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The Black Death/bubonic plague
Scholars dispute the origins of the bubonic plague, often known as the Black Death. It is known that ship boarded rats were constantly on the move, which allowed the disease to spread rapidly.
The Hundred Years' War
The 100 Years War was a prolonged conflict between two royal houses for the French throne, vacant with the extinction of the senior Capetian line of French kings. The two primary contenders were the House of Valois, and the House of Plantagenet. The House of Valois claimed the title of King of France, while the Plantagenets from England claimed to be Kings of France and England. The Plantagenet Kings in England, also known as the House of Anjou, had their roots in the French regions of Anjou and Normandy. French soldiers fought on both sides, with Burgundy and Aquitaine providing notable support for the Plantagenet side. This lasted from about 1337 to 1453.
Reasons for the Hundred Years War
1.France and England quarreled over the land of Gascony 2. The Flemish clothesmen revolved against the English because they had monopolized power. 3. Royal succession problems which could have possibly involved England controlling France.
The Babylonian Captivity
From 1309 to 1376, the popes lived in Avignon in southeastern France. IN order to control the church and its policies, Philip the Fair of France pressured Pope Clement V to settle in Avignon. Clement critically ill with cancer, lacked the will to resist Philip.
The Great Schism
splitting of Western Europe into allegiances to France or the Roman Empire because of the 2 popes Urban VI Clement VII made problems like who to follow, and the each pope excommunicated all of the followers of the other Pope -made other problems like who would the indulgences sales go to etc
Conciliarists
They believed that reform of the church could best be achieved through periodic assemblies or general councils representing all the Christian people. They accepted the pope as head of the church, but believed his authority was derived from the entire Christian community whom he was supposed to represent.
John Wyclif
English scholar and theologian (1330-1384). He wrote that papal claims of temporal power had no foundation in the Scriptures and that the Scriptures should alone be the foundation of Christian belief and practice. Advocated that all Christians should read the Bible for themselves.
Lollards
Whyclif's follows- suppressed under Henry V
Thomas à Kempis
German ecclesiastic (1380-1471). Author of "The Imitation of Christ." Says that on judgment day, we will be judged by what we have done and how religiously we have lived, not by what we have said or how well we have spoken.
peasant revolts
Revolts that took place in Flanders in the 1320's; England in 1381; and in Germany in 1525. They Revolted from resentment towards the nobility.
the Medici family
Ruling family of Florence throughout the most of the Renaissance. Cosimo de' Medici and grandson Lorenzo de' Medici were the most successful heads of the family. Were great patrons of all things Renaissance.
oligarchy/city-states
Oligarchies and Signori spread across Italy at the same time. Oligarchies were small governing groups governing a land and people for their own purposes.
Humanism
Belief that man is the best focus of study (because God had made man with the power to create), revival of the classics of the Greco-Romans, reviving and correcting classical works, and creating new works in the style of the classics.
Baldassare Castiglioni
Wrote "The Courtier," which outlined the attributes of the model gentleman - based on the Greek ideal of the well-rounded man
Niccolò Machiavelli
Argued (in "The Prince") that leaders should be concerned with actualities, not fantasies of government. First political scientist
Secularism
Emphasis on living well in this world instead of being totally focused on the afterlife and understanding the economics, social, intellectual, and political activities in this world.
Giovanni Boccaccio
In "The Decameron" he writes tales describing ambitious merchants, perverted friars, and unfaithful wives. He shows the sexual and eagerness of the world society showing none of the "contempt of the world" which was used in medieval times.
Christian humanism
Applied classicism of Italian humanists to Christianity. Wanted to go back to the source of Christianity to get past the corruption of human nature. Thought humans were capable of good things through education.
northern humanism
Major goal was reform of Christianity. Also known as Christian humanism. Cultivated a knowledge of the classics. Focused on the sources of early Christianity, in which they discovered a simple religion that they believed had been distorted by the complicated theological arguments of the Middle Ages. Felt that education in the sources of classical and Christian antiquity could instill an inward religious feeling that would bring about a reform of the church and society.
Thomas More
Trained in law but took an avid interest in the new classical learning. At one point, lord chancellor of England. Most famous work, and one of the most controversial of his age, was "Utopia."
Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch humanist, wrote "The Praise of Folly". Key figure of northern humanism - believed that knowledge of the Bible and the classics was the key to reform, and that Christianity is not about formalities, instead is about Christ and his teachings
Johan Gutenberg
Created movable-type printing, made propaganda possible, increased literacy in people of Europe.
Patronage
the power to make appointments to government jobs or to grant political favors
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
Charles VII asserted French control over papacy and appointment of French bishops, depriving Pope of French money. Affirmed special rights of French church, consolidated French authority.
The War of the Roses
From 1455-71 the ducal houses of York and Lancaster were engaged in a civil war commonly called the War of the Roses. The Yorkists where white rose while Lancaster red. The chronic disorder hurt trade and the economy. Under Henry VI the authority of the English monarchy plummeted. Yorkist Edward IV started domestic tranquility after he defeated Lancastrians he began reconsturcting the monarch. Edward IW, Richard III, and Henry VII of the Welsh house of Tudor worked to restore royal prestige and crush the nobility to establish local order.
Concordat of Bologna
Agreement between French Louis XI and Pope Leo X that rescinded the "Pragmatic Sanction." Gave Pope first year's income of new bishops and abbots, but maintained France's right to choose bishops.
Louis XI:
(Fr) Charles's son Louis XI was a very traitorous and in other words Renaissance king. He said that money will reduce feudal disorder. So, he promoted new industries like silk and welcomed foreign craftsmen establishing many different trade treaties with England, Portugal, Hanseatic League. In addition he used the revenues and sever taxation to strengthen the army which thus helped stop Aristocratic wild-like operations. Also, with the timely death of Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, in 1477 dies and then Louis invades gaining the territories causing a extinction of the house of Anjou leading to the extension of Anjou, Bar, Maine, and Provence counties.
Louis XII
(Fr) this young French ruler appointed Cardinal Armand Richelieu as his chief minister to beat back the power of the Huguenots and strengthen the absolute power of the monarch. The marriage of Louis XII and Anne of Brittany added the large western duchy of Brittany to France.
Henry VII
(Eng) Henry VI was on the side of the Tudors working to reduce nobility power. As parliament held the money for financing wars Edward IV and other Tudors used diplomacy for foreign policy to avoid costly wars, cutting the need to rely on the Parliament (nobility). Henry VII at first summoned Parliament at first to confirm laws. Though the center of authority was in the royal council. In general Henry VII rebuilt the monarchy expanded the cloth industry and marin trade sengin wool sales through the roof. He crushed the Irish invasion and secured Scotland.
Ferdinand and Isabella
In 1469 Isabella of castile and Ferdinand of Aragon were married. However this did not bring unity between the two lands except for political union of the 2 royalties. Thus, Spain was still left a loose separate kingdom each with own separate government and "Cortes" parliaments. To limit the Aristocracy Ferdinand and Isabella revived the hermandades. Also, they reformed the Royal council to exclude aristocrats, extending it to have full executive, judicial, and legislative powers under monarchy. The council was only for the middle class honoring the crown and were trained on Roman law. Also, there was a diplomatic alliance with the Spanish pope Alexander VI with Spanish monarchs which secured the right to appoint Bishops in Spain and in Hispanic American colonies. Revenues from the ecclesial estates were used to continue the reconquista in Grandada. Ferdinand was not very religious, he just wanted to appear as a moral Christian and respectful. In fear of rioting and disorder and the fact that the Spanish hated Conversos, he received papal permission to set up the Inquisition in Spain. in 1496 Ferdinand married his second daughter Joanna heiress to Castile, to the archduke Philip heir to Burgundaan Netherland sand Holy Empire. Did this to gain international recognition of hatred for French. Their grandchild Phillip II joined Portugal to Spain untying the Iberian peninsula in 1580. however, the kingdoms were separately administered.
Conversos
Jews converted to Catholicism, they were eventually kicked out by Ferdinand and Isabella
Renaissance artists (Sa Vinci)
Example of The Renaissance Man - artist and inventor; used geometric shapes in his paintings ("The Virgin of the Rocks," "Mona Lisa," "The Last Supper")
anti-clericalism
humanists denounced corruption in songs/images
- clerical immorality (drunks, concubines, gambling)
- clerical ignorance (many illiterate)
- pluralism and absenteeism
- resentment because of special clerical privileges (exemption from civic responsibility, taxes, fighting)
- owned 1/3 of urban property
- Simony
pluralism
Holding more than one church office at the same time
indulgences
remission of the punishment for sin by the clergy in return for services or payments
Martin Luther
a German monk and theologian who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Ulrich Zwingli
Swiss theologian whose sermons began the Reformation in Switzerland (1484-1531). Relics and images were abolished. Paintings and decorations were removed and replaced by whitewashed walls. Mass was replaced by Scripture reading, prayer, and sermons. Music eliminated as a distraction. Monasticism, pilgrim-ages, the veneration of saints, clerical celibacy, and pope's authority were all abolished. Unable to form an alliance with Luther because of the different interpretations of the Lord's Supper.
Transubstantiation
the Roman Catholic doctrine that the whole substance of the bread and the wine changes into the substance of the body and blood of Christ when consecrated in the Eucharist
Colloquy of Marburg
the "shattering of Protestantism" Zwingli and Luther try to unite Swiss Reformation and German reformation, doesn't work b/c of different views. Remained divided forever. Disagree about Transubstantiation.
