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hein apush 1

The early 17th century English settlement in Virginia was at first a
a) Royal colony named in honor of Queen Elizabeth I
b) Corporate colony with many investors
c) Proprietorship headed by the directors of the Virginia Company
d) Missionary effort under the auspices of the Church of England
During the first couple of years in the Jamestown colony, the English migrants
a) Doubled the size of their population
b) Produced an agricultural surplus; enough to trade with the Native Americans
c) Lived remarkable disease-free
d) Suffered from diseases that killed more than half the population
Bacon's Rebellion: Bacon's Rebellion contributed to the rise of slavery in the Chesapeake region
a) Because black servants had sided with the Indians, convincing whites that they were disloyal and needed to be controlled by enslavement
b) Because so many blacks had rallied on Bacon's side that the white elite realized that they could be made to work only if they were enslaved
c) By convincing the landholding elite that the presence of a large class of white indentured servants was dangerous and the white colonies' labor needs should be met by black slaves
d) Because so many white indentured servants had died in the fighting that there was a huge need for laborers to replace them
Puritans: When they settled in the New World, the Puritans
a) Considered themselves to be religious pioneers, opening the way for the Anglican Church
b) Saw their role as mainly economic, their primary goal being to generate profits to repay British investors
c) Pictured themselves as a select few chosen by God to preserve true Christianity in America
d) Saw their escape from England as a first step toward eventual paradise
The Puritans believed that Native Americans
a) Were inferior because their skin was darker than Europeans
b) Were genetically defective
c) Resembled the Jews described in the Bible
d) Had been placed in America by "the devil" to prevent the spread of the Gospel there
The largest landholdings in 17th century New England towns belonged to the wealthier or more influential families chiefly because
a) As in the Chesapeake region, the headright system meant that those rich enough to have indentured servants received the largest land grants
b) Men of higher social status tended to receive the largest land allotments from their towns
c) Governors of the colony consistently favored their friends and supporters when making land grants
d) The colonial governments carried over from England such feudal practices as requiring quitrents, which perpetuated social inequalities
The British policy of "salutary neglect" of the American colonies in the early 18th century meant
a) Relaxing supervision of the colonies' internal affairs while concentrating on defense and trade policies
b) Ignoring Americans' hopes for independence instead of suppressing them violently
c) Failing to enforce virtually all the laws that Parliament passed regarding the colonies
d) Refusing to defend the colonies, expecting colonial taxpayers to assume the entire burden
Which of the following statements most accurately describes sexuality in 18th century New England
a) Puritanism retained its grip, ensuring that most young people endured intense sexual repression
b) With the coming of the Enlightenment, old sexual taboos diminished and the birthrate rose rapidly
c) Young people increasingly used premarital pregnancy to force their parents into allowing them to marry
d) As parents became impoverished and increasingly retained their grown children as farm workers, the children tended to marry later than had the original New England settlers
The Great Awakening of the 1740's and 1750's
a) Encouraged the commercial spirit of the British colonists
b) Encouraged religious denominations to emphasize theology over piety and dogma over emotions
c) Drew established churches and provincial governments closer together
d) Fostered rural cooperation
Farmwives throughout the colonies contributed to their families by
a) Only working within the farmhouse; colonial sensibilities forbade women from performing field work
b) Working in factories, but providing little labor around the household
c) Establishing strict control of the family's economic decisions; the husbands provided labor at the wives' direction
d) Performing a wide range of duties both inside the house and in the family's fields; they were subordinate yet essential contributors to the family's welfare
Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes Pontiac's uprising
a) Pontiac's uprising was a failure
b) After the Great War for Empire, Pontiac rebelled because of the continuing encroachments in his people's lands by English-speaking settlers
c) Pontiac called on the Indians to repudiate all European ways and return to their native traditions
d) In the peace settlement of 1763 that Pontiac eventually signed with the British, whites were barred from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
