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Chapter 14 Medterms

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The body contains ____bones and more than _____ muscles
movement,posture,joint stability, and heat production
Functions of the muscular system are:
to provide a framework for the body, protect the soft body parts such as the brain, store calcium, and produce blood cells
Functions of the skeletal system are:
Periosteum
outermost layer of the bone, made up of fibrous tissue
compact bone
dense, hard layers of bone tissue that lie underneath the periosteum
cancellous (spongy) bone
contains little spaces like a sponge and is encased in the layers of compact bone
endosteum
membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone
diaphysis
shaft of the long bones
epiphysis
end of each long bone
bone marrow
material found in the cavities of bones
red marrow
thick, bloodlike material found in flat bones and the ends of long bones; location of the blood cell formation
yellow marrow
soft, fatty material found in the medullary cavity of long bones
maxilla
upper jawbone
mandible
lower jawbone
vertebral column
made up of bones called vertebrae (pl) or vertebra (sing.) through which the spinal cord runs. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord, supports the head, and provides points of attachment for ribs and muscles
cervical vertebrae(C1 to C7)
first set of seven bones, forming the neck
thoracic vertebrae (TI to T12)
second set of 12 vertebrae. They articulate with the 12 pairs of ribs to form the outward curve of the spine.
lumbar vertebrae (L1 to L5)
third set of five larger vertebrae, which forms the inward curve of the spine.
sacrum
next five vertebrae, which fuse together to form a triangular bone positioned between the two hip bones
coccyx
four vertebrae fused together to form the tailbone
lamina (pl. laminae)
part of the vertebral arch
clavicle
collarbone
scapula
shoulder blade
acromion process
extension of the scapula, which forms the high point of the shoulder
sternum
breastbone
xiphoid process
lower portion of the sternum
humerus
upper arm bone
ulna and radius
lower arm bones
olecranon process
projection at the upper end of the ulna that forms the bony point of the elbow
carpal bones
wrist bones
metacarpal bones
hand bones
phalanges (sing. phalanx)
finger and toe bones
pelvic bone, hip bone
made up of three bones fused together
ischium
lower, rear portion on which one sits
ilium
upper, wing-shaped part on each side
pubis
anterior portion of the pelvic bone
acetabulum
large socket in the pelvic bone for the head of the femur
femur
upper leg bone
tibia and fibula
lower leg bones
patella (pl. patellae)
kneecap
tarsal bones
ankle bones
calcaneus
heel bone
metatarsal bones
foot bones
articular cartilage
smooth layer of firm, fibrous tissue covering the contacting surface of joints
meniscus
crescent-shaped cartilage found in the knee
intervertebral disk
cartilaginous pad found between the vertebrae in the spine
pubic symphysis
cartilaginous joint at which two pubic bones come together
synovia
fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and found in the joint cavities
bursa (pl. bursae)
fluid-filled sac that allows for easy movement of one part of a joint over another
ligament
flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another at a joint
tendon
band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
aponeurosis
strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscles to bone
skeletal muscles (also known as striated muscles)
attached to bones by tendons and make body movement possible. Skeletal muscles produce action by pulling and working in pairs. They are also known as voluntary muscles because we have control over these muscles
smooth muscles (also known as unstriated muscles)
located in internal organs such as the walls of blood vessels and the digestive tract. They are also called involuntary muscles because they respond to impulses from the autonomic nerves and are not controlled voluntarily
