APES 2003 AP Test
58 and 98 were not scored on this exam, which is why there are only 98 questions with answers, not 100.
Terms in this set (98)
Approximate efficiency of an average coal-fired power plant
Approximate efficiency of the conversion of light energy to chemical energy in photosynthesis
Approximate percentage of electrical energy converted to heat in the average incandescent lightbulb
The mazimum efficiency possible in an energy conversion process that is not limited by the second law of thermodynamics
The rapid rate of this process in tropical forests results in low nutrient soils
The process in which glucose is synthesized by plants
The process by which a soil nutrient is reduced and released to the atmosphere as a gas
Most abundant element in Earth's crust
Most abundant element in Earth's atmosphere
Most abundant element in Earths core
Element commercially extracted from bauxite
Ammonia is converted to nitrite, then to nitrate
Plant roots absorb ammonium ions and nitrate ions for use in making molecules such as DNA, amino acids, and proteins
Nitrate ions and nitrite ions are converted into nitrous oxide gas and nitrogen gas
Most often cited as the causative factor for acid deposition
A: sulfur dioxide
Implicated in human neurological damage
Considered harmful in the troposphere but beneficial in the stratosphere
Is the major pollutant that electrostatic precipitators are designed to remove from the power plant smokestack emissions
Country with the largest area of boreal forests
country with the greatest percentage of land area affected by desertification
Country with the largest area of temperate deciduous forest
Represents max # of individuals that can be supported by a particular ecosystem on a long term basis
E- Straight dotted line
Represents the biotic potential of the species
A- exponential line
Represents the growth of a population predicted by the logistic model
C- dotted line not touching E but close
The most commonly used measure of the economic growth of a country is which of the following?
A: Gross domestic product
The factor that likely poses the greatest threat of extinction of species worldwide is
E: increasing loss of habitat
Which of the following energy sources is not the derived directly or indirectly from solar energy?
Which of the following best exemplifies global collaboration for a sustainable environment?
A: the Montreal Protocol
Which of the following is an effective alternative to chlorine for disinfecting wastewater in a municipal treatment plant?
The presence of fecal coliform bacteria in a sample of river water suggests which of the following?
B: The water is contaminated with animal waste
Which of the following best helps to explain why phosphorus is often a limiting factor in many ecosystems?
C: under many conditions, phosphorus forms stable insoluble compunds
Factors contributing to the rise in world hunger include all of the following EXCEPT
E: increasing consumption of vegetable protein in place of meat protein
In a city of population 10,000 experiences 100 births, 40 deaths, 10 immigrants, and 30 emigrants, in the course of a year, what is its net annual percentage growth rate?
Which of the following statements about genetic diversity is true?
B: Genetic resistance to pests and diseases can be increased by crossing a crop plant with ancestral varieties
In the U.S., most municipal solid waste is disposed of by
Negative environmental impacts associated with large-scale hydroelectric projects have been demonstrated in which of the following areas?
A: James Bay. Quebec
A country with an age distribution like that shown in the figure above is most likely a country that is
B experiencing slow or no population growth
Which of the following factors is fundamentally responsible for seasons on Earth
B: Tilt of earth's axis of rotation
If wastewater treatment plant effluent that contains nitrates and phosphates is allowed to flow into a body of water, which of the following may result?
Which of the following describes a fundamental characteristic of the green revolution food resources?
D: the develpment of new strains of crops with higher yields
An industry uses natural gas for manufacturing and uses the waste heat to produce electricity.This is an example of which of the following processes?
The water holding capacity of soil is least likely to be affected by the addition of which of the following?
Critics of incineration of municipal solid waste suggest that it may not be the best solution for the future, for which of the following reasons?
D: Incineration contributes to air pollution
Which of the following is likely to minimize soil erosion?
E: No-till agriculture
A state highway was constructed over wetlands. The state obtained a permit to fill the existing wetlands in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1972, and agreed to create another wetland. This tradeoff approach to addressing an environmental issue is known as
Information gathered by a scientist about the toxicity of chemical X and chemical Y showed that they had individual safe limits for fish at particular concentrations. But when they were used together at the safe concentrations, there were extensive fish kills. This is an example of
The polar regions radiate away more heat energy than they receive from the sun in the course of a year. However, they are prevented from becoming progressively colder each year primarily by the
B: Transport of heat through the atmosphere and oceans
An advantage of recycling aluminum rather that disposing of it in landfills is that aluminum can be
A: produced from recycled metal using much less energy that is required for its production from aluminum ore
As urbanization increases and natural soil surfaces are covered, the groundwater supply is reduced due to
C: loss of recharge area
The current global human populations is about 6.1 billion and is growing at an annual rate of 1.35%/ If world population were to grow at this rate for the next year, approximately how many people would be added?
C: 8* 10^7
Which of the following methods of agricultural irrigation results in the loss of the least amount of water by evaporation?
B: drip irrigation
Which of the following components of a wastewater treatment plant is designed to facilitate the decomposition of organic material by aerobic microorganisms?