Anabaptists
Felt that the true Christian church was a voluntary association of believers who had undergone spiritual rebirth and had then been baptized into the church. Advocated adult baptism rather than infant baptism. Tried to return literally to the practices and spirit of early Christianity. Believed in complete separation of church and state.
German Peasants' War (1525)
Martin Luther also worked hard to help prevent radical reforms
The Golden Bull (1356)
conditions listed that there would be 7 princes that would elect the next emperor. IT also stated that the pope couldn't interfere with the election of the emperor.
Charles V
(HRE) Ruled over Spain, the Austrian Habsburg lands, Bohemia, Hungary, the Low Countries, the kingdom of Naples, and the Holy Roman Empire. Politically, wanted to maintain his dynasty's control over his enormous empire. Religiously, hoped to preserve unity of the Catholic faith throughout hid empire. The French, the papacy, the Turks, and Germany's internal situation cost him both his dream and his health.
Peace of Augsburg (1555)
Ended religious warfare in Germany. Granted Lutheranism equal legal standing as Catholicism. Allowed each German ruler to choose the religion of his subjects.
Henry VIII
(Eng) Tudor monarch of England; infamous for his six wives; Act of Supremacy made him head of Church of England; split from Catholic Church due to divorce dispute.
Supremacy Act (1534)
Who: Henry VIII Where: England When: 1534 What: declared the king supreme head of the Church of England Why: so the King could grant himself an annulment Significance: this increased the power of the English monarch and decreased the influence of Rome. It was repealed in 1554 by Mary I and then reinstated by Elizabeth I.
Thomas Cromwell
Became King Henry VII's close advisor following Cardinal Wolsey's dismissal. He and his contemporary Thomas Cranmer convinced the king to break from Rome and made the Church of England increasingly more Protestant. Also commanded the monasteries of England to surrender their lands and possessions to the state.
Pilgrimage of Grace (1536)
An uprising in the North of England in 1536 posed a serious threat to the English crown. Both gentry and peasants were angry over the dissolution of monasteries, and feared that their spiritual needs would no longer be met. Henry VIII was able to suppress this as a result of his political power
Thomas Cranmer
Archbishop of Canterbury, he wrote the Book of Common Prayer. He and Thomas Cromwell convinced Henry VIII to separate from the Roman Catholic Church, and was later burned at the stake by Mary Tudor.
Elizabeth I
(Eng) Queen of England from 1558 to 1603, she established the Anglican Church in England. Known as the "Virgin Queen" and is famous for the English victory over the Spanish Armada, she was the daughter of Anne Boleyn.
Elizabethan Settlement
allowed priest to marry but kept bishops and people kept traditional sermons
John Calvin
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion, and believed in a theocracy and predestination.
Predestination
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
Geneva Consistory
Calvin saw Geneva in high standard of morality with complete mastery of scriptures and eloquence. The Consistory was a watch dog of every man under 12 men and the pastors. Calvin was the permanent moderator. the looked to see everyone lived orderly in life. They had very strict regulation compared to government punishing all normal and moral crimes. However, serious crimes were handled by civil authorities who sometimes under the approval of the Consistory used torture.
John Knox
Was a fearless preacher who dominated the reform in Scotland. He sought to shape Scotland's church after the Calvinists church in Geneva. In 1560 he persuaded reform minded parliament to end papal authority. Mass was abolished and then the Presbyterian Church of Scotland was created. The "Book of Common Order" (1564) was a liturgical directory.
Counter Reformation
Was a fearless preacher who dominated the reform in Scotland. He sought to shape Scotland's church after the Calvinists church in Geneva. In 1560 he persuaded reform minded parliament to end papal authority. Mass was abolished and then the Presbyterian Church of Scotland was created. The "Book of Common Order" (1564) was a liturgical directory.
Council of Trent (1545-1563)
Sought reform and to secure reconciliation with Protestants.
Charles V opposed speaking against the Lutherans fearing popularity loss. French kings worked against reconciliation of Catholics and Lutherans to keep the German states divided. The councilor theory was stressed trying to weaken the papacy however in the end the council required Papal Approval.
Achievements:
Gave equal validity to scriptures and to tradition as religious authority. Reaffirmed 7 sacraments and transubstantiation. rejected Luther and Calvin Positions. Tridentate required bishops to reside in own diocese. Suppressed pluralism and simony, forbade sale of indulgences. Also concubines were forbidden. Bishops revived absolute authority of clergy. Education of clergy was mandatory. Tametsi said that a valid marriage must have a public announcement of consent to witnesses and parish priest.
However: No reconciliation with Protestantism, delayed reform, though laid 4 centuries of solid catholic spiritual basis.
Tridentate decrees
Formed during the Council of Trent. They were laws that strengthened the discipline of the clergy. Candidates for the clergy had to have vocations, genuine callings. Also, the decrees stated that for a marriage to be valid, a priest, and other witnesses had to be present. They also suppressed pluralism, simony, forbade the sale of indulgences, and clergy members were told to give up their concubines.
Ursula order
an order of nuns who focused their attention on establishing schools for the education of girls.
Society of Jesus
(Jesuits) Became chief instrument of Catholic Reformation. Pursued three major activities: established highly disciplinary schools, propagated Catholic faith among non-Christians, and determined to carry the Catholic banner and fight Protestantism.
Francis I
(Fr) Ruled France. Tried to weaken the Hapsburgs. Consolidated absolutism by instituting the taille (tax on land and property) Created the Concordat of Bologna.
Huguenots
French Protestants (Calvinists); Persecuted by Henry II
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
A savage Catholic attack on Calvinist in Paris on August 24, 1572 (Saint Bartholomew's Day), followed the usual pattern. The occasion was a religious ceremony a wedding, which was supposed to help reconcile the Catholics and the Huguenots. Gaspard de Coligny was the leader of the Huguenots and was present at the wedding, but the night before, Catholic aristocratic Henry of Guise had Coligny attacked, rioting and slaughter followed. The Huguenot gentry in Paris were massacred. The Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre of the Calvinists led to the War of the Three Henrys.
Politiques
A small group of moderates of Protestants and Catholics who believed in the restoration of a strong monarchy that could reverse the trend of the collapse. They ultimately saved France from political disintegration.
Henry IV
(Fr) (Henry of Navarre) started the Bourbon dynasty, converted to Catholicism to save his dynasty, "Paris is well worth a Mass
Edict of Nantes
This was published by King Henry VI (former Henry of Navarre) in 1598. It granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship in 150 fortified towns in France. The reign of Henry VI and the Edict of Nantes prepared the way for French absolutism in the seventeenth century by helping restore internal peace in France. It was a liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship in one hundred and fifty fortified towns.
Union of Utrecht
Organized the seven northern, Dutch-speaking states into a Protestant union determined to oppose Spanish rule.
Witchcraft
Throughout this century, the witch hunts of Europe were at their height. Women everywhere were suspected and accused of witchcraft, out of both fear and ignorance by others in society. Convicted "witches," were usually burned at the stake. Usually, the charge of witchcraft, or consorting with the devil, was a scapegoat for other more serious societal issues.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Prince Henry the Navigator was the ruler of Portugal. He was a great motivator of his peoples in the age of exploration, due to his encouragement to make maps, study navigational techniques, and accumulate detailed accounts of voyages. Later on, Prince Henry the Navigator financed almost all the slave trade in Africa before his death.
Vasco Da Gama
He sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and crossed into the Indian Ocean. He was a Portuguese explorer. De Gama's arrival with many spices back to Lisbon skyrocketed Portugal as a power player in the trading game.
Constantinople
a large and wealthy city that was the imperial capital of the byzantine empire and later the ottoman empire, now known as Istanbul.
Christopher Columbus
a Genoese sailor who, after gaining support from Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand, set sail to find an Atlantic route to the east. He believed he would fulfill medieval prophesies that spoke of converting the whole world to Christianity. He landed in the eastern Bahamas, which he thought was India, hence the name "Indies" and Indians, who proved very easy to enslave. Failed to find gold or spices and voyage deemed a failure.
Santa Fe capitulations
named Columbus viceroy over any territory he might discover, gave him 1/10 of material rewards of journey
Treaty of Tordesillas
a treaty that stated that Portugal had the right to eastern trade routes to the Indies up until an imaginary line fixed west of the Cape Verde Islands. This was initiated because Spain and Portugal were in hot contest to find the passage around Africa
Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand was a Portuguese mariner serving Spain. He set sail trying to reach Columbus's goal of sailing westward to arrive at the Spice Islands. Unfortunately, he did not live to complete his journey. However, his exploration opened new worlds of trade to Spain. He reached the straits around the tip of the South American coast which were named after him, fighting against all odds. When he journeyed into the Pacific, he and his sailors lived for four months without fresh food and water. Magellan finally arrived upon land at the Philippines, where he became involved in a local war, in which he died. His navigator completed the journey back to Spain with one ship and 18 out of the 280 crew members that had survived the treacherous journey, and a wealth of spices, along with a knowledge that the world was indeed round.
Aztec empire
1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
Incan empire
Carved out a large empire by conquering and instigating harsh rule over many other tribes. Conquered by the Spanish.