The regulators in South Carolina during the 1760's were
a) Lowland planters who invested in trans-Appalachian lands
b) A vigilante group that imposed moral discipline on the "low-people" in the western regions of the colony
c) British customs officials sent to tighten control of trade
d) Lowland planters who sold slaves illegally into the trans-Appalachian counties
The Townshend Act of 1767 imposed duties on
a) Molasses and wheat that were exported to the countries of continental Europe
b) all british-manufactured goods and tea imported into the colonies
c) Paper, paint, glass, and tea imported into the colonies
d) Indigo, wool, lumber, and naval supplies exported to Britain from the colonies
American women contributed to the nonimportation movement of 1768 by
a) Producing homespun fabric to make the colonies less dependent on British textiles
b) growing herbs to replace the imported British teas
c) forming a secret protest organization: the Daughters of Liberty
d) using only American-produced indigo for dying cloth
At the First Continental Congress, New England delegates advocated
a) immediate war with Britain
b) the pursuit of a military alliance with Spain
c) political union and defensive military preparations
d) seizure of British Canada
In the mid-1770's, the Loyalists
a) feared that the violence the rebels were using to enforce nonimportation would lead to mob rule
b) were so numerous that they effectively delayed an independence movement for 2 years
c) consisted overwhelmingly of large landowners, substantial slave owners, and wealthy merchants
d) received little support form the Anglican clergy
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the military clash between British regulars and Massachusetts militia in April 1775
a) the British crushed the Minutemen in a major battle at Lexington, encountered only minor resistance at Concord, and marched back to Boston almost unopposed until they encountered a second Patriot force at Bunker Hill
b) the British suffered few casualties and failed to find the military supplies that they were looking for; the incident was later magnified out of proportion by Patriot leaders
c) The story of Paul Revere's ride is entirely mythical, created by the 19th century American poet henry wadsworth longellow
d) warned by Paul Revere and 2 other Bostonians, a small force of Minutemen vainly opposed the British at Lexington, and a larger body of Patriots confronted them at Concord; while returning to Boston, the British troops were repeatedly ambushed by militiamen and sustained heavy losses
Thomas Jefferson's vision for the future of the U.S. included
a) industrialized urban centers at the forefront of the industrial revolution
b) expansion of the institution of slavery to the west
c) western territories populated by independent yeomen farm families
d) a rejection of scientific farming in favor of agricultural traditionalism
The Coercive Acts, passed in 1774 in response to the Boston tea incident, included a(n)
a) act that annulled the Massachusetts charter and prohibited most local town meetings
b) act closing Boston Harbor ports until the East India Company received payment for the destroyed tea
c) measure requiring Boston to pay for the quartering of troops
d) all of the answers are correct
The Missouri Compromise of 1820
a) resulted from the conciliatory efforts of Congressman James Tallmadge of New York
b) provided for Maine to enter the Union as a free state in 1820, and Missouri to enter as a slave state the following year
c) prohibited slavery in the Louisiana Territory south of latitude 36 degrees 30'
d) convinced the aged and retired Thomas Jefferson that the peaceful extinction of slavery by mutual agreement was now in sight
In contemplating the opportunity to purchase Louisiana, Jefferson
a) saw the purchase as being consistent with his strict constructionist view of the Constitution
b) sought a constitutional amendment to allow the president to make such purchases
c) dithered until Congress forced him to act
d) revised his view of presidential powers under the Constitution
In the US between the 1780's and about 1820, "national market" meant that
a) the US erected high tariff barriers to keep out British goods, thereby encouraging local capitalists to build factories
b) entrepreneurs were mobilizing the large rural workforce to manufacture and distribute goods throughout the US
c) the entire US became a market for British manufacturers who tended to displace local American producers
d) the US government systematically encouraged national self-sufficiency by discriminating against European manufacturers and traders
Alexander Hamilton
a) advocated an economic plan based on Adam Smith's laissez-faire principles
b) proposed making the US self-sufficient in manufacturing
c) argued that the US should rely on Britain for manufactured goods
d) opposed congressional plans for a tariff to protect domestic industries
Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the trends in birthrates during the early 19th century
