AP European History Chapter 29 Study Guide

Terms in this set (64)

- The tense relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union began in the closing months of WWII
- Some have said that Truman didn't use the atomic bomb to keep Russia out of the Pacific but he worked hard to make sure that Russian intervention against Japan in 1945
- The Soviet Union's attempt to extend its control westwar into central Europe and the Balkans and southward into the Middle East continued the general thrust of the foreign policy of tsarist Russia
= Britain traditionally tried to prevent Russian expansion in these areas, and the U.S.A. took over that task when Britain's power weakened
- The Americans made no attempt to roll back Soviet power where it existed at the close of WWII
- America wanted to pull out of Europe but tensions made them come back
- American peacetime plans and goals
= Self-determination, autonomy, and democracy in the political sphere, and free trade, freedom of the seas, no barriers to investment, and an Open Door policy in the economic sphere
- Postwar colonial empires created tensions with France and Britain, but the main conflict was with the Soviet Union
- France and Italy of large popular communist parties taking orders from Moscow led the Americans to believe that Stalin was engaged in a worldwide plot to subvert capitalism and democracy
- To the Soviets, extending borders of the U.S.S.R. and dominating the formerly independent successor states of Eastern Europe would provide needed security and compensate for the fearful losses the Soviet people had endured during the war
- The Soviets could see the American resistance to their expansion as a threat to their security and their legitimate aims
- Soviet union was severely attacked and wounded in WWI and WWII, so both times they lost a huge number of people
= They wanted to have a buffer zone at end of WWII to take over Eastern Europe, especially Poland and its surrounding neighbors
== The U.S.A. wanted Eastern European countries to have democracies, and this misunderstanding between the U.S.A. and the Soviet Union led to countries gaining allies from other countries
- In February 1946, both Stalin and his foreign minister, Vyacheslav Molotov (1890-1986), publicly spoke of the Western Democracies as enemies
- A month later, Churchill gave a speech in Fulton, Missouri, declaring that an "Iron Curtain" had come upon Europe, dividing a free and democratic West from an East under totalitarian rule
= He warned against communist subversion and urged Western unity and strength against the new menace
- Soviet's extraordinary losses in WWII, makes it not surprising that Soviet leaders sought to use their Eastern European satellites as a buffer against future invasions
- Stalin may have thought containment as a new Western attempt to isolate and encircle the U.S.S.R.
- In Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union found numerous supporters among those segments of the population who had opposed the right-wing movements in those countries before the war and who had fought the Nazis during the war
- Autumn 1947, Stalin called a meeting in Warsaw of all communist parties from around the globe
= There they organized the Communist Information Bureau (Comintern), a revival of the old Comintern, dedicated to spread revolutionary communism throughout the world
- February 1948, in Prague, Stalin gave a display of his new policy of bringing the governments of Eastern Europe under direct Soviet control
- The Communists expelled the democratic members of what had been a coalition government and murdered Jan Masaryk (1886-1948), the foreign minister and son of the founder of Czechoslovakia, Thomas Masaryk
- President Edvard Beneš (1884-1948) was forced to resign, and Czechoslovakia was brought under full Soviet rule
= Making it clear that there wouldn't be any multiparty political system
- During the late 1940s, the Soviet Union required the other subject governments in Eastern Europe to impose Stalinist policies, including one-party political systems, close military cooperation with the Soviet Union, the collectivization of agriculture, Communist Party domination of education, and attacks on the churches
- Longtime Communist Party officials were purged and condemned in show trials like those had taken place in Moscow during the late 1930s
- The catalyst for this was the success of Marshal Josip (Broz) Tito (1892-1980), the leader of Communist Yugoslavia, in freeing his country from Soviet domination
- Stalin wanted to prevent other Eastern European states from following Yugoslavia
- U.N. police action intervened militarily in Korea
- 1910-1945, Japan occupied Korea and left it after WWII
- The U.S.A. and Soviet Union split Korea on the 38th parallel of latitude
- 1948, the 2 states emerge: The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (Soviet Union support; North Korea) and The Republic of Korea (U.S.A. support; South Korea)