cardiac muscle (known as myocardium)
forms most of the wall of the heart. Its involuntary contraction produces the heartbeat
abduction
moving away from the midline
adduction
moving toward the midline
inversion
turning inward
eversion
turning outward
extension
movement in which a limb is placed in a straight position
flexion
movement in which a limb is bent
pronation
movement that turns the palm down
supination
movement that turns the palm up
rotation
turning around its own axis
carp/o
carpals (wrist bones)
clavic/o, clavicul/o
clavicle (collarbone)
cost/o
rib
crani/o
cranium (skull)
femor/o
femur (upper leg bone) (NOTE: the "u" in femur changes to an "o" in the word root femor)
fibul/o
fibula (lower leg bone) (perone/o is also a word root for fibula)
humer/o
humerus (upper arm bone)
ili/o
ilium
ischi/o
ischium
lumb/o
loin, lumbar region of the spine
mandibul/o
mandible (lower jawbone)
maxill/o
maxilla (upper jawbone)
patell/o
patella (kneecap)
pelv/i, pelv/o
pelvis, pelvic bone
phalang/o
phalanges (finger or toe bones)
pub/o
pubis
rachi/o
spine, vertebral column
radi/o
radius (lower arm bone)
sacr/o
sacrum
scapul/o
scapula (shoulder blade)
spondyl/o, vertebr/o
vertebra
stern/o
sternum (breastbone)
tars/o
tarsals (ankle bones)
tibi/o
tibia (lower leg bone)
uln/o
ulna (lower arm bone)
aponeur/o
aponeurosis
arthr/o
joint
burs/o
bursa (cavity)
chondr/o
cartilage
disk/o
intervertebral disk
menisc/o
meniscus (crescent)
synovi/o
synovia, synovial membrane
ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
tendon
ankyl/o
crooked, stiff, bent
kinesi/o
movement, motion
kyph/o
hump (increased convexity of the spine)
lamin/o
lamina (thin, flat plate or layer)
lord/o
bent forward (increased concavity of the spine)
myel/o
bone marrow (also means spinal chord)
my/o, myos/o
muscle
oste/o
bone
petr/o
stone
scoli/o
crooked, curved
inter-
between
supra-
above
sym-, syn-
together, joined
-asthenia
weakness
-clasia, -clasis, -clast
break
-desis
surgical fixation, fusion
-physis
growth
-schisis
split, fissure
ankylosis
abnormal condition of stiffness (often referring to fixation of a joint, such as the result of chronic rheumatoid arthritis)
arthritis
inflammation of a joint. (The most common forms of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.)
bursitis
inflammation of a bursa
chondromalacia
softening of cartilage
cranioschisis
fissure of the skull (congenital)
diskitis
inflammation of an intervertebral disk (also spelled discitis)
fibromyalgia
pain in the fibrous tissues and muscles (a common condition characterized by widespread pain and stiffness of muscles, fatigue, and disturbed sleep)
kyphosis
abnormal condition of a hump (increased convexity of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side) (also called hunchback or humpback)
lordosis
abnormal condition of bending forward (increased concavity of the lumbar spine as viewed from the side) (also called swayback)
maxillitis
inflammation of the maxilla
meniscitis
inflammation of the meniscus
myasthenia
muscle weakness
myeloma
tumor of the bone marrow (malignant)
osteitis
inflammation of the bone
osteoarthritis (OA)
inflammation of the bone and joint
osteochondritis
inflammation of the bone and cartilage
osteofibroma
tumor of the bone and fibrous tissue (benign)
osteomalacia
softening of bones
osteomyelitis
inflammation of the bone and bone marrow (caused by bacterial infection)
osteopenia
abnormal reduction of bone mass (caused by inadequate replacement of bone lost to normal bone lysis and can lead to osteoporosis)
osteopetrosis
abnormal condition of stonelike bones (marblelike bones caused by increased formation of bone)
osteosarcoma
malignant tumor of the bone
polymyositis
inflammation of many muscles
rachischisis
fissure of the vertebral column (congenital) (also called spina bifida)
rhabdomyolysis
dissolution of striated muscle (The severity of the condition and the degree of weakness and pain vary. Some causes of the illness are trauma, extreme exertion, and drug toxicity; in severe cases renal failure can result.)