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish soldier who set out for Peru with a small force of 200 men in 1531. He captured Inca emperor, Atahualpa, who then had his subjects raise vast amounts of gold for ransom. By 1533, he killed the emperor and secured hold on Inca territory.
Encomienda system
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians, who continued to die at an incredible pace from both disease and overwork. Instead, they began to bring in African slaves.
Columbian exchange
as the book defines it, it was "a transfer of microbes, animals, and plants known as the Columbian Exchange". This was provoked by the mixing of populations in Europe and the new world, America. Among the diseases transferred were measles (Spanish transmitted), smallpox (Spanish transmitted), the flu (Spanish transmitted), and syphilis (American transmitted). ½ a million Americans died of the Spanish transmitted diseases.
Price revolution (1600s)
a dramatic rise in prices (inflation). A major problem in Europe in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, causes economic collapse in Spain
Philip II (Spain)
Son of Charles V and a devout Catholic, he was the Hapsburg ruler of Spain from 1556-98. He led the Spanish Counter-Reformation but failed to invade Protestant England with his Spanish Armada.
Spanish Armada
Mary of Scotland, a devout Catholic, wants to assassinate Elizabeth, so Elizabeth locks her up. Phillip II communicates with Mary and Elizabeth hears of this and beheads Mary, her cousin. Since Mary was beheaded, Phillip II starts the Spanish Armada against Elizabeth and England. The Armada was when the Spanish wear sailing to England and they planned to storm in and start war. However, a horrific storm destroys 50% of their fleet. Sir Francis Drake of England leads the smaller, more maneuverable English ships and they defeat the Spanish. This leads to the dominance of the English Navy and the decline of the Spanish Navy.
Dutch East India Company
founded in 1602, this joint-stock company had total control over trading (mainly in spices) between the East Indies and the Netherlands.
Skepticism
most famous Pierre Boyle skepticism: nothing can ever be known beyond all doubt, humanity's best hope was open-minded toleration
Michel de Montaigne
Michel de Montaigne is the finest represent of the early modern skepticism. Montaigne developed a new literary genre: the essay. He rejected the claim that one culture may be superior to others and by doing this he inaugurated a new era of doubt
William Shakespeare
This English playwright lived and wrote in Elizabethan times, and his works reflected the world of a strong monarchy. Some plays showed how a single flaw in a ruler can be a disaster, while others had exemplary monarchs with great power and virtue.
Sovereignty
A state may be termed sovereign when it possesses a monopoly over the instruments of justice and the use of force within clearly defined boundaries. In a sovereign state, no system of courts, such as ecclesiastical tribunals, competes with state courts in the dispensation of justice; and private armies, such as those of feudal lords, present no threat to royal authority because the state's army is stronger. Sovereignty has been evolving during the late sixteenth century and they are privileged groups.
Popular revolts
The results of the pressures of taxation and warfare; carried out by armed common folk
Thomas Hobbes
An English political philosopher who wrote "Leviathon"(1651). He believed that in man's natural state, without any government, we would all be at war with everyone constantly, and have short, "brutish" lives. This contrasts to Locke's ideas that humans are naturally good. Leviathon was, to some extent, a reaction to the English civil war, as Hobbs was influenced by the chaos that he saw when the central government was challenged.
Louis XIII (Fr)
Succeeds Henry IV, ONLY 9 years old, Power of throne was laying with mother - Marie de Medici-second wife of Henry- until Louis came of age, Marie- doesn't do a good job, resents Henry- he'd been unfaithful-dismisses all of Henrys administrators, gives positions to Italian friends - French hate this -1617 she is driven out of power
Cardinal Richelieu
A powerful French advisor of King Louis XIII who basically ran France, during and around the time of the Thirty Years War. He gained his power through Marie D'Medici's favor, but eventually said favor and spent the end of his life just trying to survive the various plots against him.
Intendants
These officials of the French government who worked for the central administration. They gradually took the power and responsibilities of local provincial governors in the early 17th century.
La Rochelle
Huguenot rebellion in 1627 in La Rochelle, supported by English, was ended by Richelieu and the Peace of Alais. Centralized power in France.
The Fronde
This was a rebellion against the regency of Anne of Austria by the officeholders, Parisian landowners, and nobility of France. While Louis XIV was a child, she and her advisory Mazarin ruled. The rebellion was in response to taxation, and was led by the Parliament of Paris, which refused to register various taxes that Anne wanted to pass. They demanded control of the government's financial policy, but Anne had several of them arrested before she, Louis, and Mazarin fled Paris. There was some military conflict, which Mazarin ended in order to avoid a Spanish invasion. In the end, Louis XIV became a powerful king and this group accomplished very little.
Louis XIV (Fr)
(sun king) had the longest reign in European history. Helped France to reach its peak of absolutist development. King of France who ruled as an absolute monarch, even as a child.
absolute monarchy
This is a government style where one ruler has complete power and the final say over everything. In the 16th century, the rulers were not truly absolute, because they relied on the cooperation of a number of nobles. In some cases, like Louis XIV, they manipulated the nobility to the point where they could do anything they wanted to. British monarchs were further from absolute power, because they had a very limited income from tonnage and poundage, which meant that they had to rely on Parliament if they needed money. In Eastern countries, the rulers had more complete control (czars were like totalitarian dictators, minus the strong negative connotation).
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
controller of general finances for Louis XIV, strongly supported mercantilism, oversaw the quality of French goods, ordered the building of more roads/canals, and earned money for the crown, even though Louis XIV would easily deplete the treasury through his war craze
Mercantilism
Is a collection of governmental policies for the regulation of economic activities, especially commercial activities, by and for the state. In 17th and 18th century economic theory, a nation's international power was thought to be based on its wealth, specifically its gold supply. Because mercantilist theory held, resources were limited, state intervention was need to secure the largest part of a limited resource. Economy sells more than it buys and secures largest share of limited resources
War of Spanish Succession
a fight between France (Louis XIV) and Spain (Phillip V) over succession to the Spanish throne after Charles II's death (would Spain and France eventually be united in the same dynastic family?), ended by the Peace of Utrecht
Philip of Anjou
grandson of Louis xiv who was granted the entire Spanish inheritance by Charles II and became Philip V of Spain, two great powers Louis XIV of France and Philip V of Spain, run by bourbons.
Peace of Utrecht (1713)
ended the War of Spanish Succession, Philip was recognized as king of Spain but had to renounce any claim to the French throne. Spain surrendered its territories in Italy and the Netherlands to the Austrians and Gibraltar to the British; France gave possessions in North America to Britain. France no longer threatened to dominate European power politics.
Don Quixote
novel authored by Miguel de Cervantes, perhaps the greatest work of Spanish literature. A survey of the entire fabric of Spanish society that can be read on several levels: as a burlesque of chivalric romances; as an exploration of conflicting views (idealistic vs. realistic) of life and of the world.
Viceroyalties
four administrative units of Spanish possessions in the Americas: New Spain, Peru, New Granada, La Plata. Ruled by direct representatives of the king.
Quinto
The Spanish monarchy acted on the mercantilism principle that the colonies existed for financial benefit. The crown claimed the Quinto, gold and silver, as being the most important industry in the Spanish colonies.
Baroque art
Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
French Academy
Richelieu's efforts at centralization extended even to literature. In 1635, he gave official recognition to a group of philologists who were interested in grammar and rhetoric. Thus was born the French Academy. With Richelieu's encouragement, the French Academy began the preparation of a dictionary to standardize the French language; it was completed in 1694. The French Academy survives as prestigious society, and its membership now includes people outside the field of literature. It was an academy to teach epilogists who were interested in grammar and rhetoric.
French classicism
Richelieu's efforts at centralization extended even to literature. In 1635, he gave official recognition to a group of philologists who were interested in grammar and rhetoric. Thus was born the French Academy. With Richelieu's encouragement, the French Academy began the preparation of a dictionary to standardize the French language; it was completed in 1694. The French Academy survives as prestigious society, and its membership now includes people outside the field of literature. It was an academy to teach epilogists who were interested in grammar and rhetoric.
Molière
When Jean Baptist Po Quelin (1622-1673), the son of a prosperous tapestry maker, refused to join his father's business and enter theater he took the name "Moliere". As a playwright, stage manager, director, and an actor, Moliere produced comedies that exposed the hypocrisies and follies of society through brilliant caricature. In structure, Moliere's plays followed classical models but they were based on careful social observation.
Constitutionalism
Richelieu's efforts at centralization extended even to literature. In 1635, he gave official recognition to a group of philologists who were interested in grammar and rhetoric. Thus was born the French Academy. With Richelieu's encouragement, the French Academy began the preparation of a dictionary to standardize the French language; it was completed in 1694. The French Academy survives as prestigious society, and its membership now includes people outside the field of literature. It was an academy to teach epilogists who were interested in grammar and rhetoric.
Elizabeth I (Eng)
Daughter of Henry VIII and Ann Boleyn, restored Anglicanism in England. Defeated the Spanish Armada and is known as one of England's greatest queens
James I (Eng)
Scottish man who instituted the True Free Law of Monarchies, gave less importance to "balanced polity", rejected the Presbyterian's and Puritan's pleas to get rid of episcopy, and used a system of special impositions and benevolence to get money without Parliament
Charles I (Eng)
son of James I, first accepted then rejected then decided that Parliament should not meet (causing thwarted hopes and a sense of betrayal), instituted ship money, married Henrietta who made citizens suspicious about his own religious ideals. Beheaded.
