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Sociology Final-Ch. 19
Terms in this set (37)
What is a conurbation?
A cluster of cities or towns forming a continuous network, in an unbroken urban environment.
What is a megalopolis?
The "city of all cities" in ancient Greece - used in modern times to refer to very large conurbations.
What was the first city to undergo industrialization?
What will happen to cities by 2030?
81 percent of the worldwide urban population will be from the towns and cities of the developing world.
What two concepts were developed by the "Chicago School"?
The "ecological approach" to urban analysis, and the characterization of urbanism as a "way of life".
What is the ecological approach?
In the field of urban analysis, a perspective emphasizing the "natural distribution" of city neighborhoods into areas having contrasting characteristics. Cities do not grow up at random but in response to advantageous features of the environment. For example, along rivers.
What is the inner city?
The areas composing the central neighborhoods of a city, as distinct from the suburbs. In many modern urban settings in the first world, inner-city areas are subject to dilapidation and decay, the more affluent residents having moved to outlying areas. When ethnic populations move into city, their is a flight by more affluent to suburbs.
What is urban ecology?
An approach to the study of urban life based on an analogy with the adjustment of plants and organisms to the physical environment. According to ecological theorists, the various neighborhoods and zones within cities are formed as a result of natural processes of adjustment on the part of populations as the compete for resource.
What is urbanism?
A term used by Louis Wirth to denote distinctive characteristics of urban social life, such as impersonality.
What did Drake and Cayton propose in the book the Black Metropolis?
Cities were by no means shaped by natural forces, but were instead shaped by unnatural social forces- areas called ghettos due to discrimination. Associations had passed laws making it illegal to sell land in a community to blacks
What did Wirth say?
Urbanism is a way of life, it expresses the influence of the wider social system. Features of the urban way of life are characteristic of social life in modern societies as a whole, not just the activities of those who happen to live in cities. Also, relationships are weaker because cities are larger. Act unconcerned in order to maintain social boundaries.
What did Jane Jacobs argue about cities in her book?
She said that "cities are, by definition, full of strangers" some of whom are dangerous. Cities are most habitable when they feature a diversity of uses, thereby ensuring that many people will be coming and going at any time. More people= more safety
What is a created environment?
Constructions established by human beings to serve their needs, derived from the use of man-made technology- including, for example, roads railways, factories, offices, private homes, and other buildings.
What is collective consumption?
A concept used by Manual Castells to refer to processes of urban consumption. Homes, schools, transportation services. Inherent to collective capitalism
What did Harvey argue?
Urbanism is a created environment brought about by industrial capitalism. In the modern world, industry blurs the division between city and countryside. Space in city is continually restructured because of speculation about potential benefits.
What did Castells argue?
The physical shape of cities is a product of market forces and the power of government. URban problems stimulate a range of social movements.
What are population declines in rural areas attributed to?
Declines in farming and other rural industries, high poverty rates, scarce economic opportunities for youth, lack of government serves, dearth of natural amenities.
What is aging in place?
Phenomenon in which many rural areas have disproportionately high numbers of older adults, because young persons seek opportunities elsewhere and leave the older persons behind.
Where is child poverty the highest?
In rural areas
What are first suburbs?
The suburbs that are closest to the cities, and share many of the same characteristics as cities. Now they are defined as "urban areas".
Where are people moving regionally?
From East to West, from North to South
Why does Wilson say the urban poor is getting more poor?
Because of economic reasons. Their was a lost of blue-collar jobs in favor of white-collar jobs. "suburbanization of employment". Black neighborhoods suffered because middle-class blacks moved to suburbs, leaving inner-city with less. Poverty is caused by joblessness.
How do Massey and Denton explain the urban poor decline?
Persistent residential racial segregation. Poverty is caused by segregation.
What is a sociologists definition of a ghetto?
Historically, people that were forced to live in a place. Today, people in ghettos have a choice to live their. Ghettos are residential zones in which stigmatized racial or religious groups are compelled to live by wider society.
What is a sociologists definition of a slum?
Zones inhabited by poor people, including members of a dominant, nonstigmatized race, such as poor whites in the U.S.
What is urban renewal?
The process of renovating deteriorating neighborhoods by encouraging the renewal of old buildings and the construction of new ones.
What is gentrification?
A process of urban renewal in which older, deteriorated housing is refurbished by affluent people moving into the area.
What did Elijah Anderson argue in "streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban Community"?
That gentrification did not help improve the current living-standards of the current low-income residents. Oftentimes, they were condemned, forcing them out. Improved property value and higher living accommodations meant that people had to pay higher property taxes. Middle-class individuals moving into neighborhoods to improve them, in turn kicks lower income out.
What has globalization done to cities?
Globalization has not undermined cities as predicted, but transformed them into vital hubs within the global economy. Urban centers have become critical in coordinating information flows, managing business activities, and innovating new service technologies.
What are global cities?
Refers to urban centers that are home to headquarters of large, transnational corporations and a superabundance of financial, technological, and consulting services.
According to Sassen, what are the four traits of global cities?
1) They have developed into command posts, or centers of direction and policy making.
2) Key locations for financial and service firms- not necessarily manufacturing
3) Sites of production and innovation in newly expanded industries
4) Cities are markets in which "products" of financial and service industries are bought, sold, or disposed of.
What does Davis argue about the poor living along side the wealthy?
The wealthy go to extreme efforts to avoid contact with "untouchables". Life is made as "unlivable as possible for the poorest and most marginalized. For example, sprinkler systems are installed in public places to deter homesless
What are megacities?
A term favored by Manuel Castells to describe large, intensely concentrated urban spaces that serve as connection points for global economy. It is projected that by 2015 there will be thirty-six megacities with populations of more than 8 million residents.
What is the rate of urbanization larger in less developed countries?
1) Rates of population growth are much higher.
2) Widespread internal migration from rural areas to urban ones
What is one of the most acute problems of urban areas?
Lack of housing. Many homeless
How is age different in developing countries versus developed?
In developing countries, a much larger proportion of the population is under the age of 15. If they are part of the urban poor, the need support and education. Nevertheless, they don't have as many resources.
What are benefits of global urbanization?
1) The high birth rate, which is causing many problems, is likely to decrease.
2) Countries are becoming linked to international markets.
3) Migrants can often times find better work, and send money back home.