sarcopenia
abnormal reduction of connective tissue (such as loss of skeletal muscle mass in the elderly)
scoliosis
abnormal condition of (lateral) a curved (spine)
spondylarthritis
inflammation of the vertebral joints
spondylosis
abnormal condition of the vertebra (a general term used to describe changes to the spine from osteoarthrits or ankylosis)
synoviosarcoma
malignant tumor of the synovial membrane
tendinitis
inflammation of a tendon (also spelled tendonitis)
tenosynovitis
inflammation of the tendon and synovial membrane
ankylosing spondylitis
form of arthritis that first affects the spine and adjacent structures and that, as it progresses, causes a forward bend of the spine (also called Strumpell-Marie arthritis or disease, or rheumatoid spondylitis)
bunion
abnormal prominence of the joint at the base of the great toe. It is a common problem, often hereditary or caused by poorly fitted shoes (also called hallux valgus)
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
a common nerve entrapment disorder of the wrist caused by compression of the median nerve. Symptoms include pain and paresthesia in portions of the hand and fingers
Colles fracture
a type of wrist fracture. The fracture is at the distal end of the radius, the distal fragment being displaced backward.
exostosis
abnormal benign growth on the surface of a bone
fracture (fx)
broken bone
gout
a disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes sodium urate crystals (tophi) to be deposited in the joints, especially that of the great toe, producing arthritis
herniated disk
rupture of the intervertebral disk cartilage, which allows the contents to protrude through it, putting pressure on the spinal nerve roots (also called slipped disk, ruptured disk, herniated intervertebral disk, or herniated nucleus pulposus)
Lyme disease
an infection caused by a bacteria (Borrelia burgdorferi) carried by deer ticks and transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick. Symptoms, caused by the body's immune response to the bacteria, vary and may include a rash at the site of the tick bite and flulike symptoms such as fever, headache, joint pain, and fatigue. Lyme disease was first reported in Lyme, Conn., in 1975. The primary treatment is antibiotics. Left untreated, Lyme disease can mimic several musculoskeletal diseases.
muscular dystrophy (MD)
group of hereditary diseases characterized by degeneration of muscle and weakness
myasthenia gravis (MG)
chronic disease characterized by muscle weakness and thought to be caused by a defect in the transmission of impulses from nerve to muscle cell. The face, larynx, and throat are frequently affected; no true paralysis of the muscles exists.
osteoporosis
abnormal loss of bone density that may lead to an increase in fractures of the ribs, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, hips, and wrists after slight trauma (occurs predominantly in postmenopausal women)
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
a chronic systemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory changes in the connective tissue throughout the body.
spinal stenosis
narrowing of the spinal canal with compression of nerve roots. The condition is either congenital or due to spinal degeneration. Symptoms are pain radiating to the thigh or lower legs and numbness or tingling in the lower extremities.
spondylolisthesis
forward slipping of one vertebra over another
aponeurorrhaphy
suture of an aponeurosis
arthrocentesis
surgical puncture of a joint to aspirate fluid
arthroclasia
(surgical) breaking of a (stiff) joint
arthrodesis
surgical fixation of a joint (also called joint fusion)
arthroplasty
surgical repair of a joint
bursectomy
excision of a bursa
carpectomy
excision of a carpal bone
chondrectomy
excision of a cartilage
chondroplasty
surgical repair of a cartilage
costectomy
excision of a rib
cranioplasty
surgical repair of the skull
craniotomy
incision of the skull (as for surgery of the brain)
diskectomy
excision of an intervertebral disk (a portion of the disk is removed to relieve pressure on nerve roots) (also spelled discectomy)
laminectomy
excision of a lamina (often performed to relieve pressure on the nerve roots in the lower spine caused by a herniated disk and other conditions)
maxillectomy
excision of the maxilla
meniscectomy
excision of the meniscus (performed for a torn cartilage)
myorrhaphy
suture of a muscle
ostectomy
excision of bone
osteoclasis
(surgical) breaking of a bone (to correct a deformity)
patellectomy
excision of the patella
phalangectomy
excision of a finger or toe bone
rachiotomy
incision into the vertebral column
spondylosyndesis
fusing together of the vertebrae (also called spinal fusion)
synovectomy
excision of the synovial membrane (of a joint)
tarsectomy
excision of (one or more) tarsal bones
tenomyoplasty
surgical repair of the tendon and muscle
tenorrhaphy
suture of a tendon
vertebroplasty
surgical repair of the vertebra
arthrography
radiographic imaging of joint (with contrast media). (Magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] has mostly replaced arthrography as the imaging technique for diarthrodial [movable] joints such as the knee, wrist, hip, and shoulder. Arthrography is still used for specialized functions such as when metal is present in the body.)