Puritans
Richelieu's efforts at centralization extended even to literature. In 1635, he gave official recognition to a group of philologists who were interested in grammar and rhetoric. Thus was born the French Academy. With Richelieu's encouragement, the French Academy began the preparation of a dictionary to standardize the French language; it was completed in 1694. The French Academy survives as prestigious society, and its membership now includes people outside the field of literature. It was an academy to teach epilogists who were interested in grammar and rhetoric.
William Laud
archbishop of Canterbury who tried to impose elaborate ritual and rich ceremonies on all churches; insisted on complete uniformity of the church and enforced it through the Court of High Commission
"The Long Parliament"
This Parliament met for 13 years from 1640-1653 and chose not to implement the taxes that Charles II wanted to defend England against the Scots. This was mostly because they agreed with the Scot's negative opinion of Laud's religious changes and disagreed with the king on many issues. This powerful parliament also executed Charles's chief advisory, the Earl of Strafford.
Triennial Act (1641)
Parliament meets at least once every three years, with or without the king's consent
Oliver Cromwell
Englishman who captured Charles I and gained power for the new model army and himself when the king is beheaded, destroyed both king and parliament, used military force to maintain control
"Rump Parliament"
After much of Parliament was killed for voting against the trial of Charles I, the remainder did their best to hold it together, until Cromwell took control and started a new Parliament.
Commonwealth
A commonwealth, or republic form of government, was proclaimed when Charles I was beheaded in 1649. Theoretically, legislative power rested in the surviving members of the parliament and executive power was lodged in a council state.
Charles II (Eng)
house of Stuart. While Cromwell ruled the commonwealth, Charles was crowned king of Scotland in 1651. After Cromwell died, Charles used the Declaration of Breda to restore himself to the English throne. He fought two lackluster wars against the Dutch, and needed protection from Louis xiv through the treaty of Dover. His wife Catherine of Braganza produced no legitimate heirs, but this "merry monarch" has as many as 14 illegitimate children. Tolerant of Catholics, he dissolved parliament over the issue in 1681 and refused to prevent his brother James from succeeding him.
Test Act (1678)
This was the bill passed that those who did not receive the Eucharist of the Anglican Church had little rights
Glorious Revolution
The English call the events of 1688-189 the "Glorious Revolution." The revolution was indeed glorious in the sense that it replaced one king with another with minimum bloodshed. It also represented the destruction once and for all of the idea of divine right monarchy. The revolution of 1688 established the principle that sovereignty, the ultimate power of the state, was divided between king and Parliament and that the king ruled with consent of the governed.
William & Mary
King and queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' catholic reign ended. as they were protestant, the puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.
John Locke
Locke maintained that people set up civil governments to protect life, liberty and property. A government that oversees its proper function protecting the natural rights of life, liberty, and property-becomes a tyranny.
"Golden age of the Netherlands"
Achievement in science/art/lit.
shopped modern worldview
united provinces = model of modern constitutional state
- unparallel flowering of Dutch scientific, artistic, literary achievement
- Dutch ideas and attitudes played a profound role in shaping a new and modern world view
- united provinces(Netherlands) model of the development of the modern constitutional state after winning independence from Spain
Serfdom
The consolidation of serfdom was accompanied by the growth of estate agriculture, particularly in Poland and eastern Germany. In the sixteenth century, European economic expansion and population growth resumed after the great declines of the late Middle Ages. Prices for agricultural commodities also rose sharply as gold and silver flowed in the form of the New World. The re-emergence of serfdom in Eastern Europe in the early modern period was clearly a momentous human development. The small hope of escaping selfdom was gone. Control of serfs was strictly to the lord's won business, for the new law code set no limits on the lords' authority over their peasants. Although the political development of the various eastern states differed, the legal re-establishment of permanent hereditary selfdom had become a common fate of peasants in the east by the middle of the seventeenth century.
Thirty Years' War
Protestant Bohemian revolt over religious freedom led to war in Germany. Historians traditionally divide the war into four phases. The Bohemian phase (1618-1625) was characterized by a civil war in Bohemia between the Catholic League and Protestant Union. The Bohemian fought for religious liberty and independence from Habsburg rule. Ferdinand II wiped out Protestants in Bohemia. The Danish phase (1625-1629) led to further Catholic victory. The Swedish phase (1630-1635) of the war ended the Habsburg plan to unite Germany. The French phase (1635-1648) destroyed Germany and an independent Netherlands. The Peace of Westphalia" recognized the independent authority of the German princes. The treaties allowed France to intervene at will in German affairs. The war was economically disastrous for Germany. The war led to agricultural depression in Germany, which in turn encouraged a return to serfdom for many peasants. The Lutherans gained more territories than they were supposed to have and so a war between the Protestant alliance and a Catholic League resulted.
Defenestration of Prague
the throwing of catholic officials from a castle window in bohemia. started the thirty years' war.
Protestant Union
alliance of German Lutheran princes alarmed at religious and territorial spread of Calvinism and Catholicism. Catholic princes responded with the catholic league (1609). the two armed camps erupted in the thirty years war
Catholic League
it was brought on by the concessions given by Henry III to Protestants. Led by Henry, Duke of Guise, it was organized by a nobleman in the northern province of Picardy and was more extensive than smaller local anti-protestant organizations that had sprung up in the 1560s. Despite an insincere oath of loyalty taken to the king, it posed a threat not only to Huguenots but also to the monarchy. Henry, duke of guise, who was subsidized by Philip ii of Spain, vowed to fight until Protestantism was completely driven from France
Christian IV (Den)
he is a Lutheran who intervened on behalf of the protestant cause by leading an army into northern Germany. He had made an anti-catholic and anti-Hapsburg alliance with the united provinces and England. He also wanted to gain possession of some catholic territories in northern Germany to benefit his family.
Gustavus Adolphus (Swed)
joins thirty years' war in 1629, king of Sweden, protestant leader, stands up for fellow Protestants, military genius, wins a lot for protestant team; supported by Richelieu, who wants to end Hapsburg power; killed in 1632 at battle of Luetzen
Peace of Westphalia (1648)
This settlement was achieved in 1648, it signaled the end of the medieval ideal. Late sixteenth century conflicts fundamentally tested the medieval ideal of a unified Christian society governed by one political ruler and are under one church. The Protestant Reformation killed this ideal. The Peace of Westphalia ended religious wars but also the idea of a unified Christian society. It was a treaty signed at Munster and Osnabruck. It marked a turning point in European political, religious, and social history.
Bohemian Estates
representative body of the different estates, or legal orders. Dominated in the early 1600s by the protestant Czechs, who defended protestant rights in 1618. They were crushed at White Mountain in 1620, and the victorious Hapsburg, Ferdinand ii, reduced the power of the estates and gave land to catholic nobles.
Ferdinand II (HRE)
successor to Matthias as HRE. Arranged troops from Milan, pope, Bavaria - > bohemia and defeated Frederick v at battle of the white mountain in 1620. Frederick fled at "winter king" and lost his ancestral lands in palatine. Ferdinand got himself elected king of bohemia and took land from Protestants. Nobles -> to church and Jesuits streamed in - recatholicising bohemia.
Prince Francis Rákóczy
The Hungarians rose in one last patriotic rebellion under Prince Francis Rakoczy against the Habsburgs in 1703. Rakoczy and his forces were eventually defeated, but this time the Habsburgs had to accept a definitive compromise. Charles VI restored many of the traditional privileges of the Hungarian aristocracy in return for Hungarian acceptance of the hereditary Habsburg rule. (
Pragmatic Sanction (1713)
In 1713 Charles VI proclaimed the Pragmatic Sanction, which stated that the Habsburg possessions were never to divide and were always to be passed intact to a single heir
Charles VI (HRE)
he became the Hapsburg ruler. His empire was a difficult one to rule. Within its borders lived a diverse assortment of people- Czechs, Hungarians, Italians, Croatians, and Germans. He sent his entire reign working out an answer to this problem. With endless arm-twisted, he persuaded other leaders of Europe to sign an agreement that declared they would recognize Charles's eldest daughter as the heir to all his Hapsburg territories.
Elector of Brandenburg
one of the electors of the Holy Roman Empire hereditarily held by the Hohenzollern family. Frederick William was able to use and expand office, ultimately resulting in the consolidation of the Prussian state
Frederick William the Great Elector
the weakening of the estates helped the very talented young elector Frederick the great (r. 1640-1688) to ride roughshod over traditional representative rights and to take a giant step toward royal absolutism. This constitutional struggle, often unjustly neglected by historians, was the most crucial in the Prussian history for hundreds of years, until that of the 1860's. When he came into power in 1640, the twenty-year old great elector was determined to unify his three quite separate provinces and add them by diplomacy and war. These provinces were Brandenburg, Prussia, and the Rhine in western Germany. The nobility and the landowning classes, known as the "Junkers", dominated the estates of Brandenburg and Prussia. The struggle between the great elector and the provincial estates was long, complicated, and intense. To pay for the permanent standing army he first established in 1660, Frederick William forced the estates to accept the introduction of permanent taxation without consent. The power of the estates declined rapidly thereafter, for the great elector had both financial independence and superior force. The great elector reconfirmed the privilege of the nobility in 1653 of the nobility's freedom from taxation and its control over the peasants. Even a while after reducing the estates political power, the nobility growled but did not bite. It accepted a compromise whereby the bulk of the new taxes fell on towns and royal authority stopped at the property owner's gates.
