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to provide a framework for the body, protect the soft body parts such as the brain, store calcium, and produce blood cells
Functions of the skeletal system are:
cancellous (spongy) bone
contains little spaces like a sponge and is encased in the layers of compact bone
thick, bloodlike material found in flat bones and the ends of long bones; location of the blood cell formation
made up of bones called vertebrae (pl) or vertebra (sing.) through which the spinal cord runs. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord, supports the head, and provides points of attachment for ribs and muscles
thoracic vertebrae (TI to T12)
second set of 12 vertebrae. They articulate with the 12 pairs of ribs to form the outward curve of the spine.
lumbar vertebrae (L1 to L5)
third set of five larger vertebrae, which forms the inward curve of the spine.
next five vertebrae, which fuse together to form a triangular bone positioned between the two hip bones
bursa (pl. bursae)
fluid-filled sac that allows for easy movement of one part of a joint over another
flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another at a joint
skeletal muscles (also known as striated muscles)
attached to bones by tendons and make body movement possible. Skeletal muscles produce action by pulling and working in pairs. They are also known as voluntary muscles because we have control over these muscles
smooth muscles (also known as unstriated muscles)
located in internal organs such as the walls of blood vessels and the digestive tract. They are also called involuntary muscles because they respond to impulses from the autonomic nerves and are not controlled voluntarily
cardiac muscle (known as myocardium)
forms most of the wall of the heart. Its involuntary contraction produces the heartbeat
abnormal condition of stiffness (often referring to fixation of a joint, such as the result of chronic rheumatoid arthritis)
inflammation of a joint. (The most common forms of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.)
pain in the fibrous tissues and muscles (a common condition characterized by widespread pain and stiffness of muscles, fatigue, and disturbed sleep)
abnormal condition of a hump (increased convexity of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side) (also called hunchback or humpback)
abnormal condition of bending forward (increased concavity of the lumbar spine as viewed from the side) (also called swayback)
abnormal reduction of bone mass (caused by inadequate replacement of bone lost to normal bone lysis and can lead to osteoporosis)
abnormal condition of stonelike bones (marblelike bones caused by increased formation of bone)
dissolution of striated muscle (The severity of the condition and the degree of weakness and pain vary. Some causes of the illness are trauma, extreme exertion, and drug toxicity; in severe cases renal failure can result.)
abnormal reduction of connective tissue (such as loss of skeletal muscle mass in the elderly)
abnormal condition of the vertebra (a general term used to describe changes to the spine from osteoarthrits or ankylosis)
form of arthritis that first affects the spine and adjacent structures and that, as it progresses, causes a forward bend of the spine (also called Strumpell-Marie arthritis or disease, or rheumatoid spondylitis)
abnormal prominence of the joint at the base of the great toe. It is a common problem, often hereditary or caused by poorly fitted shoes (also called hallux valgus)
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
a common nerve entrapment disorder of the wrist caused by compression of the median nerve. Symptoms include pain and paresthesia in portions of the hand and fingers
a type of wrist fracture. The fracture is at the distal end of the radius, the distal fragment being displaced backward.
a disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes sodium urate crystals (tophi) to be deposited in the joints, especially that of the great toe, producing arthritis
rupture of the intervertebral disk cartilage, which allows the contents to protrude through it, putting pressure on the spinal nerve roots (also called slipped disk, ruptured disk, herniated intervertebral disk, or herniated nucleus pulposus)
an infection caused by a bacteria (Borrelia burgdorferi) carried by deer ticks and transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick. Symptoms, caused by the body's immune response to the bacteria, vary and may include a rash at the site of the tick bite and flulike symptoms such as fever, headache, joint pain, and fatigue. Lyme disease was first reported in Lyme, Conn., in 1975. The primary treatment is antibiotics. Left untreated, Lyme disease can mimic several musculoskeletal diseases.
muscular dystrophy (MD)
group of hereditary diseases characterized by degeneration of muscle and weakness
myasthenia gravis (MG)
chronic disease characterized by muscle weakness and thought to be caused by a defect in the transmission of impulses from nerve to muscle cell. The face, larynx, and throat are frequently affected; no true paralysis of the muscles exists.
abnormal loss of bone density that may lead to an increase in fractures of the ribs, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, hips, and wrists after slight trauma (occurs predominantly in postmenopausal women)
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
a chronic systemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory changes in the connective tissue throughout the body.
narrowing of the spinal canal with compression of nerve roots. The condition is either congenital or due to spinal degeneration. Symptoms are pain radiating to the thigh or lower legs and numbness or tingling in the lower extremities.
excision of an intervertebral disk (a portion of the disk is removed to relieve pressure on nerve roots) (also spelled discectomy)
excision of a lamina (often performed to relieve pressure on the nerve roots in the lower spine caused by a herniated disk and other conditions)
radiographic imaging of joint (with contrast media). (Magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] has mostly replaced arthrography as the imaging technique for diarthrodial [movable] joints such as the knee, wrist, hip, and shoulder. Arthrography is still used for specialized functions such as when metal is present in the body.)
specialist in treating and diagnosing diseases and disorders of the foot, including medical and surgical treatment
the crackling sound heard when two bones rub against each other or grating caused by the rubbing together of dry surfaces of a joint. (Crepitus is also used to describe the crackling sound heard with pneumonia or the sound heard from the discharge of gas from the bowel.) (also called crepitation)
branch of medicine dealing with the study and treatment of diseases and abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system
making and fitting of orthopedic appliances, such as arch supports, used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities
type of bone cell involved in absorption and removal of bone minerals. It works in balance with osteoblasts to maintain healthy bone tissue.
system of medicine that uses the usual forms of diagnosis and treatment but places greater emphasis on the role of the relation between body organs and the musculoskeletal system; manipulation may be used in addition to other treatments
prosthesis (pl. prostheses)
an artificial substitute for a missing body part such as a leg, eye, or total hip replacement
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