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RBT Exam practice
Terms in this set (167)
Pertaining to right and wrong in conduct. Being in accordance with the rules or standards for right conduct or practice
Feedback and Reflection
Respond appropriately to feedback and maintain or improve performance. Take feedback and be a reflective practitioner.
Communication with stakeholders as authorized.
Follow protocol of how to communicate.
Communicate effectively with all team members.
Avoid dual relationships, conflicts of interest, social media contacts. Always take notes.
Be respectful and thoughtful about the client's needs and wants.
Never do or say anything to cause embarrassment to the client.
Do not do something in front of your client that you would not do if working with a typical developing child.
How to Prepare for Data Collection
1. Read data from last session
2. Prepare material and programs for current session based on data from last session.
3. Determine what programs you plan to work on during the session.
4. Gather materials for those programs.
5. Set up the first set of programs so they are ready for the client when you begin your session.
The Role of the RBT in the Service Delivery System
Implement measurement, assessment, skill acquisition, behavior reduction, documentation and reporting, and maintain professional conduct in the scope of the practice under the direct supervision of a BCBA or BCaBA.
RBT Assisting with Individual Assessment Procedures
The RBT can interview stakeholders, gather baseline data by observing the client's behaviors in his/her natural environment, or probe client by asking them to perform a task we are unsure they can perform without providing assistance.
Dealing with Stakeholders
The RBT should only communicate with stakeholders as authorized by the supervisor. Any specific questions should be deferred to the BCBA or BCaBA. If you do communicate you must be objective, use behavioral language, avoid speculation, stick to topic appropriate for an RBT.
Assist Training Stakeholders
RBT can assist with training stakeholders by giving them instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback with regard to behavioral skills training.
Report Other Variables
illness, relocation or change in medication.
Components of a Written Behavior Plan
1. Identify, describe, create a goal for a behavior in observable terms.
2. Assess antecedent/consequence that may maintain behavior.
3. Identify hypothesis of function of behavior.
4. Identify possible replacement behaviors.
5. Select and implement antecedent/consequence based interventions.
6. Create crisis intervention plan.
7. Implementation, modification, generalization and maintenance procedures.
Skill Acquisition Plan
1. Identify the skill deficit
2. Create a goal to address the deficit
3. Establish a data measurement system
4. Take baseline data (Assess current skill level)
5. Select and implement an acquisition procedure.
6. Collect data to assess effectiveness of the procedure.
7. Modify existing plan based on assessment data. (Modify, if necessary) to maintain/increase effectiveness)
Prepare for Skill Acquisition Plan
1. Determine what occurred last session to decide where to start.
2. Select skill acquisition procedures to complete during session.
3. Prepare materials you will need for the skill acquisition (including data collection protocols).
5 Dimensions we can Shape
Applied Behavior Analysis
The science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied systematically to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for behavior change.
The scientific study of principles of learning and behavior.
An activity of living organisms.
What an individual does (how they respond in the situation).
It is observable and measurable.
Specific instance of behavior.
4 types of Responses:
Untaught or unconditioned responses. Reflex.
New stimuli can acquire the ability to elicit responses.
Occurs through pairing of two stimuli.
Stimulus - Stimulus Pairing (S - S)
A stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response.
i.e. Food is an unconditioned stimulus for a hungry animal and salivation is the unconditioned response.
A behavior that occurs naturally due to a given stimulus.
i.e. Dogs salivating in the presence of food; yelping upon being bitten by an insect.
A previously neutral stimulus that, after repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus, elicits the response produced by the unconditioned stimulus itself.
A behavior that does not come naturally, but must be learned by the individual by pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
(AKA primary reinforcers) Stimuli that do not require learning. (i.e. food, water, warmth, sleep, sexual stimulation)
(AKA secondary reinforcers) Neutral stimuli that have been paired with unconditioned reinforcers, or other conditioned reinforcers and through repeated pairing become reinforcers themselves. (i.e. stickers, sound, people)
Generalized Conditioned Reinforcers
Stimuli that have been paired with a variety of unconditioned and conditioned reinforcers. (i.e. praise, attention, money, tokens)
Behavior that is controlled or influenced by consequences.