- June 25, 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea
- The U.S.A. intervened, at first unilaterally then under the U.N. resolution
- Great Britain, Turkey, Australia, and other countries sent token forces
- The Korean police action was technically a UN-sponsored venture to halt aggression
- For the U.S.A., the point of the Korean conflict was to contain the spread and halt the aggression of communism
- Late 1950, the Chinese, sent troops to North Korea
- The Americans viewed the Chinese support for North Korea as communist pressure against a non-communist state
- June 16, 1953, the Eisenhower administration concluded an armistice ending the Korean War and restoring the border near the 38th parallel
- The war confirmed the American government's faith in containment
- It also transformed the Cold War into a global rivalry that ranged well beyond Europe
- The formation NATO and the Korean conflict capped the first round of the Cold War
- 1953, Stalin's death and the armistice in Korea fostered hopes that international tensions might ease
- Early 1955, Soviet occupation forces left Austria after the nation accepted neutral status
- Later that year, the leaders of France, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States held a summit conference in Geneva on nuclear weapons and the future of divided Germany
- The meeting produced few substantial agreements, and the Cold War soon resumed
- Leadership of Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)
- The British made the Indians pay for British rule
- The Indians supplied raw materials for the British cotton mills
- For decades, the religious, ethnic, linguistic, and political divisions among Indians permitted the British to dominate the country through a divide-and-rule strategy
- 1885, the Hindu Indian National Congress (INC)
= Goals of modernizing Indian life and liberalizing British policy
- Muslims organized the Muslim League in 1887, led by Ali Jinnah, which started out working withe the INC but soon wanted an independent Muslim nation
- After WWI, the Indian nationalist movement strengthened
- Gandhi was a chief leader
= He studied law in Britain and then went to South Africa for Indian immigrants
= He returned to India in 1915, but was different because he led by religious tolerance
- 1920s-1940s Gandhi led by passive resistance
= The Salt March
- He got arrested and jailed many times
- He did long protest fasts, which almost killed him
- 1942, during WWII, he asked the British government to leave
= 1947, they did
- Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968) used Gandhi's passive resistance
- Gandhi and the Congress Party succeeded in forcing the British from India but the two religions did not stay together
- 1947, India and Pakistan ended up from the independence
- Thousands of deaths marked the partition
- A Hindu assassin killed Gandhi in 1948
- Pakistan was for the Muslims and later broke into East Pakistan which became Bangladesh in 1971
= However a vast amount of Muslims stayed in India
- Pakistan is the emergence of political Islamism
- India and Pakistan still have conflicts liked the ownership of Kashmir
- WWI, approximately 20 percent of Algeria was from European descent, these immigrants were called pieds noirs (black feet)
- Shortly after WWI, France allowed full French citizenship to Algerian Muslims who had fought in the war, who were literate in French, or who owned land, but it was only given to a few thousand people
- During WWII, French forces dominated under the Vichy government
- After WWII, a violent clash between Muslims and French settlers broke out with lots of deaths on both sides, but the French repressed the Muslims with lots of deaths
= This incident marked the start of conscious Algerian nationalism
== Many Algerian Muslims supported independence
- The French undertook economic reforms and limited structure for political representation, but were ineffective
- Algerian nationalists founded the National Liberation Front (FLN)
- 1954, a civil war broke out and the FLN undertook highly effective guerrilla warfare
- The government of the 4th French Republic declared Algeria an integral part of france and refused to compromise with the insurgents
- Both sides had committed atrocities; hundreds of thousands of Algerians killed
- The war divided France with many French citizens, often of left-wing political opinion, objecting to the war, and the French military, still smarting from its defeats in WWII and in Indochina, determined to fight on
- European settlers in Algeria saw any settlement with the nationalists as betrayal, exacerbated the situation
- The French government itself became paralyzed and lost control of the army
- General Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970) reentered French political life largely at the urging of the military
= He created the new constitution, the 5th Republic and became president in December 1958, he then undertook a long strategic retreat from Algeria
