mgmt chap 16
Terms in this set (60)
process whereby an individual influences others to achieve a common goal
-Process between leaders and followers
-Involves social influence
-Occurs at multiple levels in an organization
-Focuses on goal accomplishment
approaches to study leadership PAGE 463 ASK WHAT IS IMPORTANT FROM TABLE
characteristics of being a leader
being a leader means
- inspiring, setting the tone
- managing people
- being charismatic
- understanding and using power to influence
- putting people first
leaders can make mistakes when
1. they choose the wrong goal, direction, or inspiration, due to incompetence or bad intentions
2. they overlead
3. they are unable to deliver on, implement the vision due to incompetence or a lack of follow-through commitment
characteristics of being a manager
being a manager means
-Practicing stewardship, directing and being held accountable for resources
-executing plans, implementing and delivering goods and services
-planning, organizing, directing
-understand and using authority and responsibility
-putting customers first
managers can make mistakes when
1. they fail to grasp the importance of people as the key resource
2. they underlead, they treat people like other resources, numbers
3. they are eager to direct and control but are unwilling to accept accountability
physical or personality characteristic that can be used to differentiate leaders from followers
core leader traits
level of energy and activity
task relevant knowledge
Implicit leadership theory
based on the idea that people have beliefs about how leaders should behave and what they should do for their followers
mental representations of the traits and behaviors that people believe are possessed by leaders.
Bad leader Traits PAGE 468
incompetent: lack skill to sustain effective action
good leader traits PAGE 469
traits of character
Gender and Leadership
-Men and women were seen as displaying more task and social leadership, respectively
-Women used a more democratic or participative style than men and men used a more autocratic and directive style than women
What Are the Takeaways from Trait Theory?
-First, organizations may want to include personality and trait assessments into their selection and promotion processes.
-Second, management development programs can be used to build a pipeline of leadership talent.
The Ohio State Studies
identified two independent dimensions of leader behavior: consideration, initiating structure
creating mutual respect and trust with followers
organizing and defining what group members should be doing.
4 leadership styles derived fro Ohio state studies
-low structure, high consideration
-low structure low consideration
-high structure high consideration
-high structure low consideration
Takeaways from Behavioral Styles Theory
-Leader behaviors can be systematically improved and developed.
-There is no one best style of leadership.
-The effectiveness of a particular leadership style depends on the situation at hand.
propose that the effectiveness of a particular style of leader behavior depends on the situation
2 situational theories
Fiedler's contingency model
Fiedler's Contingency theory
based on the premise that a leader's effectiveness is contingent on the extent to which a leader's style fits or matches characteristics of the situation at hand
refers to the amount of control and influence the leader has in his immediate work environment
3 dimensions of situational control
the extent to which the leader has the support, loyalty, and trust of the work group
concerned with the amount of structure contained within tasks performed by the work group
the degree to which the leader has formal power to reward, punish, or otherwise obtain compliance from employees
Describes how leadership effectiveness is influenced by the interaction between four leadership styles - directive, supportive, participative, achievement-oriented
Situational variables that cause one style of leadership to be more effective than another
A Reformulated Theory
Three key changes
1. Leadership is more complex and involves a greater variety of leader behavior.
2. The role of intrinsic motivation and empowerment in influencing leadership effectiveness
3. Shared leadership
revised path goal theory PAGE 476
leader behaviors---> is effected by employee characteristics or environmental factors-----> leading to leadership effectiveness
-group oriented decision making
-representation and networking
path goal clarifying behaviors
clarifying employee performance goals, provide guidance on how employees can complete tasks
achievement oriented behaviors
setting challenging goals, emphasizing excellence, demonstrating confidence in employees
work facilitation behaviors
planning, scheduling, organizing, coordinating work
showing concern for well being and needs of employees, being friendly and approachable
interaction facilitation behaviors
resolving disputes, facilitating communication
group oriented decision making behaviors
posing problems rather than solutions to the work group, encourage group members to participate in decision making
representation and networking behaviors
presenting the work group in a positive light ot others, maintaining positive relationships with influential others
value based behaviors
establishing a vision, displaying passion for it and supporting its accomplishment
-locus of control
-need for achievement
-need for clarity
work group dynamics
Applying Situational Theories
1. Identify important outcomes
2. Identify relevant leadership types/behaviors.
3. Identify situational conditions
4. Match leadership to the conditions at hand
5. Determine how to make the match
The Full-range Model of Leadership
..... Transactional leadership
focuses on clarifying employees' role and task requirements and providing followers with positive and negative rewards contingent on performance
engender trust, seek to develop leadership in others, exhibit self-sacrifice and serve as moral agents, focusing themselves and followers on objectives that transcend the more immediate needs of the work group.
transformational model of leadership
individual and organizatioan characteristics> leader behavior> effects on followers > outcomes
individual nd organizational characteristics
effects on followers and work groups
- increased intrinsic motivation, achievement orientation, and goal pursuit
-increased identification and trsut with leader
-increased identificationa nd cohesion with work group members
-increased self-esteem, self-efficacy, and intrinsic interested in goal accomplishment
-increased role-modeling of transformational leadership
-personal commitment to leader vision
-self sacrificial behavior
-task meaningfulness and satisfaction
-increased individual group, and organizational performance
1. The establishment of a positive vision of the future—inspirational motivation— should be considered a first step at applying transformational leadership
2. The best leaders are both transformational and transactional
3. Transformational leadership influences group dynamics and group-level outcomes
4. Transformational leadership works virtually
Maintaining Ethical Transformational Leadership
1. Create and enforce a clearly stated code of ethics.
2. Recruiting, selecting, and promoting people who display ethical behavior.
3. Developing performance expectations around the treatment of employees.
4. Training employees to value diversity.
5. Identifying, rewarding, and publicly praising employees who exemplify high moral conduct.
The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model of Leadership
-Focuses on the quality of relationships between managers and subordinates as opposed to the behaviors or traits of either leaders or followers.
-Assumes that leaders develop unique one-on-one relationships with direct reports
leaders and followers develop a partnership characterized by reciprocal influence, mutual trust, respect and liking, and a sense of common fates.
Leaders are characterized as overseers who fail to create a sense of mutual trust, respect, or common fate
Managerial Implication of LMX
-Leaders are encouraged to establish high-performance expectations for all of their direct reports.
-Managers should be careful that they don't create a homogeneous work environment
dynamic, interactive influence process among individuals in groups for which the objective is to lead one another to the achievement of group or organizational goals or both
-focuses on increasing services to others rather than to oneself
-less likely to engage in self-serving behaviors that hurt others