Brandenburg-Prussia
the nucleus/centerpiece upon which the German nation is eventually formed, unified with Brandenburg (started the war of the Austrian succession)
Frederick I (Prs)
Frederick the Great used the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-17480 to expand Prussia into a great power by seizing Silesia from Maria Theresa of Austria. The Seven Years' War (1756-1763) saw an attempt by Maria Theresa, with the help of France and Russia, to regain Silesia, but failed. Frederick allowed religious freedom and promoted education, legal reform, and economic growth but allowed the Junker nobility to keep the middle class from in government. Frederick allowed the repressions of Prussian Jews-who were confined to overcrowded ghettos
Frederick William I (Prs)
Frederick William I, "the Soldiers' King" (r. 1713-1740), was the one who truly established Prussian absolutism and gave it a unique character. It was he who created the best army in Europe, for its size, and it was he who infused strict military values into whole society. Frederick William's attachment to the army and military life was intensely emotional. He had built a first-rate army, although he had third-rate resources. The standing army increased from thirty-eight thousand to eighty-three thousand during his reign. Prussia, twelfth in population, had the fourth largest army by 1740. Only the much more populace states of France, Russia, and Austria had larger forces. Moreover, soldier for soldier; the Prussian army became the best in Europe, astonishing foreign observers with its precision, skill, and discipline. For the next two hundred years, Prussia and then Prussianized Germany would usually win the crucial military battles.
Junkers
The nobility and the landowning classes known as the "Junkers" dominated The Estates of Brandenburg and Prussia. Frederick William I grab for power brought him into considerable conflict with the Junkers. In his early years, he even threatened to destroy them; yet, in the end, the Prussian nobility was not destroyed-but enlisted-into the army. Responding to the combination of threats and opportunities, the Junkers became the officer caste. The Great Elector weakened the powers of the Junkers
Muscovy/Muscovite Russia
early Russia with Moscow as its capital, under Mongol rule (forced to pay tribute)
Ivan III (Rus)
In the reign of Ivan III (r. 1462-1505), the process of gathering in the territories around Moscow was completed. Of the principalities the Ivan III purchased and conquered, the large, rich merchant republic of Novgorod was the most crucial. This prince of Moscow was an autocrat and tsar. This imperious conception of absolute power was powerfully reinforced by two developments. First, about 1480 Ivan III felt strong enough to stop acknowledging the khan as the supreme ruler. Second, after the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453, the tsars saw themselves as the heirs of both the Caesars and Orthodox Christianity, the one true faith.
Ivan IV (Rus)
Ivan the Terrible was an autocrat tsar. He expanded the Muscovy and further reduced the power of the boyars. Between 1552 and 1556, he had declared war the Mongols, and with that, he added vast new territories to Russia. In the course of these wars, Ivan virtually abolished the old distinction between hereditary boyar private property and land granted temporarily for service. All nobles, old and new, had to serve the tsar in order of hold any land. He struck down the ancient Muscovite boyars with a reign of terror. Leading boyars, their relatives, and even their peasants and servants were executed en masse by special corps of unquestioning servants. Ivan took giant strides toward making all commoners servants of the tsar. His endless wars and demonic purges left much of central Russia depopulated. Many peasants fled his rule to the newly conquered territories, forming groups of Cossacks. Businessman and artisans were bound to their towns and jobs; the middle class did not develop. The tsars took over mines and industries and monopolized the country's important commercial activities. The urban classes had no security in their work or property, and even the wealthiest merchants were dependent of the agents of the tsar. The tsar's obligations checked on the growth of the Russian middle classes and impoverished the urban lower classes, just as they led to pressure on the boyars, the rise of the lower nobility, and the final enserfment of the peasants.
Boyars
A boyar is a member of a high-ranking order of the Russian aristocracy. A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the tenth through the seventeenth century. Ivan the Terrible abolished their old distinction between hereditary boyar private property and land granted temporarily for service. All nobles old and new had to serve the tsar in some way in order to hold any land.
Service nobility
the individual noble's rank depended on the performance of government service. It demanded that all nobles, in Russia called boyars, serve either in the civil service or in the military
Cossacks
The Cossacks maintained their independence beyond the reach of the oppressive landholders and the tsars hated officials. The solution to the problem of peasant flight was to complete the tying of the peasants to the land, making them serfs perpetually bound to serve the noble landholders, who were bound in turn to serve the tsar.
Time of Troubles
The death of Ivan the Terrible in 1584-ushered in an era of confusion and violent struggle for power. Events were particularly chaotic after Ivan's son, Theodore, died in 1598 without an heir. The years of 1598 to 1613 were aptly called the "Time of Troubles." The close relatives of the tsar intrigued against and murdered each other, alternately fighting and welcoming the invading Swedes and Poles, who even occupied Moscow. Cossack bands, led by Ivan Bolotnikov, marched northward, rallying peasants and slaughtering nobles and officials.
Peter the Great
Peter the Great (r. 1682-1725) had his own kind of monarchial absolutism. Peter was interested primarily in military power, not in some grandiose westernization plan. Peter was determined to redress the defeats the tsar's armies had occasionally suffered in their wars with Poland and Sweden since the time of Ivan the Terrible. Peter was equally determined to continue the tsarist tradition of territorial expansion. He gained a large mass of Ukraine from weak and decentralized Poland in 1667. He had ruled for 36 years yet there was only one year of peace. When Peter took control in 1689, the heart of the army still consisted of cavalry made up of boyars and service nobility. The Russian army was lagging behind the professional standing armies being formed in Europe in the seventeenth century. Maintaining an existing Russian alliance with Austria and Poland against the Ottoman Empire, Peter campaigned against Turkish forts and Tartar vessels on the Black Sea. Learning from his earlier mistakes, he conquered Azov in 1696. Fascinated by weapons and foreign technology, the confident tsar then led a group of 250 Russian officials and young nobles on an eighteen-month tour of western European capitals. Returning to Russia Peter made a fateful decision that would shape his reign and bring massive reforms. He entered into a secret alliance with Denmark and the elector of Saxony to wage a sudden war against Sweden. He went to war against the absolutist king Charles XII of Sweden and eventually won the Great Northern War. Since a more modern army and government required skilled technicians and experts, he created schools and even universities to produce them. He reformed the army and forced the nobility to serve in his bureaucracy. His new army numbered 200,000 plus consisted of another 100,000 special troops. Army and government became more efficient and powerful as an interlocking military-civilian bureaucracy was created and staffed talented people. Russian peasant life under Peter became harsher. People were drafted for the army as a form of taxation. Serfs were arbitrarily assigned to do work in factories and mines. Modest territorial expansion took place under Peter, and Russia became a European Great Power. Peter borrowed many western ideas.
Great Northern War
Russia vs. Sweden. Russia had Poland, Denmark and Saxony as allies. Treaty of Nystad is where Russia gained Latvia and Estonia and thus gained its Window on the West in the Baltic Sea.
Charles XII (Swed)
only surviving son of King Charles XI of Sweden, took the crown at fifteen years of age, left the country to embark on battles overseas. These battles were a part of the great northern war sig- skilled politician and military leader. Reluctant in making peace, Sweden was eventually defeated.
St. Petersburg
metropolis peter the great created, capital of Russian empire for more than 200 years; nobles paid for canals, parks etc while peasants worked on the city. The navy was held here sig- showed the westernization and modernization of Russia during peter's rule and exemplified his absolute power
Ottoman Empire
Islamic state founded by omen in northwestern Anatolia ca. 1300. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453 to 1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe.
Sultanate
similar to a monarchy, but a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of a sultan (the head of a Muslim state); the sultan may be an absolute ruler or a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority.
Janissary corps
the Christian slaves of the ottomans that were not eligible for government positions and served instead as a part of the ottoman military user-contributed
Millet system
system of managing government where the Ottoman Empire was divided by religion. Leaders of each millet supported the sultan in exchange for power over their millet.
Scientific revolution
This was when the "common sense" of ancient science - specifically that of Aristotle - was called into question. Through new observations and experimentation, the scientific community disproved many traditional ideas about science, which was greatly unsettling to educated people.
Natural philosophy
science as a branch of philosophy. Study of knowledge of the natural world. Proposed by John Locke, it said that human beings had by nature certain rights, such as the rights to life, liberty, and property.
Aristotelian world-view
A motionless Earth was fixed as the center of the universe. Around it moved ten crystal-like spheres: the moon, the sun, the five known planets, and fixed stars. Beyond the tenth sphere was heaven, with the throne of God and souls of the saved (dead). Aristotle's view based pre-scientific revolution ideas and beliefs of most religious institutions. Earth was made up of four elements.
Nicolaus Copernicus
This man studied astronomy at the University of Krakow, and wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres in 1543 saying that the earth, and all other planets, orbited the sun.
Copernican hypothesis
Copernicus theorized that the stars and planets, including the earth revolved around a fixed sun. He worked on his hypothesis from 1506 to 1530. He had the idea that Earth was just another planet. This angered many church and religious officials who firmly believed in Aristotle's view of the universe, which was very much different than Copernicus's.