- 1961, OAS (Organisation Armée Secréte) would attempt a coup in Paris
- 1962, de Gaulle held a referendum in Algeria on independence, which passed overwhelmingly
- Algeria became independent on July 3, 1962
- Many pied noirs settlers fled Algeria for France as did many Muslims because they feared reprisals
= This marked the start of the largely unwelcomed, Muslim population in France
- Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations continued to support Diem
- The American military presence grew from about 600 advisers in early 1961 to more than 16,000 troops in 1963
- The political situation in Vietnam became increasingly unstable
- November 1, 1963, an army coup in which the U.S.A. was deeply involved overthrew and murdered Diem
- The U.S.A. finally settled with Nguyen Van Thieu (1923-2001), who governed South Vietnam from 1966-1975
- President Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963
= His successor, Lyndon Johnson (1963-1969), vastly expanded the commitment on South Vietnam
- August 1964, after an attack on the American ship in the Gulf of Tonkin, Johnson authorized the first bombing of North Vietnam
- February 1965, major bombing attacks began and lasted till 1973
- 1969, President Richard Nixon began a policy known as Vietnamization, which involved the gradual withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam while the South Vietnamese army took over the full military effort
- Peace negotiations began in Paris in 1968, but a cease fire didn't happen till 1973
- American troops left South Vietnam, and North Vietnam released its American prisoners of war
- Early 1975, an evacuation of South Vietnamese troops from the northern part of their country turned into a rout when they were attacked by the North Vietnamese
- April 30, 1975, Saigon fell to the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese army, Vietnam was finally united
- The U.S.A. intervention in Vietnam affected the entire Western world
- U.S.A. policy in Southeast Asia made many Europeans question the wisdom of the American government and its commitment to Western Europe
- The U.S.A. was regarded as ambitious, aggressive, and cruel power trying to keep colonialism alive after the end of the colonial era
- Yugoslavia was created after WWI and its borders included the Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Montenegrins, Macedonians, Bosnians, and Albanians
= The Croats and Slovenes are Roman Catholic and use the Latin alphabet
= The Serbs, Montenegrins, and Macedonians are Eastern Orthodox and use the cyrillic alphabet
= The Bosnians and Albanians are mostly Muslims
- After Tito (1892-1980) died, economic difficulties undermined the authority of the central government, and Yugoslavia gradually dissolved into civil war
- Late 1980s, the old ethnic differences came to the foreground again in Yugoslav politics
- Nationalist leaders-most notably Slobodan Milosevic (b. 1941-2006) in Serbia and Franjo Tudjman (b. 1922) in Croatia- gained authority
- Ethnic tension and violence between the Serbia and Croatia and Alabanians
- Summer 1990, Slovenia and Croatia declared independence from the central Yugoslav government, and several European nations, including, most importantly, Germany, immediately granted them recognition
- Violence escalated, Serbia concerned about Serbs living in Croatia and about the loss of lands and resources there-was determined to maintain a unitary Yugoslav state it would dominate
- Croatia was equally determined to secure independence
= Croatian Serbs demanded safeguards against discrimination and violence, providing the Serbian army with pretext to move against Croatia
- June 1991, full-fledged war had erupted between the 2 republics
- Serbia accused Croatia of reviving fascism; Croatia accused Serbia or maintaining a Stalinist regime
- Ethnic conflict
- 1992, conflict took a new turn when Croatian and Serbian forces determined to divide Bosnia-Herzegovina
- Serbs pursued "ethnic cleansing" a euphemism redolent of some of the worst horrors of WWII, killed or forcibly removed many Bosnian Muslims
- The bombardment of Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina, brought the violence of the Yugoslav civil war to the attention of the world
- The United Nations attempted unsuccessfully to mediate the conflict and imposed sanctions that had little effect
- NATO forced the Serbs to withdraw their artillery from around Sarajevo
- The events of the civil war came to a head in 1995 when NATO forces carried out strategic air strikes
= This recognized an independent Bosnia
- Toward the end of the 1990s, Serbian aggression against ethnic Albanians in the province of Kosovo again drew NATO into Yugoslav affairs
- There were many casualties, atrocities, and deaths
= 1999, NATO again carried out an air campaign and sent troops into Kosovo to safeguard the ethnic Albanians
- The disintegration of the former Yugoslavia took still another important turn in February 2008 when Kosovo with its Albanian majority population declared its independence from Serbia