a) most white married couples stopped using birth control because it was illegal in most states
b) women tended to marry earlier and accompany their husbands westward at a more frequent rate, thus having more children on average than did their mothers
c) the US experienced a significant decrease in birthrate- especially among native-born white women in the growing seaport cities, who averaged only 4 children
d) the renewed emphasis on republican motherhood prompted many women to have more children to fulfill their societal duties
The Second Great Awakening deeply influenced American cultural and social action because it
a) challenged the Calvinist doctrine of predestination and helped to make American intellectual culture more optimistic
b) denied the idea of free will
c) increased respect for hierarchical authority in American churches
d) increased the intellectual power of Protestant preaching
The Patriots succeeded in the American Rev mainly because
a) british officers committed an incredible series of blunders
b) guerrilla fighters in the Patriot militias wore down British troops, even though the continental army rarely won a battle
c) about 2/3 of the population supported the war to some degree, and the army fought on its own territory
d) the number of Loyalists and Indians who supported the British was never very large
Of the following statesmen, the one most instrumental in arranging the Missouri Compromise was
a) Thomas Jefferson
b) Henry Clay
c) James Tallmadge
d) Thomas w. Cobb
The Whiskey Rebellion was significant for all of the following reasons except
a) the whiskey rebels were acting in the tradition of the Patriots of 1765 and the shaysites of 1786, only now they also waved banners proclaiming the French Rev slogan "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
b) Washington used force to put down the first strong challenge to the federal government's authority in order to make and enforce a law
c) by suppressing the revolt, Washington deterred secessionist movements on the frontier
d) when he learned that Thomas Jefferson covertly supported the insurgents, Washington publicly broke with him, precipitating open party conflict
The Lewis and Clark expedition was dispatched primarily to
a) establish an effective claim to the Louisiana Territory, which Jefferson thought to be insecure until Americans explored the region
b) prepare maps and secretly establish forts in preparation for an American invasion of mexico
c) report on the physical features and the plant and animal life of the Louisiana Territory, in which Jefferson took a great scientific interest
d) identify area into which the Indian tribes of the northwest territory could be forced to move
The decision in the case Marbury v. Madison is of great importance in American history because
a) it marked the onset of a period of frequent declarations by the Supreme Court that laws enacted by the Republican-dominated Congress were unconstitutional
b) it marked the first occasion on which the Supreme Court declared that it had the power to rule national laws unconstitutional
c) President Jefferson and the republican dominated congress used the public backlash against this decision in order to purge the federal judiciary of Federalists and to attempt to impeach Chief Justice Marshall
d) in refusing to uphold Marbury's right to his commission, chief justice marshall established an implicit political alliance with president Jefferson
In their protests against the alien and sedition acts, Jefferson and Madison
a) asked the supreme court to declare the laws unconstitutional
b) called for the impeachment of president john adams
c) accused president adams of being a tool of the british government
d) took the fight to the state legislatures, setting forth a states' rights interpretation of the constitution
The spread of the cultural attitude known as sentimentalism in early 19th century America had which of the following consequences
a) it eroded religious beliefs
b) it discouraged people from marrying for love
c) it caused a religious backlash against emotionalism and "sensuality"
d) it deeply influenced the kind of literature people read and the plays they saw
What control did parents have over their children's marriages by 1800
a) because land holding shrank, parents lost leverage over their children's choices of marital partners
b) most affluent fathers placed funds in legal trusts for their daughters so that they would not be wholly dependent upon their husbands
c) most parents still arranged their children's marriages in order to safeguard their welfare
d) most parents disinherited their children if they married for sentimental rather than practical reasons
a political ideology that repudiates rule by kings and princes and celebrates a representative system of government and a virtuous, public-spirited citizenry is called
a) oligarchy
b) enlightened despotism
c) republicanism
d) aristocracy
The major legacy of Shay's Rebellion was that it
