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Behavior Modification Test 4
Terms in this set (16)
Know what is time-out, types of time out and considerations in using time-out
defined as the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period contingent on the problem behavior, the result is a decrease in the future probability of the problem behavior
Types of timeout
1.Nonexclusionary time-out (the person remains in the room while being removed from access to positive reinforcers
2.Exclusionary time-out (the person is removed from the room)
Considerations in using Time-out
1.What is the function of the problem behavior?
2.Is time-out practical in the circumstances?
3.Is time-out safe?
4.Is the time-out period brief?
5.Can escape from time-out be prevented?
6.Can interactions be avoided during time-out?
7.Is time-out acceptable in the circumstances?
Know what is response cost and considerations in using response cost
defined as the removal of a specified amount of a reinforcer contingent on the occurrence of a problem behavior
Considerations in using response cost
1.Which reinforcer will be removed?
2.Is the reinforcer loss immediate or delayed?
3.Is the reinforcer loss ethical?
4.Is response cost practical and acceptable?
Be able to compare and contrast response cost, time-out and extinction***
Similar in that they are used to decrease a problem behavior.
Different processes are involved:
with extinction, the problem behavior is no longer followed by the reinforcing event that previously maintained the behavior
with time-out, the person is removed from access to all sources of reinforcement contingent on the problem behavior
with response cost, a specific amount of a reinforcer the person already possesses is removed after the problem behavior
Understand various application of aversive activities: overcorrection, contingent exercise, guided compliance, and physical restraint***
OVERCORRECTION is a procedure developed to decrease aggressive and disruptive behaviors exhibited by people with intellectual disabilities in institutional settings. Two forms of it are positive practice and restitution.
POSITIVE PRACTICE (the client has to engage in correct forms of relevant behavior contingent on an instance of the problem behavior)
RESTITUTION (the client must correct the environmental effects of the problem behavior and restore the environment to a condition better that that which existed before the problem behavior)
CONTINGENT EXERCISE the client is made to engage in some form of physical exercise contingent on an instance of the problem behavior. The result is a decrease in the future probability of the problem behavior
GUIDED COMPLIANCE the person is guided physically through the requested activity contingent on the occurrence of the problem behavior
PHYSICAL RESTRAINT the change agent holds immobile the part of the clients body that is involved in the behavior
Be familiar with the cautions in the application of aversive activities
1. The application of aversive activities should be used only when the change agent can provide physical guidance
2. The change agent must anticipate that the client may resist the physical guidance, at least initially, and must be certain that he or she can carry out the procedure if the client does resist physically
3. The change agent must be certain that the physical guidance involved in the procedure is not reinforcing to the client. If such physical contact is reinforcing, the procedure will not function as punishment.
4. The change agent must be certain that the procedure can be conducted with no harm to the client or change agent. This is particularly important when the client resists and struggles with the change agent during the implementation of the procedure, with the risk for injury to both.
Understand the considerations in using positive punishment and the ethics of punishment
1. Use functional interventions first
2. Implement differential reinforcement with punishment
3. Consider the function of the problem behavior
4. Choose the aversive stimulus with care
5. Collect data to make treatment decisions
6. Address the ethical considerations
Training and Supervision
Accountability: Preventing Misuse and Overuse
Know the concept of generalization and strategies to promote generalization
defined as the occurrence of the behavior in the presence of stimuli that are similar in some way to the discriminative stimulus that was present during training.
1. reinforcing instances of generalization
2. training skills that contact natural contingencies of reinforcement
3. modifying contingencies of reinforcement and punishment in the natural environment
4. incorporating a wide range of relevant stimulus situations in training
5. incorporating common stimuli
6. teaching a range of functionally equivalent responses
7. incorporating self-generated mediators of generalization
Be familiar with the guidelines to promote generalization and promoting generalized reductions in problem behaviors
guidelines to promote generalization
1. identify the target stimulus situations for the behavior
2. identify natural contingencies of reinforcement for the behavior
3. implement appropriate strategies to promote generalization
4. measure generalization of behavior change
guideline to achieve a generalized reduction in problem behaviors
1. conduct a functional assessment of the problem behavior
2. plan for generalization in advance
3. focus on functionally equivalent alternative behaviors to replace the problem behaviors
4. maintain extinction (or punishment) contingencies across situations and over time
Know what is self-managment and the types of self-managment strategies
____________ occurs when a person engages in behavior at one time to control the occurrence of another behavior(target behavior) a a later time. It involves a controlling behavior and a controlled behavior.
Types of self-managment strategies
1. goal-setting and self-monitoring
2. antecedent manipulations
3. behavioral contracting
4. arranging reinforcers and punishers
5. social support
6. self-instructions and self-praise
Understand the steps in self-managment plan ****
1. Make the decision to engage in self-management
2. Define the target behavior and competing behaviors
3. Set Goals
5. Conduct a functional assessment
6. Choose appropriate self-managment strategies
7. Evaluate change
8. Reevaluate self-managment strategies if necessary
9. Implement maintenance strategies
Understand the habit reversal procedures and applications of habit reversal
1. awareness training
2. competing response training
3. social support
4. motivation procedures
Application of habit reversal
1. Nervous Habits
2. Motor and vocal tics
Know why does habit reversal procedures work and other treatment procedures for habit disorder
awareness training and the use of a competing response
Be familiar with the concept of token economy and its implementation
its purpose is to strengthen clients desirable behaviors that occur too infrequently and to decrease their undesirable behaviors in a structured treatment environment or educational setting. Each point received by the adolescents for desirable behavior is a token.
Implementing a token economy
1. Defining the target behavior
2. Identifying the items to use as tokens
3. Identifying backup reinforcers
4. Deciding on the appropriate schedule of reinforcement
5. Establishing the token exchange rate
6. Establishing the time and place for exchanging tokens
7. Deciding whether to use response cost
8. Staff training and management
Be familiar with the practical considerations and applications of a token economy
1.The change agent should always deliver the tokens immediately after the desirable target behavior
2.The change agent should praise the client while delivering the tokens for desirable behavior
3. For young children or individuals with severe intellectual disabilities, early in the program, back up reinforcers should be given to the client at the same time the token is given so that the pairing is immediate and the token is more likely to become a conditioned reinforcer
4. It should always be faded out before client leaves the treatment program
Know the advantages and disadvantages of a token economy ***
1.tokens can be used to reinforce the target behavior immediately after it occurs
2. a token economy is highly structured; therefore, desirable target behaviors often are reinforced more consistently
3. tokens are generalized conditioned reinforcers bc they are paired with a variety of other reinforcers. as a result, tokens function as reinforcers regardless of any specific establishing operations that may exist for a client at any time
4. tokens are easy to dispense and easy for the recipients to accumulate
5. tokens reinforcement can be quantified easily, so different behaviors can receive a greater or lesser magnitude of reinforcement
6. response cost is easier to implement in a token economy bc the recipient has accumulated tokens that may be removed contingent on the occurence of the problem behavior
7. the recipient can learn the skills involved in planning for the future by saving tokens for larger purchases
1. time and effort involved in organizing and conducting the program
2. the cost of purchasing the backup reinforcers
3. staff training and management are also issues
Understand cognitive behavior modification and its procedures
procedures are used to help people change behaviors that are labeled as cognitive
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