Johannes Keller
This scientist had a complicated theory that said that all the planets orbited the sun, except Earth, and the sun and other planets orbited Earth. This was a combination of Aristotle and Copernicus/Galileo's ideas. After observing a nova and a comet, he challenged the conventional idea of impenetrable crystalline rings in space that prevented change.
Galileo (inertia)
Using the telescope, this man observed the moons of Jupiter in 1610, proving that all "heavenly bodies" do not orbit the earth. When he found that the surfaces of the moon and sun were inconsistent, with "spots" on the sun and craters and valleys on the moon, he supported the idea that the entire universe was composed of "ordinary matter" the way the earth is. This man gained a great deal of attention and support as his ideas spread, and the Catholic Church used the Inquisition to force him to recant the idea that the earth moves, and then kept him under house arrest for the rest of his life.
Isaac Newton (gravitation)
This English mathematician and physicist wrote Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, developed calculus, explained what motion was and it's most important laws, figured out what light was composed of, and built the first reflecting telescope. He also came up with the theory of gravity.
Francis Bacon
This man advocated the careful recording of scientific experimentation. He was not a scientist himself, but the idea that all experiments should be repeatable and thus reliable influenced all of European science. This conflicted with the Church's interests, because science could not be controlled by Rome and could seldom be explained by religious teachings. Unexplained "magical" science was easier to disprove and thus ignore than openly explained experimentation.
René Descartes
Rene Descartes along with Francis bacon invented new methods of experimentation for science. He was a French philosopher who made his first great discovery in mathematics. Descartes' discovery of analytical geometry provided scientists with an important new tool.
Empiricism
A scientific idea that knowledge should be based on experience and observation, not simply abstract logic. This was important to the Scientific Revolution, because the scientific community stopped trusting the hypothetical theories of the past and began testing hypotheses to prove or disprove them.
Experimental method
Galileo. Experiment with controlled things.
Cartesian dualism
Relationship between mind and matter. A philosophy by Descartes set forth in Discourse on Method, in which he rejected everything that could not be proved beyond doubt. This led him to the conclusion that the only thing he could be certain of was that he had a mind, because he had doubt, and doubt is thought, and one must have a mind to think. Thus he came to the famous conclusion, "I think, therefore I am."
Enlightenment
This world-wide view had a large role in the forming of the modern mind. The original ideas of the Enlightenment included the method of reason. Enlightenment thinkers believed that nothing could be accepted by faith. The Enlightenment was a broad intellectual and cultural movement that gained strength gradually and didn't mature until 1750. It revived and expanded the Renaissance concentrations on many worldly explanations.
Rationalism
the theological doctrine that human reason rather than divine revelation establishes religious truth
Philosophes
The Philosophes or intellectuals were the ones who accepted and embraced many of the new ideas of the revolution. Philosophe is the French word for "philosopher" and it was in France that the Enlightenment reached its highest development. Philosophes asked fundamental philosophical questions about the meaning of life, God, human nature, good, evil, and cause and effect
Bernard de Fontenelle
French man of letters; wrote the "conversation on the plurality of worlds." in this book, a sophisticated man and an elegant woman, possibly his lover, are in a large park gazing at the stars and the man proceeds to give her an astronomy lesson. Here, ideas such as heliocentricity were expressed; he knew people wouldn't want to read a boring textbook, so he wrote a romantic novel of sorts in order to get his ideas across. Significant because his writing spread the ideas of the scientific revolution to a non scientific audience.
Tabula rasa
(John Locke) The human mind at birth is like a blank tablet or Tabula Rosa on which the environment writes the individual's understandings and beliefs. Human development is therefore determined by education and social institutions, for good or for evil.
Montesquieu
Baron Montesquieu, one of the greatest philosophers in history, was extremely influential in his works based on satire. He used with as a weapon against cruelty and superstition. Montesquieu focused on the conditions that would promote liberty and prevent tyranny.
Voltaire
Francois Marie Arouet, known by pen as Voltaire (1644-1778). He wrote more than 70 witty volumes, intensively interested with the works of kings and queens. All his life he struggled against legal injustice and unequal treatment before the law. Voltaire married Madame Chatelet, who proved to be a suitable wife the 15 years that they were together.
Madame du Châtelet
Madame Chatelet (1706-1749) was an intellectually gifted woman from a high aristocracy with a passion for science. She became Voltaire's longtime companion, Madame du Chatelet studied physics and mathematics and published science articles and translations. She was the finest example of an elite French woman; Madame du Chatelet suffered because of her gender. She was excluded from the Royal Academy of Sciences. She later became uncertain of her ability to make important scientific discoveries.
Diderot & d'Alembert
Along with Jean la Rond d'Alembert, Diderot edited the Encyclopedia: The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Crafts. He began his career as a hack writer and wanted the Encyclopedia to change the general way of thinking. Diderot set out to teach people how to think critically and objectively about all matters. He attracted attention with a skeptical tract on religion.
Encyclopedia
The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Crafts - The ultimate strength of the French Philosophes was their greatest achievement was a group effort. It was edited by Denis Diderot. The Encyclopedia showed that human beings could use the process of reasoning to expand human knowledge.
Scottish Enlightenment
inequality is necessary; inequality arises when private property emerges and private property emerges when resources can be reserved- through surplus people conserve and increase bounty
Salons
elegant private drawing rooms-in Paris used for regular social gatherings of great and near-great presided over by a number of talented and rich women-allowed Philosophes to exchange witty, uncensored observations of literature, science, philosophy, with great aristocrats, wealthy middle-class financiers, high-ranking officials, and noteworthy foreigners
Rococo art
a style of 18th century French art and interior design. Rococo rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. It was largely supplanted by the neoclassic style.
Public sphere
expansion of public sphere in enlightenment caused by circulation of political and social ideas in print. People became more involved w/ art and could criticize governments. Governments, in return, regulated public sphere. Led to shift from religion to secularness.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
wrote discourse on the origins of the inequality of mankind, the social contract, & Emile. He identified the human nature was originally happy but was corrupted when man claimed that they owned land. Said the government must rule at the general will of the people so that the most people are benefited. Hated parliament because the delegates made laws not the people.
Immanuel Kant
wrote discourse on the origins of the inequality of mankind, the social contract, & Emile. He identified the human nature was originally happy but was corrupted when man claimed that they owned land. Said the government must rule at the general will of the people so that the most people are benefited. Hated parliament because the delegates made laws not the people. "What is enlightenment?"
Enlightened absolutism
Many philosophers believed that the enlightenment reform would come by the way of enlightened monarchs. The Philosophes believed that a benevolent absolutism offered the best change for improving society.
Frederick II (Prs)
Voltaire began a long correspondence with Frederick the Great, and after the death of his beloved Emilie, accepted his invitation to come brighten up the Prussian court in Berlin. Frederick II (1740-1786) embraced culture and literature, even writing poetry and fine prose in French, a language which his father detested. He, as a young boy, tried to run away along with his companion. When they were caught by his royal father, his companion was beheaded; to make sure the young prince would never run away again. Frederick the Great conquered many territories during his long reign
Catherine the Great (Rus)
Catherine the Great of Russia (1762-1796) was one of the most remarkable rulers to have ever lived. The French Philosophes adored her. The 15-year-old was attractive and intelligent. On the other hand, he husband was stupid and ugly, scarred by smallpox. Catherine the Great of Russia did not care about her husband, but more for the crown and Russia. (
Maria-Theresa (Aus)
Maria Theresa's long reign, led by Frederick the Great, invaded her lands and tried to dismember them. Maria was determined to introduce reforms that would make the state stronger and more efficient. Aimed at limiting the papacy's realm of political influence.
Joseph II (Aus)
Joseph II, coregent with his mother, Maria Theresa, from 1765 onward and strong supporter of change, he moved forward rapidly when he came to throne in 1780.
Emelian Pugachev
Cossack soldier who sparked a gigantic uprising of serfs (1773) in Russia during the reign of Catherine the great-he proclaimed himself the true tsar and issued decrees abolishing serfdom, taxes, and army service-thousands joined him, slaughtering landlords and officials-lost to Russian army-he was captured and savagely executed
Partition of Poland
division of polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as independent state; part of expansion of Russian influence in Eastern Europe.
Moses Mendelssohn
rewrote the torah in German transliteration. He advocated entering German culture while keeping Jewish law. He was orthodox but had a few reform principles.
crop rotation
Because grain crops exhaust the soil and make fallowing necessary, the secret to eliminating the fallow lies in alternating grain with certain nitrogen-storing crops. The most important of these land-reviving crops are peas and beans, root crops such as turnips and potatoes, and clovers and grasses. In the eighteenth century, peas and beans were old standbys; turnips, potatoes, and clover were newcomers to the fields. As the eighteenth century went on, the number of crops were systematically rotated grew. New patterns of organization allowed some farmers to develop increasingly sophisticated patterns of rotation to suit different kinds of soils. For example, farmers in French Flanders near Lille in the late eighteenth century used a ten-year rotation, alternating a number of grain, root and hay crops in a given field on a ten-year schedule. Continual experimentation led to more scientific farming. Improvements in farming had multiple effects. The new made ideal feed for animals. Because peasants and larger farmers had more fodder, hay, and root crops for the winter months, they could build up their small herds of cattle and sheep. More animals meant more manure for fertilizer and therefore more grain for bread and porridge. The vicious cycle in which few animals meant adequate manure, which meant little grain and less fodder, which led to fewer animals and so on, could be broken.