Behavior whose future frequency is determined by a history of consequences.
A type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences.
Behavior followed by pleasant consequences tends to be repeated.
Behavior followed by unpleasant consequences tends not to be repeated.
(AKA request training) Training by asking for what you want.
Pleasant events that follow a behavior that make behavior more likely to occur in the future.
Reinforcers strengthen behavior.
Unpleasant events that follow a behavior and decrease the likelihood that a behavior will happen again in the future.
4 - Part Contingency of Operant Learning
1. MO - Motivating Operation
(AKA setting event) Contextual factors or conditions that influence behavior.
Influence how an individual is going to react. (i.e. Being deprived of food and water)
What occurs before a behavior that then influences behavior.
An environment or a stimulus change existing or occurring prior to a behavior of interest.
Specific antecedent that directly facilitates performance of behavior.
Assistance provided to engage in desired behavior or response.
Events that follow behavior and may influence it including increasing or decreasing it in the future.
May be reinforcers or punishers.
7 Dimensions of ABA
5. Conceptual Systems
(AKA Event Recording) A form of continuous measurement.
Data in which you tally each time the behavior occurs.
Typically used for behaviors with discrete beginning and ending points.
Typically used for behaviors with discrete beginning and ending points. (i.e. throwing items, going to the gym, taking medicine, hitting another person)
Most frequently used type of data collection.
Data that is a calculation of the amount of time a behavior occurs.
The amount of time a response is performed.
Track from onset to offset.
Typically used for behaviors that last too long or too short. (i.e. on task behavior, social interactions, engaging in stereotypy)
Antecedent Behavior Consequence Data
(AKA ABC data) A combination of information about what happens before, during and after a behavior.
A form of continuous measurement.
A form of discontinuous measurement.
Used for estimating duration of a behavior in which observers periodically look at client at predetermined intervals and record whether or not a behavior is occurring.
Partial Interval Recording
Did the behavior occur at least once during the short observation interval?
Overestimates the behavior.
Example: presence or absence of thumb-sucking within a series of time intervals.
Whole Interval Recording
Did the behavior occur for the whole interval that you are looking for it?
Underestimates the behavior.
Example: the total time devoted to remaining on task.
Momentary Time Sampling
Look up at the client immediately at pre-designated points and record whether the behavior occurred at that precise moment.
Example: presence or absence of client's stereotypic behavior (stimming).
The amount of time after a specific stimulus has been given before the target behavior occurs.
Permanent Product Recording Procedures
A type of measurement used when the behavior you are assessing results in a lasting product or outcome.
Example: number of written assignments completed;
A method of descriptively recording the behavior emitted by the learner, the response of others, and information about the environment.
Trial by Trial Data
For each trial record target and whether response was:
Graphing is a method of representing data in a visual way so that we can se patterns and direction over time.
- Line Graph (most common) shows patterns, trends
- Bar Graph shows portions of a whole
- Pie Chart shows portions of a whole
That the data taken is reliable and people who take the data agree on the occurrence of the behavior.
Individuals who take the data agree on the occurrence of the target behavior.
Looking for 85% agreed upon when doing reliability checks.
The extent to which the individuals who observe a target behavior agree on the occurrence of the behavior.
The extent to which an intervention plan is implemented as planned and prescribed.
The physical form or shape of a behavior.
The purpose or meaning of a behavior.
What does the behavior look like, what happens exactly, what does it sound like?
4 Functions of Behavior
One of the four functions of behavior in which an individual tries to gain sensory output.
Individuals behave a certain way because it feels good to them.
(AKA self-stimming) The behavior itself is reinforcing and is not dependent on social interaction or receiving a tangible item.
A function of behavior to escape or avoid having to do something.
A function of behavior in which the individual is reinforced by receiving attention from others.
A function of behavior in which the individual wants to obtain a tangible item.
The individual wants a preferred item or activity.
Data taken before an intervention takes place.