a) strengthened congress, which had suppressed the revolt
b) provoked a series of similar revolts by farmers in other states
c) illustrated the need for a strong federal government
d) led to action by state legislatures to curb the powers of Congress
under the articles of confederation
a) each state retained its sovereignty and independence
b) important laws required the unanimous consent of the states
c) each state's representation in congress was determined by its population
d) each state could conduct its own relations with foreign governments
Which of the following most accurately characterizes the emergence of the textile industry in the US
a) british textile manufacturers readily sold patents for machinery and other technology to American textile mill owners
b) American textile mills were unable to compete with the British mills because America lacked the necessary natural resources
c) American mechanics apprenticed in England to learn textile industrial technology so that they could return as journeymen or master textile craftsmen in the rising American textile industry
d) American textile producers improved on british technology
: in the 1824 US supreme court case gibbons v. ogden, the marshall court
a) reaffirmed state control over interstate commerce
b) reaffirmed county or city control over interstate commerce
c) allowed a local or state monopoly if it benefited the users and local customers
d) declared illegal a new york law that granted a monopoly on steamboat travel into new york city
One social change resulting from the industrial revolution in early 19th century America was that members of the upper class
a) came to hold the same cultural and religious values as wage earners in contrast to the elitism that in the 18th century had dept the gentry and the "common people" apart
b) openly distanced themselves by values and lifestyle from wage earners in contrast to the shared cultural and religious values that had united the gentry and ordinary folk in the 18th century
c) became more hypocritical, pretending to share cultural and religious values with wage earners, but actually behaving very differently
d) tended to claim that they had risen "from rags to riches" and to flaunt their crude tastes and rough manners in contrast to the "gentlemanly" values of the 18th century elites
Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes immigration during the 1840's and 1850's
a) most immigrants settled in the south to take advantage of jobs in industry and agriculture
b) most of the irish who arrived were poverty-stricken peasants
c) the largest group of immigrants came from eastern and southern Europe
d) the poorest immigrants came from wales and Scotland
the nativist clubs that formed in response to the growth of Catholicism in the US called for all of the following except
a) an amendment to the constitution forcing catholics to renounce the pope or lose their right to vote
b) restriction of public offices to native-born Americans
c) exclusive use of the protestant bible (authorized version) in public schools
d) limits on immigration
The "corrupt bargain" the political intrigue that resulted when the presidential election of 1824 was decided in the house of representatives consisted of
a) jackson's successful effort to get john c Calhoun to withdraw from the presidential race and become his vice presidential running mate, with the understanding that Calhoun would run for president the next election
b) john quincy adams's apparent deal with henry clay whereby clay's supporters in the house would vote for adams, who would then name clay his secretary of state
c) bribes paid by john quincy adams's wealthy new England backers to purchase the votes of enough members of the house to ensure his elections
d) the efforts of the 3 slaveholding presidential candidates (Jackson, Crawford, and clay) to unite to block the election of antislavery supporter john quincy adams
in response to South Carolina's claimed right of nullification, Andrew Jackson
a) asked congress to raise the tariff rates even higher if south Carolina did not stop its threats
b) asked congress for a force bill authorizing him to use the military to suppress any act of nullification
c) pulled federal troops out of forts and federal ships out of Charleston where they might have provoked an attack by south Carolina militia
d) asked congress to prepare a bill to expel south Carolina from the union if it did not stop its threats
which of the following statements most accurately characterizes Andrew jackson's intentions toward native Americans
a) he planned to encourage missionaries to convert the tribes east of the Mississippi river to Christianity and white culture
b) he intended to force native Americans to comply with federal treaties
c) he sought better relations with the "civilized" Indians of the old southwest, encouraging them to continue their adaptation to white ways
d) he meant to remove all native Americans east of the Mississippi even those who had adapted to white society