Enclosure movement
Their common rights were precious to the poor peasants. The rights to glean and to graze a cow on the common, to gather firewood in the lord's forest and pick berries in the marsh, were vital because they helped poor peasants retain a modicum of independence and status and avoid falling into the growing groups of landless, "proletarian" wage workers. Thus when the small landholders and the village poor could effectively oppose the enclosure of the open fields and common pasture, they did so. Moreover, in many countries they usually found allies among the larger, predominantly noble landowners, who were also wary of enclosure because it required large investments and posed risk for them as well. Only powerful social and political pressures could overcome such combined opposition. Enclosure is the idea to enclose individual share of the pastures as a way of farming more effectively. Enclosure of the open field also meant the disappearance of common land, which hurt the small landholders and village poor. Many peasants and some nobles opposed these changes. The enclosure process was slow, and enclosed and open fields existed side by side for a long time.
Jethro Tull
part crank and part genius, was another important English innovator. A true son of the early Enlightenment, Tull adopted a critical attitude toward accepted ideas about farming and tried to develop better methods through empirical research. He was especially enthusiastic about using horses, rather than slow-moving oxen, for plowing. He also advocated sowing seed with drilling equipment rather than scattering by hand. Drilling distributed seed in an even manner and at the proper depth. There were also improvements in livestock, inspired in part by the earlier success of English country gentlemen in breeding ever-faster horses for the races and fox hunts that were their passions. Selective breeding of ordinary livestock was a marked improvement over the old pattern, which has been graphically described as little more than the haphazard union of nobody's son with everybody's daughter
Proletarianization
transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners
Cottage industry
The growth of population increased the number of rural workers with little or no land, and this in turn contributed to the development of industry in rural areas. The poor in the countryside increasingly needed to supplement their earnings from agriculture with other types of work, and capitalists from the city were eager to employ them, often a lower wages than urban workers usually commanded. Manufacturing with hand tools in peasant cottages and work sheds grew markedly in the eighteenth century. Rural industry became a crucial feature of the European economy. To be sure, peasant communities had always made some clothing, processed some food, and constructed some housing for their own sues. But in the High Middle Ages, peasants did not produce manufactured goods on a large scale for sale in a market. Industry in the middle Ages was dominated and organized by urban craft guilds and urban merchants, who jealously regulated handicraft production and sought to maintain it as an urban monopoly. By the eighteenth century, however, the pressures of rural poverty and the need to employ landless proletarians were overwhelming the efforts of urban artisans to maintain their traditional control over industrial production a new system was expanding lustily. The new system has had many names. It has often been called "cottage industry" or "domestic industry" to distinguish it from the factory industry that came later. In recent years, some scholars have preferred to speak of "protoindustrialization," by which they usually mean a stage of rural industrial development with wage workers had hand tools that necessarily preceded the emergence of large-scale factory industry. The focus on protoindustrialization has been quite valuable because it has sparked renewed interest in Europe's early industrial development and shown again that the mechanized factories grew out of a vibrant industrial tradition. However, the evolving concept of protoindustrialization also has different versions, some of which are rigid and unduly deterministic. Thus the phrase putting-out system, widely used by contemporaries to describe the key features of eighteenth-century rural industry, still seems a more appropriate term for the new form of industrial production.
Putting-out system
Thus the phrase putting-out system, widely used by contemporaries to describe the key features of eighteenth-century rural industry, still seems a more appropriate term for the new form of industrial production. The two main participants in the putting-out system were the merchant capitalist and the rural worker. The merchant loaned, or "out-out" raw materials to several cottage workers, who processed the raw materials in their own homes and returned the finished product to the merchant. For example, a merchant would provide raw wool, and the worker would spin and wave the wool into cloth. The merchant then paid the outworkers for their work by the piece and proceeded to sell the finished product. There were endless variations on this basic relationship. Sometimes rural workers would buy their own materials and work as independent producers before they sold to the merchant. Sometimes several workers toiled together to perform a complicated process in a workshop. The relative importance of earnings from the land and from industry varied greatly for handicraft workers, although industrial wages usually became more important for a given family with time. In all cases, however, the putting-out system was a kind of capitalism. Merchants needed large amounts of capital, which they held in the form of goods being worked up and sold in distant markets. They sought to make profits and increase the capital in their businesses. The putting-out system grew because it had competitive advantages. Underemployed labor was abundant, and poor peasants and landless laborers would work for low wages. Since production in the countryside was unregulated, workers and merchants could change procedures and experiment as the saw fit. Because they did not need to meet rigid guild standards, which maintained quality but discouraged the development of new methods, cottage industry became capable of producing many kinds of goods. Textiles; all manner of knives, forks, and house wares; buttons and gloves; clocks; and musical instruments could be produced quite satisfactorily in the countryside. Luxury goods for the rich, such as exquisite tapestries and fine porcelain, demanded special training, close supervision, and centralized workshops. Yet, such goods were as exceptional as those used them. The skill of rural industry was sufficient for everyday articles. Rural manufacturing did not spread across Europe at an even rate. It appeared first in England and developed most successfully there, particularly for the spinning and weaving of woolen cloth. By 1500, half of England's textiles were being produced in the countryside. By 1700, English industry was generally more rural than urban and heavily reliant on the putting-out system. Continental countries developed rural industry more slowly. Therefore, it was basically, a system based on rural workers producing cloth in their homes for merchant-capitalists, who supplied the raw materials and paid for the finished goods.
Guild system
system for specialized workers in the medieval times. It would set regulations for price and other factors to eliminate competition in the town, kept the number of people in a specific job limited,
"Industrious revolution"
the social and economic changes taking place in Europe in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Linked to a rise in capitalism. Increase in demand that was previously inhibited by sumptuary laws. Leisure time became scarcer, the pace of life and work increased, and women and children became wageworkers. New sources of labor established important foundations for the later industrial revolution. Mostly in England and the Dutch republic. Economy becomes monetized, where the more work you do, the more money you make so you can buy more stuff. Increase in taxation makes the need to work increase but also the want to work increased with the ability to buy new world produce and the realization of the "power of demand". Best personified in the works of Adam smith that suggested that selfishness is good because it stimulates the economy. Growth of the study of economy as separate from humanity.
English Navigation Acts
Passed by the English government to protect their economic interests, these laws prevented English goods from being transported by non-English merchants or on non-English ships. Thus, trade in reexports flourished as did the ship-building industry, port towns, and anyone economically associated with English long-distance trade.
Treaty of Paris (1763)
British victory in the Seven Years' War on all colonial fronts was ratified in the Treaty of Paris (1763). France lost all its possessions on the mainland of North America. Canada and all of French territory east of the Mississippi River passed to Britain, and France ceded Louisiana to Spain as compensation for Spain's loss to Britain. France also gave up most of its holdings in India, opening the way to British dominance on the subcontinent.
Atlantic slave trade
lasted from 16th century until the 19th century. Trade of African peoples from western Africa to the Americas. One part of a three-part economical system known as the middle passage of the triangular trade
Creoles
Political success was matched by economic improvement. After declining markedly in the seventeenth century, silver mining recovered greatly, and in 1800, Spanish America accounted for half of the worlds silver production. Silver mining also encouraged food production for large mining camps and gave the Creoles people of the Spanish blood born in America the means to purchase more and more European luxuries and manufactured goods. A class of wealthy Creole merchants arose to handle this flourishing trade, which often relied on smuggled goods from Great Britain. The Creole elite came to rival the top government officials dispatched from Spain to govern the colonies. Creole estate owners controlled much of the land, and they strove t become a genuine European aristocracy. Estate owners believed that work in the fields was the proper occupation of an impoverished peasantry. The defenseless Indians suited their needs. As the indigenous population recovered in numbers, slavery and periodic forced labor gave way to widespread debt peonage from 1600 on. Under this system, a planter or rancher would keep the estate's Christianized, increasingly Hispanicized Indians in perpetual debt bondage by periodically advancing food, shelter, and a little money. Debt peonage was a form of serfdom.
Mestizos
the large middle group in Spanish colonies consisted of racially mixed Mestizos, the offspring of Spanish men and Indian women. The most talented Mestizos realistically aspired to join the Creoles, for enough wealth and power could make on considered white. Thus by the end of the colonial era, roughly 20 percent of the population was classified as white and about 30 percent as Mestizos. Pure-blooded Indians accounted for most of the remainder, but some black slaves were found in every part of Spanish America. Great numbers of blacks went in chains to work the enormous sugar plantations of Portuguese Brazil, and about half the Brazilian population in the early nineteenth century was of African origin. The people of Brazil intermingled sexually and culturally, and the population grew to include every color in the racial rainbow. Thus in the eighteenth century, Spanish and Portuguese colonies developed a growing commerce in silver, sugar, and slaves as well as in manufactured goods for a Europeanized elite. South America occupied an important place in the expanding Atlantic economy.
Debt peonage
a system which allowed a planter or rancher to keep his workers/slaves in perpetual debt bondage by periodically advancing food, shelter, and a little money; it is a form of serfdom
Robert Clive
this man was a British soldier who established the military and political supremacy of the east India Company in southern India and Bengal. He is credited with securing India, and the wealth that followed, for the British crown.
