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Bio Study Guide

Terms in this set (46)

• Carbohydrates - molecules composed of sugar monomers. They are necessary for energy storage. Carbohydrates are also called saccharides and their monomers are called monosaccharides. Glucose is an important monosaccharide that is broken down during cellular respiration to be used as an energy source. Starch is an example of a polysaccharide (many saccharides linked together) and is a form of stored glucose in plants.

• Lipids - water-insoluble molecules that can be classified as fats, phospholipids, waxes, and steroids. Fatty acids are lipid monomers that consist of a hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group attached at the end. Fatty acids form complex polymers such as triglycerides, phospholipids, and waxes. Steroids are not considered true lipid polymers because their molecules do not form a fatty acid chain. Instead, steroids are composed of four fused carbon ring-like structures. Lipids help to store energy, cushion and protect organs, insulate the body, and form cell membranes.

•Proteins - biomolecules capable of forming complex structures. Proteins are composed of amino acid monomers and have a wide variety of functions including transportation of molecules and muscle movement. Collagen, hemoglobin, antibodies, and enzymes are examples of proteins.

• Nucleic Acids - molecules consisting of nucleotide monomers linked together to form polynucleotide chains. DNA and RNA are examples of nucleic acids. These molecules contain instructions for protein synthesis and allow organisms to transfer genetic information from one generation to the next.