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The Earth, Moon, and the Sun Study Guide
Terms in this set (38)
A pattern or grouping of stars imagined by people of different cultures to represent a figure
Either of the two days of the year on which the sun reaches its greatest distance north or south of the equator
Dec 21 - shortest day of the year
June 21 - longest day of the year
The times when day and night are of equal length
Once in the fall and once in the spring
All objects are attracted to each other by this force and the force that pulls the moon toward the earth
Law of universal gravitation
States that every object in the universe attracts every other object
The tendency of a moving object to continue moving in a straight line or a stationary object to remain in place unless acted upon by an outside force
Is a push or a pull
Occurs when the earth moves directly between the sun and the moon (SEM) and casts a shadow on the moon (total eclipse is red)
Occurs when the moon moves directly between the sun and the earth (SME)
The darkest part of the moon's shadow
The largest part of the moon's shadow
Flat areas on the moon, that once flooded with lava, black in color
a meteor that survives its passage through the earth's atmosphere such that part of it strikes the ground.
a small body moving in the solar system that would become a meteor if it entered the earth's atmosphere.
A meteoroid enters Earth's atmosphere, it produced this streak of light
A tide with the least distance between low and high tide
A tide with the greatest difference between consecutive low and high tides
How long is one complete revolution of Earth around the sun?
How long does Earth take to make a complete rotation on its axis?
About 24 hours
Why does earth have seasons?
Earth has seasons because its axis is tilted (toward or away from the sun) as it moves around the sun.
When does a summer solstice occur in the Southern Hemisphere?
The summer solstice occurs when the sun is farthest south (approx Dec 21).
What marks the beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere?
The beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere is depended on the vernal equinox.
What does the strength of gravity depends on?
The strength of gravity depends on the masses of the objects and the distance between them.
What depends on the phases of the moon?
The phases of the moon depend on the sunlit side of the moon that faces the earth and the relative positions of the earth, moon and sun.
What causes day and night on Earth?
Earth rotates on its axis in a twenty-four hour cycle. The part of Earth that faces the sun
experiences day. As Earth turns, the part of Earth that experienced day rotates to face
away from the sun, where it experiences night.
What are two major motions of Earth as it travels through space? What is the difference between the two?
The two major motions are rotation (the spin of earth on its axis - 24 h) and revolution ( the orbit of earth around the sun - 365 ¼ days).
What two factors keep a planet in orbit around the sun?
Gravity (the sun pulls the earth towards the sun) and Inertia (tends to make Earth travel in a straight line). Gravity is a force that attracts all objects toward each other. While, inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion.
During what phase of the moon will a lunar eclipse occur?
A lunar eclipse only happens when there is a full moon.
What are tides caused by?
Tides are caused mainly by the difference in how much gravity from the moon and the sun pulls on different parts of the earth. At any one time on earth, there are usually two places with high tides and two places with low tides.
Why are spring tides higher than other tides?
Spring tides are higher than other tides because the sun, moon, and Earth are nearly in a line during a new/full moon. The combined force of gravity from the moon and the sun pull on the earth producing the greatest difference in high and low tides.
Are there always 4 tides?
Sometimes there may only be 3 tide changes - depending on time...but in most cases there are 4 tides....
What is the temperature of the moon? Why may it vary?
The temperature of the moon can vary from 130 degrees Celsius to -170 degrees Celsius. The temperatures vary so much because the moon does not have an atmosphere. The moon's surface gravity is so weak that gases can easily escape into space.
Why is it warmer at the equator of the earth?
Near the equator, sunlight hits Earth's surface directly. Near the poles, however,
the sun's rays are more spread out. The same amount of energy is spread out over
a larger area. As a result, it is generally colder near the poles.
Why do people always see the same side of the moon?
The moon rotates on its axis at the same rate as it revolves around Earth. These two motions take the same amount of time, so the same side of the moon always faces Earth.
What keeps the earth and the moon in its orbit? Why?
Inertia and gravity because without earth's pull on the moon it would move in a straight line (inertia).
Why do constellations "move" with seasons on Earth?
As Earth revolves around the sun, we have a different view of the stars.
How long does it take for the moon to orbit the earth?
It takes about 28 days.
Full Moon: 5
Waning Gibbous: 6
Third quarter: 7
Waning Crescent: 8
New Moon: 1
Waxing Crescent: 2
First Quarter: 3
Waxing Gibbous: 4
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