, what model is used in analyzing arguments?
The Toulmin Model
_________________ reasoning starts from specific observations and results in a general conclusion, whereas ______________reasoning begins with a general principle and results with a specific conclusion.
The following is a hypothetical argument that a mother might tell her child. What fallacy best describes the argument:
You need to spend time on Saturday studying. If you don't, then you won't graduate with honors, and that will make it impossible to get into a top university, and you'll end up flipping burgers for the rest of your life. Is that what you want?
A non-sequitor fallacy is also known as a:
"All men care about is sports. My last boyfriend watched sports all the time and never wanted to hang out with me."
The following can be described as which type of argument? "Legalizing gay marriage in California would produce much of the same effects that Massachusetts is experiencing since they have legalized gay marriage."
Argument from analogy
She is either voting Democrat or Republican. She isn't voting Democrat, so she must be voting Republican.
All of the above
Which fallacy best describes the following argument:
"Lady Gaga is turning girls into sex crazed animals. 92% of sexually active girls between the ages of 18 and 22 have previously listened to Lady Gaga."
What fallacy best describes the following argument:
"If you allow the government to regulate health insurance eventually we will all be living in a totalitarian country with no rights to freedom of speech, religion, or private property."
The following is a circular argument:
"Capital punishment is justified for cases of murder because the state has a right to put someone to death for having killed someone else."
What fallacy best describes this argument.
Begging the Question
Accusing someone of committing a fallacy is the same as accusing them of saying something that is factually incorrect.
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