arthroscopy
visual examination of a joint (used for a diarthrodial [movable] joint)
electromyogram (EMG)
record of the (intrinsic) electrical activity in a (skeletal) muscle
arthralgia
pain in the joint
atrophy
without development (wasting)
bradykinesia
slow movement
carpal
pertaining to the wrist
clavicular
pertaining to the clavicle
cranial
pertaining to the cranium
dyskinesia
difficult movement
dystrophy
abnormal development
femoral
pertaining to the femur
humeral
pertaining to the humerus
hyperkinesia
excessive movement (overactive)
hypertrophy
excessive development
iliofemoral
pertaining to the ilium and femur
intercostal
pertaining to between the ribs
intervertebral
pertaining to between the vertebrae
intracranial
pertaining to within the cranium
ischiofibular
pertaining to the ischium and fibula
ischiopubic
pertaining to the ischium and pubis
lumbar
pertaining to the loins (the part of the back between the thorax and pelvis)
lumbocostal
pertaining to the loins and the ribs
lumbosacral
pertaining to the lumbar regions (loin) and the sacrum
osteoblast
developing bone cell
osteocyte
bone cell
osteonecrosis
abnormal death of bone (tissues)
pelvic
pertaining to the pelvis
pelvisacral
pertaining to the pelvis and the sacrum
pubic
pertaining to the pubis
pubofemoral
pertaining to the pubis and femur
radial
pertaining to the radius
sacral
pertaining to the sacrum
sternoclavicular
pertaining to the sternum and clavicle
sternoid
resembling the sternum
subcostal
pertaining to below the rib
submandibular
pertaining to below the mandible
submaxillary
pertaining to below the maxilla
subscapular
pertaining to below the scapula
substernal
pertaining to below the sternum
suprapatellar
pertaining to above the patella
suprascapular
pertaining to above the scapula
symphysis
growing together (as in symphysis pubis)
tibial
pertaining to the tibia
ulnoradial
pertaining to the ulna and radius
vertebrocostal
pertaining to the vertebrae and ribs
chiropodist, podiatrist
specialist in treating and diagnosing diseases and disorders of the foot, including medical and surgical treatment
chiropractic
system of treatment that consists of manipulation of the vertebral column
chiropractor
specialist in chiropractic
crepitus
the crackling sound heard when two bones rub against each other or grating caused by the rubbing together of dry surfaces of a joint. (Crepitus is also used to describe the crackling sound heard with pneumonia or the sound heard from the discharge of gas from the bowel.) (also called crepitation)
orthopedics (ortho)
branch of medicine dealing with the study and treatment of diseases and abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system
orthopedist
physician who specializes in orthopedics
orthotics
making and fitting of orthopedic appliances, such as arch supports, used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities
orthotist
a person who specializes in orthotics
osteoclast
type of bone cell involved in absorption and removal of bone minerals. It works in balance with osteoblasts to maintain healthy bone tissue.
osteopath
physician who specializes in osteopathy
osteopathy
system of medicine that uses the usual forms of diagnosis and treatment but places greater emphasis on the role of the relation between body organs and the musculoskeletal system; manipulation may be used in addition to other treatments
prosthesis (pl. prostheses)
an artificial substitute for a missing body part such as a leg, eye, or total hip replacement
C1-C7
cervical vertebrae
CTS
carpal tunnel syndrome
EMG
electromyogram
fx
fracture
HNP
herniated nucleus pulposus
L1-L5
lumbar vertebrae
MD
muscular dystrophy
MG
myasthenia gravis
OA
osteoarthritis
ortho
orthopedics
RA
rheumatoid arthritis
T1-T12
thoracic vertebrae
THA
total hip arthroplasty