in the US supreme court case of Worcester v. Georgia, john marshall and the court majority
a) upheld georgia's rights to Cherokee lands
b) sanctioned the stationing of federal troops on tribal lands
c) declared the 1830 indian removal act unconstitutional
d) held that Indian nations were "distinct political communities...within which their authority is exclusive"
in the Massachusetts supreme court case Commonwealth v. hunt, chief justice lemuel shaw ruled that
a) a union was not inherently a criminal organization
b) the use of a strike to enforce a closed shop was an illegal restraint of trade
c) the 10 hour workday limitation was an illegal restraint of trade
d) mill owners who hired predominantly women workers must allow them to form a union if they wished
Between 1800 and 1860 white planters moved to the lower south to
a) transform the west into a free labor society
b) recreate the conditions of slavery
c) invest in agricultural development
d) flee antislavery laws in the upper south
which of the following reasons does not explain how the federal government played a major role in expanding slavery during the early 1800s
a) the federal government secured Louisiana from the French in 1803
b) the federal government removed native Americans from the southeastern states in the 1830s
c) the federal government annexed texas and Mexican territories in the 1840s
d) the federal government expanded participation in the international slave trade after 1807
Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the gang-labor system of cotton plantation labor
a) gang labor consisted of planters allowing slaves to work individually at their own pace
b) gang labor was used on plantations with 20 or fewer slaves
c) gang labor included white overseers and black drivers
c) gang labor encouraged the reduction of violence in controlling slave laborers
white southerners failed to diversify the southern economy for all of the following reasons except
a) they blamed white northerners for economically exploiting white southerners
b)the booming cotton economy encouraged investment in land and slaves
c) they failed to take advantage of new technological innovations to foster industrial production
d) they failed to attract European immigrants needed for labor in addition to slaves
which of the following statements most accurately characterizes blacks' resistance to slavery by the 1820s
a) most slaves still clung to the hope of returning to Africa
b) in their situation, most blacks had no choice but to build the best possible lives for themselves
c) the frequency of escape to Spanish florida and the frontier increased
d) many slaves planned or participated in revolts, knowing that some would be successful
the concept of manifest destiny included the assumption that
a) Americans were culturally equal to the native and Hispanic populations to the west
b) the western boundaries of the US should stop at the rocky mountains
c) Protestantism and the American form of government should be established in mexico
d) the citizens of the US were destined by god to dominate the "inferior" peoples of the continent
the compromise of 1850 did not include which of the following
a) abolition of the slave trade in the district of Columbia
b) adoption of a strong fugitive slave law
c) organization of new mexico and utah territories on the basis of popular sovereignty
d) abolition of slavery in the Oregon territory
in the 1857 dred scott decision, which position was not held by chief justice roger b. taney
a) both the Missouri compromise and the Kansas-nebraska act were constitutional
b) because congress had no power to prohibit slavery in a territory, neither did the government of that territory
c) the 5th amendment prevented congress from passing a law that deprived persons of their slaves in the territories
d) blacks could not be considered as citizens of the US and could not therefore sue in a federal court
the freedmen's bureau
a) oversaw implementation of the civil rights act of 1866 and the 14th amendment
b) distributed monetary aid that congress appropriated to help former slaves purchase land, livestock, and tools
c) was responsible for resettlement and distribution of confiscated land and regulated labor contracts between freedmen and planters
d) established and supervised with federal funding, schools for ex-slaves in the former confederacy
the 14th amendment required states to guarantee all of the following rights except
a) equal protection of the laws
b) suffrage to all adult freedmen
c) due process of law before depriving any person of life, liberty, or property
d) citizenship for all persons born in the US
the 15th amendment
a) prohibited state governments from using property requirements to disqualify blacks from voting
b) gave the vote to all adult African Americans
c) prohibited state governments from using literacy tests and poll taxes to prevent blacks from voting
d) forbade states from denying any citizen the right to vote on the grounds of race, color, or previous condition as a slave