Describes the existing level of performance.
Done by an individual with specific training and under very controlled situations.
The qualified practitioner manipulates situations (antecedents/consequences) and takes data on behavior during those situations to test hypotheses about suspected maintaining variables.
Functional Behavior Assessment
(AKA FBA) Putting one or more Functional Analysis together.
Can consist of:
- Direct observation
- Functional analysis (experimental)
- File Review
In an FBA behavior plans must include replacement skills.
Something appropriate that the client can do instead of the inappropriate behavior, that will serve the same purpose.
Should be included in Behavior Plans.
Teach replacement skills and
Develop an appropriate behavior plan
Name two important reasons for determining function of behavior.
3 Principles of Behavior
Occurs when stimulus change immediately follows a response and INCREASES the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
Occurs when a stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior.
Removal of reinforcement from a previously reinforced behavior.
Prior to the behavior decreasing you will see a temporary increase in behavior.
Immediate increase in frequency in responding.
After a period of time the behavior may come back temporarily during extinction.
Something that we THINK will might act as a reinforcer.
Rewards are the THING, reinforcement is the ACTION.
(i.e. If giving a child a cooke after they clean their room does not increase the chances of them cleaning their room again in the future then the cookie was just a reward and NOT a reinforcer)
Pleasant or favorable event that follows a behavior - it is ADDED to the situation and increases the likelihood or probability that the behavior will occur in the future.
REMOVAl of an aversive event that follows a behavior ("relief") and increases the likelihood that the behavior will continue in the future.
(i.e. cleaning your room and your mom stops nagging; hitting snooze on an alarm and the beeping stops; putting on your seatbelt and the dinging stops)
(AKA Conditioned Reinforcement) Occurs when neutral stimuli have been paired with unconditioned reinforcers or other conditioned reinforcers repeatedly thus making the neutral stimuli become conditioned reinforcers.
Stimuli or events that function as punishers only after being paired with unconditioned punishers.
Form of positive punishment in which every time an undesired behavior occurs the actor loses a reinforcer.
A stimulus change that can decrease the future frequency of any behavior that precedes it without prior pairing with any other form of punishment.
(i.e. shock, physical pain, loud noises, painful stimulation that can cause tissue damage, light, sound, temperature)
Aims to identify an individual's favorite things so that they can be used as rewards or potential "reinforcers" for desired behavior. CSDA
1. Caregiver interview
3. Direct Observation
4. Assessment Method
Caregiver Interview Preference Assessment
Involves obtaining information from the individual's parents, friends and teachers about what the individual likes/prefers.
Surveys/Inventories Preference Assessment
Surveys obtain information about potential reinforcers and also rank potential reinforcers in order of preference.
Direct Observation Preference Assessment
Identify what is motivating the individual.
The more time spent with an item, the stronger the presumed preference.
Assessment Method Preference Assessment
Presenting objects and activities systematically to the individual to reveal a hierarchy or ranking of preference.
1. Single item/single stimulus
2. Forced choice
3. Multiple choice
- multiple choice with replacement
- multiple choice without replacement
Single Item Preference Assessment
Single Item/Single Stimulus
Objects and activities are presented to the individual one by one.
Data are recorded on how long the person engages with each item or activity.
Forced Choice Preference Assessment
Simultaneous presentation of two items or activities and individual is asked to choose one.
Most frequently selected item will likely be the most potent reinforcer.
Multiple Stimuli With Replacement
Item chosen by the learner remains in the array and all other items that were not selected are replaced with new ones.
Multiple Stimuli Without Replacement
Chosen item is removed from the array, the order or replacement of the remaining items is rearranged, and the next trial begins with a reduced number of items in the array.
Make access to a high probability behavior contingent on performing a low probability behavior.
The opportunity to engage in more probable behaviors (or activities) will reinforce less probable behavior.
Grandma's Rule: If you want to go out to play, you have to eat your vegetables first.
Repeatedly presenting a stimulus for the purpose of reducing its attractiveness by reaching a satiation level.
