ORRJHS Ancient Greece Study Guide Chapter 4
Includes 37 Terms!
Terms in this set (37)
Ancient city and civilization in Greece, which began after its people invaded around 1900 BCE. These invaders/settlers became the first Greek kings.
a body of land with water on three sides.
settlement in a new territory that keeps close ties to its homeland.
the early Greek city-state, made up of a city and the surrounding countryside and run like an independent country.
marketplace and assembly in ancient Athens and a center of civic life.
A non-Greek people who lived on the island of Crete and who were the first civilization in the region that would be known as Greece. Famous for their pottery, palace at Knossos and mythological tale of the Minotaur and the labyrinth.
Greek island southeast of the mainland in the southern Aegean Sea and was home to the Minoan civilization.
ancient city of Crete and site of famous Minoan palace.
A peninsula in southern Greece where city-states such as Sparta were located.
legendary Mycenaean king who led his people to victory in the Trojan War.
period of time between about 1100 BCE and 750 BCE after the Mycenaean Age in which trade slowed, poverty took hold, writing and craftwork declined and many Greeks settled on islands in the Aegean Sea and along the coast of Asia Minor.
epic poem recounting the story of the Trojan War.
believed to be the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey and considered to be the greatest ancient Greek epic poet.
a city, perhaps both factual and legendary, located in northwest Anatolia in what is now Turkey and central location in the Iliad.
government by the people.
government in which a small group of people holds power.
city-state in Ancient Greece known for its oligarchy and military culture/power.
most famous statesman in ancient Athens and leader during Athens' Golden Age.
modern capital of Greece and ancient city-state.
Athenian statesman and nobleman who laid the basic foundations for democracy and freed many farmers from their debts when he first came to power.
Powerful Athenian ruler who reformed the Athenian democratic system by reorganizing the assembly and creating a new council of 500 citizens who were chosen by lottery. Though non-citizens, women and slaves were still excluded from the political process, he is credited with making the government of Athens a democracy.
Athenian politician and general who convinced the people to spend their excess silver on a fleet of triremes in order to defeat the Persians. His plan was a success and Athens fleet made them Greece's strongest navy and allowed them to defeat the Persians at the battle of Salamis. Ultimately, Themistocles was ostracized (exiled) because the Athenians believed he had gotten too powerful.
independent state made up of a city and the surrounding land and villages.
person who takes power by force and rules with total authority.
person who was conquered and enslaved by the ancient Spartans.
Ancient name for what is now southwestern Iran.
Village of ancient Greece about 25 miles northeast of Athens. Site where 20,000 Persians landed and waited for the Greeks. Eventually, the Persians decided to leave to sail directly to Athens only to be caught in a surprise attack by the Greeks who ultimately defeated the Persians at this historic battle.
Battle site located in a narrow pass in the mountains where Greek soldiers attempted to hold back the Persians from getting to Athens. Unfortunately, a traitor informed the Persians of how to navigate this mountain pass and the Greeks were ultimately defeated. The Spartans though, led by King Leonidas, bravely volunteered to fight to the death while the rest of the Greeks fled to protect Athens. This allowed the other Greeks to prepare themselves and the city for the oncoming Persian attack.
Island in eastern Greece in the Gulf of Saronikos and site of the naval battle between the Greeks and the Persians in which the Greeks defeated the Persians with their smaller, faster and easier to steer ships called triremes.
ancient Greek city and the site of the turning point battle between the Persians and Greeks. After the Greeks defeated the Persians at this battle, the Persians retreated back to Asia Minor.
King of the Persian empire who organized the Persian government in order to make the Persian Empire stronger and capable of expansion.
Son of Darius and King of Persia who launched the invasion of Greece aimed at capturing Athens.
Persian religion founded by Zoroaster; taught that humans had the freedom to choose between right and wrong, and that goodness would triumph in the end.
thinker who seeks wisdom and ponders questions about life.
system of government in which people gather at mass meetings to decide on government matters.
system of government in which citizens choose a smaller group to make laws and governmental decisions.
a Milesian woman who was famous for her involvement with the Athenian statesman Pericles. Very little is known about the details of her life. She spent most of her adult life in Athens, and she may have influenced Pericles and Athenian politics. She is mentioned in the writings of Plato, Aristophanes, Xenophon, and other authors of the day.