22 terms

Cradles of Civilization

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economy
the system used to produce and distribute goods and services in a society
specialization
when people in a society take on specific roles or jobs
surplus
having more than you need
technology
a branch of knowledge that involves developing tools and systems to solve problems and modernize human lifestyle
civilization
a well-organized, highly complex society
hierarchy
an order of social classes with workers and producers at the bottom and leaders at the top
intensification
the process of getting more resources from a given land area by creating new technologies and systems
scribe
a person who was able to read and write, whose job was to create written records and messages
nomadism
having no fixed home and moving from place to place
pastoralism
a way of life in which people survive from the secondary products of herds and follow patterns of grazing to keep their herds alive
metallurgy
the art and science of producing metal goods
sedentism
the practice of living permanently in one place
merchant
a person whose job is to buy and sell goods
artisan
a worker in a skilled trade or craft; one who makes things by hand
scholar
a person dedicated to the pursuit of learning and the building of knowledge
irrigation
supplying dry land with water by means of ditches, pipes, and streams
noble
a person with high rank or privilege, usually gained through birth or connection to a ruler
cultural diffusion
the process of the spread of ideas and products from one place to another
polytheism
religious belief in multiple gods
patriarchy
a system of society or government in which power and authority is held by the males
domestication
the process of changing plants and animals at the genetic level to make them more useful to humans
alloy
a mixture of metals
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