Rule Governed Behavior
Behavior either verbal or nonverbal under the control of verbal antecedents.
(i.e. "If I study 2 hours every day, I will get an A on the exam next month")
The source of reinforcement is blocked. A procedure in which the therapist physically intervenes as soon as the learning begins to emit a problem behavior to prevent the completion of the target behavior.
The random presentation of mastered items, free from pattern (as if flipping a coin repeatedly).
Repeatedly asking for an item for a designated number of trials, and then moving to another item for the same number of trials.
Repeatedly presenting the same SD (discriminative stimulus) and R (response) pair for several trials in a row.
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule
Providing reinforcement each time the behavior/response occurs.
Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule
Reinforcement is delivered after only SOME of the desired responses occur.
Fixed Ratio Reinforcement Schedule
Reinforcement should be delivered after a constant or "fixed" number of responses.
Variable Ratio Reinforcement Schedule
Reinforcement is provided after an unpredictable (variable) number of responses.
This schedule is the most resistant to extinction.
Fixed Interval Reinforcement Schedule
The first correct response is rewarded only after a specified amount of time has elapsed.
Variable Interval Reinforcement Schedule
Where a response is rewarded after an unpredictable (variable) amount of time has elapsed.
Presentation of an unpleasant or aversive stimulus immediately following behavior that results in a decrease of that behavior in the future.
The termination or removal of a stimulus immediately following behavior that results in a decrease of that behavior in the future.
(i.e. taking away a toy when a child talks back; time out from positive reinforcement for yelling)
A type of punishment also known as Negative Reinforcement.
Loss of a specific amount of reinforcement.
Time out from Positive Reinforcement
The withdrawal of the opportunity to earn positive reinforcement, or the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a specific amount of time.
A form of Negative Punishment
Perform a response that is not topographically related to the problem behavior.
(i.e. touch toes 20 times contingent on biting self)
Effortful behavior that is directly or logically related to the problem behavior.
Brief removal of all social positive reinforcement.
Positive Behavior Support
A function-based approach to eliminate challenging behaviors and replace them with socially appropriate behaviors.
- Focus on positive behaviors
- Alter the ecology
- Teach new skills
- Reinforce the absence of behavior
Focused Support Strategies
Interventions to reduce or eliminate the need for reactive strategies and gain quicker control over behavior.
- High density of reinforcing events
- Non-contingent delivery of reinforcing events
- Eliminate antecedents that cue challenging behavior
Individual behaves in one way in the presence of a given stimulus and another in its absence.
A type of Focused Support Strategy
Repeatedly presenting a stimulus for the purpose of reducing its attractiveness by reaching a satiation level.
Reinforcement systems in which tokens are earned for a variety of behaviors and are used to purchase or exchange for a variety of backup reinforcers such as food, activities, trips, toys.
Reinforcing one response class and withholding reinforcement from another response class.
Behavior receiving reinforcement should increase while the behavior for which reinforcement is being withheld should decrease.
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors
DRO - Providing a reinforcer after a particular time frame without the target behavior.
For example engaging in any other behavior except the target behavior.
(i.e. every 5 minutes without hitting, individual receives a sticker)
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding
Entails reinforcing for reductions in the frequency of the undesired behavior.
Often used when individual is engaging in a behavior too frequently.
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviors
DRA - Focus on increasing a desirable alternative behavior that directly or indirectly interferes with the performance of the undesired target behavior.
(i.e. reinforce knitting or giving a self manicure instead of biting nails; reinforce appropriate language instead of punishing swearing at others)
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behaviors
DRI - Similar to DRA but you choose and alternative behavior to reinforce that, if performed, would be incompatible with the undesired target behavior.
(i.e. playing nicely vs. fighting; on task behavior vs. off task behavior; in seat vs. out of seat; deep breathing vs. yelling)
Discrete Trial Training
DTT - Structured instructional methodology used to teach new behaviors
Designed to maximize a learner's potential by presenting information in a three-part teaching unit.
Based on Antecedent - Behavior - Consequence format.