C: activated sludge tank
Ozone in the stratosphere is most important to life at earth's surface because it absorbs
C: ultraviolet light
The major source of radon in houses in the US is
B: Underlying bedrock (remember the radon rose up through the basement because that's where a lot of the bedrock was)
The data in the graph can be useful in explaining the greenhouse effect when they are compared with
C: mean global temperatures
The annual fluctuation in carbon dioxide concentration can best be explained by the
E: seasonal photosynthetic activity of green plants
Integrated waste management employs all of the following except
B: using disposable diapers instead of cloth diapers
Economic benefits of building large dams include which of the following
C: I and III only
Which of the following statements is best supported by the data?
E: There is a positive correlation between breast cancer and dietary fat intake
US residents are how many times more likely to die from breast cancer than residents of Hungary?
Of the following sources, which supplies the most commercial energy in the world today?
Which of the following is a greenhouse gas that is also a by product of anaerobic respiration?
A: Methane, CH4 (remember: methane is produced anaerobically through the decomposition of organic matter in swamps and shit)
If the population of a country grows at a rate of approximately 5% per year, the number of years required for the population to double is closest to
The major cause for the decline in the worldwide catch of fish since 1990 is
Which of the following will occur if the trend of global temperature increase continues?
E: The troposphere will contain more water vapor
Which of the following is the primary environmental problem associated with the use of nuclear power to generate electricity?
C: Disposal of radioactive waste
Compared to a coal fired power plant that produces the same amount of energy, a nuclear power plant generates more
E: thermal pollution
The chart above compares the daily water use per person to the price of water in selected countries. Which of the following conclusions can be correctly drawn using only the data in the chart?
D: Increased water use is generally correlated with lower water prices
Which of the following identifies the two factors thought to be the most harmful to biodiversity?
C: Destruction of habitat and invasion by nonnative species
For a certain insecticide, the LD-50 dosage level for rats is determined to be 250 milligrams per kilogram of body mass. ON the basis of this information, which of the following is the best prediction regarding the consequences of receiving this dosage of the insecticide?
E: 500 out of every one thousand rats would die
radon pollution causes?
a. lung cancer
Why do introduced species often become pests?
a. They displace native species
The major human health problem related to radon accumulation is
A: lung cancer
Acid rain is associated with which of the following?
D: burning of fossil fuels
Characteristics that tend to increase the risk of species becoming endangered include which of the following?
E: I,II,and III
Stratospheric ozone depletion is most likely to result in which of the following?
C: disruption of photosynthesis in plants
Which of the following is a process that indirectly removes carbon from earths atmosphere?
A: formation of carbonate deposits
Which of the following is the best explanation of the fact that agricultural production on floodplains is often relatively high?
A: On floodplains, soils tend to be nutrient rich and fertile
The increase in the size of Earth's human population in the last century has been dramatic. Which of the following identifies two major contributors to this increase?
B: the industrial revolution and modern medicine
Many scientists maintain that a rise in sea level has occurred in the last hundred years as a result of global warming. If this is true, which of the following factors best explains such a rise?
D: thermal expansion of the ocean
Which of the following natural events would most likely contribute to the cooling of Earth's atmosphere?
At the current rate of qrowth, Earth's human population will double in about 50 years. Which of the following is the least viable strategy for ensuring adequate nutrition for a population of this size?
B: Doubling the area of arable land on a global basis
Approximately how much less carbon will be produced by the second auto on this trip?
E: 50 lbs
Which of the following best describes the significance of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, which was held 1972 in Stockholm?
D: the conference provided the first global forum for dialogue on environmental problems
Regulations that deal directly with the disposal of hazardous materials in the US include
A: 1 only ( RCRA)
WHich of the following is a true statement about replacement level fertility?
E: It is greater in countries with high infant mortality rates than in countries with low infant mortality rates
Which of the following best illustrates the concept of the tragedy of the commons?
E: depletion of an aquifer by regional farmers
Of the following, which is the best example of reclamation of disturbed lands?
A: restoring vegetation to an area that has been mined
Peroleum in the US is about 23 barrrels per capita
D: 6 billion barrels
One solution for reducing the amound of atmospheric carbon dioxide would be to
D: decrease the use of fossil fuels
Drop in stratospheric ozone levels in the southern hemisphere is most evident during which season?
A: antarctic spring(october)
Which of the following would be the strongest evidence in support of a scientists contention that a local area was experiencing acid desposiiton?
E: an increase in the concentrations of soluble heavy metals in a local pond
Which of the following is the usual cause of cultural eutrophicaiton in the surface waters of both develped and develping ocuntries
D: runoff of nitrate compounds into bodies of water
If mean global temperature keeps on increasing as predicted by contemporary scienctists, which of the following is most likely
B: specialist species living in a fragile ecosystens will risk extinction
photosynthesis is the major source of the following gas in the Earth's atmosphere
Travelling southward from the Arctic regions of Canada to the tropics of Panama, one passes through several biomes - tundra, coniferous forest, temperate deciduous forest, and tropical rain forest. This pattern of chance in vegetation is primarily the result of
c. An increase in both mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation.
Which statement best describes the approximate global distribution of coal supplies?
d. The United States, the former Soviet Union, and China together contain 50% of the proven reserves.