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World Geography Final
Terms in this set (49)
What 2 countries are the most powerful Sunni and Shi'a powers?
Saudi Arabia - Sunni and Shia - Iran.
Name the #1 Persian Gulf country that produces the most oil supply.
What terrorist organization was responsible for 9/11 and who was the leader?
Al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden
Why did so many Arab countries celebrate the attacks of 9/11?
America got a punch in the face.
Explain the establishment of Israel and why this country's existence continue to cause tension.
Israel became a state in 1948, but the U.N. wanted a state for Jews AND for Palestinians. The fact that this has never happened, and because today Palestinians are not only second-class citizens, but Jewish settlers now live in the West Bank, creates a lot of resentment.
What country does Israel consider to be its biggest enemy?
What is being developed in Israel's (enemy) country that makes the Middle East region even more problematic?
Nuclear energy and potentially weapons
Why did imperialism have an especially detrimental impact on the continent of Africa?
Africa was divided up among empires, like a cake. In some cases, enemy tribes were forced to live in the same country, whereas in other places tribes were divided.
What are the three main religions of the Middle East? Places of worship? Names of their sacred texts?
Judaism, Christianity, Islam. Synagogue, church, mosque, Torah, Bible, Quran
What is the name of the dominant ethnic group in the Middle East? What language do they speak?
Arab and Arabic
What is the main ethnicity of Israel? Ethnicity of West Bank and Gaza?
Israeli and Palestinian: they speak Hebrew and Arabic
Why is the Suez Canal so important?
Maritime shortcut and important route for oil
In the Persian Gulf, there is a strait considered a "choke point" for oil shipping. What is it?
Strait of Hormuz
Who are the Palestinians; where do they live?
They are Arabic-speaking people who used to live in Palestine, before the land became Israel.
What are the two sects of Islam?
Sunni and Shia
With regard to political geography, why is WWI considered to have so completely "changed the world?"
4 empires collapsed after WW1
What is sectarian violence?
It is violence between two branches of the same religion; in the Middle East it is between the 2 sects of Islam
What is the name of the sacred city (and country) where all Muslims are expected to make a pilgrimage to?
Mecca and Saudi Arabia
Who are the Kurds and in what countries are they located?
The Kurds comprise the largest stateless nation (would be called Kurdistan) and they are in Iraq, Turkey, Syria, and Iran.
Name the ethnicities of: Egypt, Turkey, Iran. What are the official languages of these countries?
Arabic, Turkish, Perian
Who was the founding prophet of Islam?
In the 1800s a movement began for Jews to establish a new homeland. What is the term used to refer to this movement?
Why did the United States invade Iraq and Afghanistan in 2003?
To take out the terrorists who committed 9/11. It was falsely thought that Iraq's leader, Saddam Hussein was involved.
Iran's top leaders are religious mullahs like Ayatollah Khamenei, therefore, what is Iran's form of government?
What was the Middle East's Arab Spring of 2011.
Democracy protests in countries throughout the Middle East and North Africa. In some cases, leaders were forced out.
How did the Arab Spring play out in Syria?
In Syria civil war broke out.
What countries border Syria - ie what countries have Syrians fled to?
Lebanon, Turkey mostly
Name 2 countries in the Middle East that are considered "failed states"
Afghanistan, Yemen Syria
Name 3 forms of government in the Middle East: i.e. Israel, Saudi Arabia, Iran?
Democracy, Monarchy, Theocracy
What city in the Middle East is sacred to all 3 monotheistic religions?
What was Woodrow Wilson's idea of self-determination?
the process by which a people, who share a national identity, form their own state and choose their own government.
After WWI Wilson's ideas of a League of Nations and self-determination failed; instead the mandate system took hold. Explain.
After WWI,Britain and France set up the mandate system whereby people would be ruled over, as with colonies, until the day when self-government could be introduced.
The Sykes Picot accord is considered a foundational problem of the Middle East because it created the world's largest stateless nation. Explain.
There should have been a nation-state of Kurdistan; however the Kurds were divided up between Turkey, Syria, Iran and Iraq.
What is the difference between the concept of colonialism and imperialism?
Colonialism refers to an earlier time period; when explorers came to places like North America or Australia they did not see the natives as having civilization and claimed the territory for themselves. Imperialism recognizes that local societies and governments were in place, yet the territory would be claimed and ruled by the colonizing power.
Who is ISIS? what do they want, what tactics have they used?
ISIS wants to establish a global caliphate, in which the world is cleansed of infidels and Islamic law rules.
What is the biggest difference between the Taliban and ISIS?
The Taliban is local/regional while ISIS is global.
What ethnic group is spread across 4 countries and is considered the world's biggest "stateless nation?'
What has the United States done to reduce its dependence on Middle East oil?
Through oil and gas shale fields (and the technology of fracking) the US has become more energy independent.
The Jews and Palestinians call the war of 1948 by 2 different names. What are the names and why the difference?
Jews call 1948 the War of Independence and the Palestinians call it the Nakba or disaster.
How is the city of Dubai very different for UAE citizens vs. migrant workers?
UAE citizens receive free healthcare, free fuel, free education, no taxes and paid retirement at 45. Although not all Emirates are millionaires, the migrant workers from Pakistan often are found living 16 to a room and very low wages.
In "I am Malala" she introduces Fazlullah and his "Radio Mullah." Who was Fazlullah? How was he able to take control of Mingora?
Fazlullah was a Taliban leader who manipulated the illiterate people of Mingora into believing that if they smashed their TVs and stopped playing music (and if girls stopped going to school) they were being "good Muslims." As he gained power Fazlullah became more violent and criminal.
What is the name given to Sunnis and Shias who continue to fight each other?
What are the "occupied territories" of Israel - i.e. the territories where Palestinians live?
West Bank and Gaza Strip
Who would you consider to be the most important figure in religion for Jews, Christians, Muslims?
Abraham (or Moses), Jesus and Mohammad
In the 1800s a movement began to establish a new Jewish homeland. What was the name for this movement?
Why were some U.S. government officials concerned about U.S. support for Israel after WWII?
They feared an Arab backlash
How has ISIS been successful in becoming a "Global" terrorist organization; i.e. how is the organization able to obtain foreign recruits?
Harnessing social media and making violent videos.
Name one country in the Middle East where ethnic boundaries do not match country boundaries.
Why was the Sykes_Picot Accord such a disappointment to groups such as Arabs and Vietnamese at the Paris Peace Conference?
These were groups excited by Woodrow Wilson's promise of self-determination and freedom from imperialism, but it was not to be.
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