- The U.S.A. recognized Kosovo's independence
= The Russian federation strongly condemned the independence of Kosovo
- Vladimir Putin became president in 2000 and established his position as a national and nationalistic leader of the federation
- He vigorously renewed the war against the rebels of Chechnya, which resulted in heavy casualties and enormous destruction there, but also strengthened Putin's political support in Russia itself
= The ongoing Chechen war spawned one of the major acts of recent terrorism in Russia
= September 2003, a group of Chechens captured an elementary school in Beslan
- By the middle of the decade, the Russian forces had clearly established the upper hand over the Chechen rebels and the drive toward independence, costing many lives
- Putin attacked enormously wealthy and economically powerful figures to gain support from the Russian public
- Putin imprisoned political critics and opponents as well as moving against independent newspapers and television stations
- During his presidency, economy improved, foreign debts were paid and more consumer goods were available
- 2008, Putin lef the elected presidency and handpicked successor Dmitri Medvedev (b. 1965)
= Putin however assumed office of prime minister and clearly remained the chief political figure in the country
- Putin now president and prime minister has been determined to use the nation's economic recovery and new wealth to allow Russia to reassert its position as a major power on both the regional and world scene
- After 9/11, Putin supported American assault on Afghanistan largely because they were afraid that Islamic extremism would spread beyond Chechnya to other regions in Russia and to the largely Muslim nations that bordered Russia in Central Asia and the Caucasus
= This period of cooperation was short
- Putin became one of the leading voices against American invasion of Iraq and has continued to criticize American policy in the region
- Putin has been critical of NATO's expansion which has embraced nations directly bordering the Russian Federation
- Russian troops first drove the Georgians out of South Ossetia, and then continued into Georgia itself
- The Russian invasion of Georgia marked a new departure in post-Soviet Russian foreign policy and a resurgence of Russian international influence following the collapse of the Soviet Union nearly 20 years later
- Discussion about including Georgia and Ukraine into NATO
- The Russian Federation feared Kosovo and the international recognition its independence would tempt other countries to follow them
= They also feared encirclement by NATO member nations where the U.S.A. might locate bases
- Action against Georgia demonstrated Russian willingness to take advantage of American involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan to reassert its potential authority in those regions
- 9/11 made Bush administration decide to attack the Taliban government of Afghanistan and rapidly overthrew it
- "A war on terrorism"
- The Taliban leadership survived hid
- Iraq destruction weapons threatened the U.S.A. because of the terror organizations, making it make a preemptive attack/action
- 2002, Bush administration focused on Suddam Hussein's government in Iraq
- Iraq did no comply with the U.N. on nuclear and destructive weapons and did not allow (1998) for an inspection for 5 years (2003)
- The Bush administration determined to overthrow Saddam Hussein and remove any threat from supposed Iraqi weapons of mass destruction
- Britain and the U.S.A. in late 2002 and early 2003 required Iraq to give up its military force but the efforts failed
- The U.S.A. and Britain back by 30+ nations invaded Iraq in late March 2003
= After 3 weeks of fighting, the Iraqi army and Suddam Hussein's government collapsed
- NATO and the European Union either supported or opposed the U.S.A. and Britain
- The Iraqi war created a new relation between the U.S.A. and Europe and U.S.A. and the rest of the world
- Al Qaeda terrorists struck Europe on March 1 2004 in Madrid Spain by train bombs, at least 190 were killed
- American invasion of Iraq lost election and the new government soon withdrew Spanish troops from Iraq
- 2006, Suddam Hussein was tried and executed from crimes against humanity
- July 7, 2005, the London bus and subway system was struck with bombs killing many, Britain however still kept its forces in Iraq
- Iraq War had 4,000+ deaths of American troops and Iraqis, continued to cause controversy in the United States and between the United States and its NATO allies
- Early 2007, the Bush administration increased the number of troops committed to Iraq
- The purpose of the increase in troops, called "the surge" in the press, was to bring about greater internal stability in the country and most particularly in Baghdad
- Early 2009, Presiden Barack Obama undertook a policy to withdraw most American combat troops from Iraq by the late summer of 2010