A - B - C (Stimulus - Response - Consequence)
Main objective is to teach children how to learn from their natural environment and make learning reinforcing.
Teaching procedures that are designed in such a way that the learning does not have to - and does not - make mistakes as she or he learns new information or procedures.
DTT is Errorless Learning.
Skinnner: "Errors are not necessary for learning to occur."
Discriminative Stimulus (SD)
Used in DTT: Environmental cue or instruction that signals that reinforcement is available for a target behavior.
Used in DTT: The behavior in which an individual engages. 4 types of response:
Reinforcing Stimulus (SR)
Used in DTT: The consequence following the individual's response that changes the future likelihood with which the behavior will recur.
Reinforcement should be given for a correct response.
Should be delivered immediately (0 - 5 seconds is ideal).
The time interval between presentation of the consequence for one trial and the presentation of the SD for the next trial.
The so called "pyramid" of the various levels of prompting.
We need to establish a hierarchy of prompts from the least to most or most to least intrusive for each instructional task.
Transfer of Stimulus Control
Process by which prompts are removed once the target behavior is occurring in the presence of the SD.
The gradual elimination of a stimulus prompt as the behavior continues to occur in the presence of the SD.
Exaggerate some physical dimension of the relevant stimulus to help the individual respond correctly.
Prompt is within the stimulus itself.
Can be used for color or size determination.
Procedure to teach between two targets.
Trial training using phases.
(i.e. phases 1 - 6 Mass Trials of target, Block Trials, and Random Rotation)
A process by which one systematically and differentially reinforces successive approximations to a terminal behavior.
A specific sequence of discrete responses, each associated with a particular stimulus condition.
When components are linked together, they form a chain that produces a terminal outcome.
Involves breaking a complex skill into smaller, teachable units, the product of which is a series of sequentially ordered steps or tasks.
Training begins the link with the first behavior in the sequence.
Training only occurs on the steps currently mastered and current step (no training on steps after that).
Training begins the link with the last behavior in the sequence.
Trainer performs all but the last step until the learner masters the last step.
Then trainer performs all but the lasts two steps until learner masters the last two steps and so on.
Backward Chaining with Leaps Ahead
Follow same procedure as backward chaining but not every step in the task analysis is trained.
Natural Environment Training (NET)
Is loosely structured, and uses or contrives a leaner's motivation and activities and not an exclusively teacher-selected set of materials, as the basis for the lesson.
Often used to teach child to mand or request.
Behavior that is reinforced through the mediation of another person's behavior.
Involves a social interaction between speakers and listeners.
Listener reinforces the speaker.
Mand, Tact, Echoic, Intraverbal, Textual, Transcription
6 Elementary Verbal Operants
Short for demand, command or reprimand.
A type of verbal operant in which a speaker asks for (or states, demands, implies, etc.) what he needs or wants.
Only type of verbal operant that directly benefits the speaker b/c the mand allows the speaker to receive reinforcers.
Short for contact.
A type of verbal operant in which speaker names things and actions that the speaker had direct contact with through any of the sense modes.
A type of verbal operant that occurs when a speaker repeats the verbal behavior of another speaker.
Occurs in response to other verbal behavior.
Listener is "echoing" what they hear.
A type of verbal operant in which a speaker differentially responds to the verbal behavior of others.
- Answering questions
- Filling in the blank
Reading written words.
(i.e. A child says shoe because the word "shoe" is written)
Writing and spelling words that are spoken.
(i.e. A child writes "shoe" because they hear the word "shoe")
When the effort of reinforcement is extended beyond the conditions in which the training has taken place or to behaviors other than those included in training.
Generalization or transfer of a response to situations other than those in which the training takes place.
It has taken place if a response reinforced in one stimulus setting also increases in other stimulus settings.
Across people: The learner's ability to respond to people other than those involved in the original teaching
Across environments: The learner's ability to respond in different locations other than the "table and chair"
(i.e. responds to different SD's for same behavior like "sit here", "sit down", "have a seat")
The changes in behaviors or responses other than those that have been trained or developed.
(i.e. you teach a child to put away toys following the SD "clean up" and the child also begins to throw away garbage and put books on the shelf)
Refers to maintaining responses over time.
So something leaned at time 1 would also be evident at times 2, 3 and 4.
Implement Generalization and Maintenance Procedures
Start by slowly fading prompts and using natural reinforcement contingencies; use multiple settings, people and stimuli; train loosely and use random rotation; use variable reinforcement schedules; teach self management and reinforce generally when it happens.
A document that specifies a contingent relationship between:
- The completion of a specific behavior
- Access to a specific reinforcer
Same as a behavioral contract.
This document should serve to hold both parties accountable (student & teacher).
A behavior change system with the following components:
- Specific behaviors to reinforce
- Tokens or points for emitting those behaviors
- A back-up reinforcer for cash in of tokens/points
Tokens themselves are not desirable...the back-up should be!
A form of Positive Punishment
Contingent on an occurrence of the target behavior the learner is required to repeat a correct form of the behavior, or a behavior incompatible with the problem, a specified number of times.
Social reinforcers - usually attention, physical contact or verbal interaction - are removed for a brief period.
Refers to the extent to which target behaviors are appropriate, intervention procedures are acceptable, and important significant changes in target and collateral behaviors are produced.
Used in calculating data. Frequency with the addition of a time component. Also a form of Event Recording.
Registered Behavior Technician
A paraprofessional who practices under the close, ongoing supervision of a BCBA or a BCaBA.
The RBT is primarily responsible for the direct implementation of skill-acquisition and behavior-reduction plans developed by the supervisor.
The RBT may also collect data and conduct certain types of assessments (i.e. stimulus preference assessments)
The RBT does not design intervention or assessment plans. It is the responsibility of the designated RBT supervisor to determine which tasks an RBT may perform as a function of his or her training, experience, and competence.
Total Task Chaining
The chaining procedure which teaches each step of the chain during each training session.
Professional and Ethical Compliance Code
- Maintaining confidentiality
- Maintaining records
- Documentation of professional work and research
- Records and Data
- Behavior analytic assessment
- Conforming with laws and regulations
- Accuracy and use of data
Documentation and Reporting
Records and data collected by BCBAs and RBTs must be retained for at least _____ years and as otherwise required by law.
Refers to and if_____, then_____ relationship between a behavior and a consequence.
Treatment Plan Modifications
RBT's assist BCBAs in making treatment plan modifications based on:
2. Visual analysis of graphed data
Parent requests are NOT a major factor in determining the current success of a plan or analyzing data to determine next steps.
1. Be honest
2. Follow through with obligations
3. Disclose your experience in specific areas.
Ways to show integrity?
Involves creating an environment in which students' interests are easily fostered and nurtured, and one in which students can be most successfully motivated. Also known as Natural Environment Training
1. Vary stimulus conditions over time
2. Make conditions as natural as possible over time.
3. Modify reinforcers
3 General Techniques of Generalization
1. Have multiple teachers and styles / vary the stimuli & environment.
2. In the beginning conditions might be artificial, make conditions as natural as possible over time.
3. Use secondary/conditioned reinforcement. Thin the reinforcement schedule for primary reinforcers.
Drawbacks to Punishment
Mis-used or Over-used: May lead to negative reinforcement of the punisher.
Lack of generalization: May lead to decrease in behavior only in the presence of the punisher.
May increase or escalate the behavior (provoke aggression).
Not always effective in the long term.
Strategies designed to manage the behavior at the time it occurs (in the moment).
These strategies are managed situationally to provide safety and prevent the escalation of the behaviors.
NOT meant to change behavior over time.
- Facilitative Strategies (help solve the problem)
- Redirect to a competing activity (give an instruction or a "help me" instruction
i.e. crisis intervention strategies
Strategies designed to produce changes over time.
Strategies designed to provide a better mesh between client's needs and the environments in which he/she behaves.
- Token economies (Focused Support Strategy)
- Differential reinforcement (Focused Support Strategy)
- Discrete trial training
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