Adam Smith
Although mercantilist policies strengthened both the Spanish and British colonial empires in the eighteenth century, a strong reaction against mercantilism ultimately set in. Creole merchants chafed at regulations imposed from Madrid. Small English merchants complained loudly about the injustice of handing over exclusive trading rights to great trading companies such as the East India Company. Wanting a bigger position in overseas commerce, independent merchants in many countries began campaigning against "monopolies" and calling for "free trade." The general idea of freedom of enterprise in foreign trade was persuasively developed by Scottish professor of philosophy Adam Smith (1723-1790). Smith, who's Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations established the basis for modern economics, was highly critical of eighteenth-century mercantilism. Mercantilism, he said, meant a combination of stifling government regulations and unfair privileges for state approved monopolies and government favorites. Far preferable was free competition, which would best protect consumers from price gouging and give all citizens a fair and equal right to do what they did best. In keeping with the "system of natural liberty" that he advocated, Smith argued that government should limit itself to "only three duties." It should provide a defense against foreign invasion, maintain civil order with courts and police protection, and sponsor certain indispensable public works and institutions that could never adequately profit private investors. Often lampooned in the nineteenth and twentieth century's as a mouth piece for business interests, smith was one of the enlightenment's most original and characteristic thinkers. He relied on the power of reason to unlock the secrets of the secular world, and he believed that he spoke for truth, and not for special interests. Thus unlike many disgruntled merchant capitalists, smith applauded the modest rise in real wages of British workers in the eighteenth century and went on to say, "No society can surely be flourishing and happy, of which the far greater part of the members are poor and miserable."
Nuclear family
In a nuclear family, when a couple married, they started their own household and lived apart from their parents. In this household, a parent moved in with a married child rather than the married couple moving in with either set of their parents. A nuclear family marriage joined a mature man and woman; two adults who had already experienced a great deal of life. A nuclear family called for the custom of late marriage because the wife and husband could not marry until they could support themselves economically.
community controls
scared of the economic problems brought about by broke families and illegitimate children, community elders, church leaders, and anxious families pressured couples who had unexpectedly become pregnant to get married and evade the prospect of having illegitimate, and thus, impoverished mothers and children wandering the streets. this led to many village couples of 18th century Europe, especially France, putting off premarital sex at least until they were seriously considering the notion of becoming married.
Illegitimacy explosion
The number of illegitimate births soared between about 1750 and 185-0 as much of Europe experienced an "illegitimacy explosion." Fewer young women were abstaining from premarital sex and more importantly fewer young men were marrying the women they got pregnant.
Infanticide
the killing of a new-born, because the family could not feed it along with the children it already had. This practice was denounced by the church as a pagan practice in the 18th century, thus all over Europe, still almost exclusively catholic and Christian, the practice began to fade.
Foundling homes
homes where abandoned children were put to prevent infanticides. These homes were overpopulated with children & sickness spread quickly in them. It also became a popular secular charity for the rich. Significance: this shows a drastic change in how people handled illegitimate pregnancies and how they abandoned their children more than they used to.
Edward Gibbon
author of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire, published in 1776, one of the first modern histories that attempted to explain the past as a guide to the future.
Susannah Wesley
"To conquer the will, and bring them to an obedient temper."
Emile
By Rousseau called for greater love and tenderness toward children and proposed imaginative new teaching methods that also constructed rigid gender differences.
Just price
developing idea during the 18th century brought about by the development of markets and such things as cottage industry that the price should damage neither the buyer nor the seller. Sparks the debate of whether the government should determine and set such prices. This idea is somewhat medieval in origin, but applied to this period in which scaled down versions of consumer driven economic systems, like mercantilism, began to arise.
Consumer society
a capitalist society in which individuals are encouraged to spend money on new products and services so as to benefit the economy
Purging
much of the medical profession believed that the regular "purging" of bowels was essential for good health and treatment of illnesses. Purging was the cleaning of the bowels in the 18th century. Much of purging was harmful, although people of Europe believed it to be a remedy.
Bloodletting
a common technique to cure the sick involving opening a vein or letting leeches suck out blood. Medieval doctors believed this helped restore balance in the body and spirit. Unfortunately it made many patients weaker.
Pietism
when the protestant revival began in 18th-century Germany, then the Holy Roman Empire, its ideas were known as pietism. Pietism stressed the importance of enthusiasm and emotion in religion and insisted that everyone could experience religion. Pietism also asserted that all believers were part of the church and that the clergy, if it existed, was not superior to other believers and followers of Christ. Christians studied the bible, lead moral, and came from all walks of life in pietism
Methodism
this movement said that all men and women who sought salvation might be saved, giving the people a message of hope
John Wesley
Pietism had a great impact on John Wesley (1703-1791), who served as the catalyst for popular religious revival I England. Wesley came from a long line of ministers, and then he went to Oxford University to prepare for the clergy, he mapped a fanatically earnest "scheme of religion." Like some students during final exam period, he organized every waking moment. After becoming a teaching fellow at Oxford, he organized a Holy Club for similarly minded students, who were soon known contemptuously as "Methodists" because they were so methodical in their devotion.
Jansenism
developed by Cornelius Jansen, erroneous belief that man was entirely free in the state of innocence and his will tended to do what was right. According to him, original sin made him a slave to sin and all his actions corrupted him. His only hope was god's grace, which could save him and he taught that god only granted Salvifiv grace to a small number of "predestined" people.
Carnival
a time of intense reveling, including drinking, masquerading, dancing, plays, and processions that took place just before lent in Mediterranean and catholic Europe, particularly Italy. This annual tradition began in 17th and 18th century Europe, but its influence can be seen in such traditions as Mardi gras, a similar event that is practiced as almost exactly the same time as the carnival was. All members of society participated in the carnival; it was one of if not the only such event.
1st/2nd/3rd estates
all wanted a constitutional monarchy, the guarantee by law of individual liberties, loosened economic regulations, and regular meetings of the Estates General.
1st- Made up of clergy
2nd-Made up of nobles
3rd- Everybody else
Bourgeoisie
In discussing the long-term origins of the French Revolution, historians have long focused on growing tensions between the nobility and the comfortable members of the third estate, usually known as the bourgeoisie, or middle class. The bourgeoisie was basically united by economic position and the class interest. The French bourgeoisie eventually rose up to lead the entire third estate in a great social revolution, a revolution that destroyed feudal privileges and established a capitalist order basted on individualism and a market economy. Rather than standing as unified blocks against each other, nobility and bourgeoisie formed two parallel social ladders increasingly linked together at the top by wealth, marriage, and Enlightenment culture.
Parlement of Paris
The parlements- 13 in France were frontline defenders of liberty against royal despotism. The high court judges were the most important and influential in the Parlement of Paris. The Parlement of Paris challenged the basis of royal authority and stopped many repressive taxes.
Duke of Orléans
regent for King Louis XV created a political power struggle when he restored to regional parlements the ancient right to evaluate royal decrees publicly in writing before they passed to law.
Louis XV
after the French parlements refused to accept his tax decrees, he abolished the existing parlements and established his own chancellor René de Maupeou.
René de Maupeou
Louis XV's financial minister, abolished the Parlement of Paris and exiled its members to the provinces; created a new and docile Parlement of royal officials; began to re-tax the privilege groups; the majority of Philosophes and public sided with the old Parlement, however, abolished the Parlement of Paris and exiled its members to the provinces; created a new and docile Parlement of royal officials; began to re-tax the privilege groups; the majority of Philosophes and public sided with the old Parlement, however
Maupeou parlements
Maupeou eliminated the old parlements and established new parlements
Madame de Pompadour
Louis XV's mistress who wielded significant political power behind the scenes. Helped negotiate treaty of Versailles and damaged his public image because she started off as a commoner
Coercive Acts (US, 1773)
all of these names refer to the same acts, passed in 1774 in response to the Boston tea party, and which included the Boston port act, which shut down Boston harbor; the Massachusetts government act, which disbanded the Boston assembly (but it soon reinstated itself); the quartering act, which required the colony to provide provisions for British soldiers; and the administration of justice act, which removed the power of colonial courts to arrest royal officers.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
the British recognized the independence of the United States. It granted boundaries, which stretched from the Mississippi on the west, to the great lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the south. The Yankees retained a share of Newfoundland. It greatly upset the Canadians.
Assembly of Notables
the group that was summoned by Louis XVI to discuss his proposed tax reform in 1787.
Louis XVI
king of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the estates-general, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Estates General
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the estates general in 1789 led to the French revolution. The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis
Abbé Sieyes
Reflecting increased political competition and a growing hostility toward aristocratic aspirations, the Abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes in1789 in his famous pamphlet what is the Third Estate? That the nobility was a tiny, over privileged minority and that the neglected third estate constituted the true strength of the French nation. When the government agreed that the third estate should have as many as delegates as the clergy and the nobility combined, but then rendered this act meaningless by upholding voting by separate order, middle class leaders saw fresh evidence of an aristocratic conspiracy.
National Assembly
In May 1789, the twelve hundred delegates of the three estates paraded in medieval peasantry through the streets of Versailles to an opening session resplendent with feudal magnificence. The estates were almost immediately deadlocked. Delegates of the third estate refused to transact any business until the king ordered the clergy and nobility to go over to sit with them in a single body. Finally, after a six-week war of nerves, a few parish priests began to go over the third estate, which on June 17 voted to call it the "National Assembly."
Tennis Court Oath
the national assembly swore to never separate and to constantly meet until they wrote a fair constitution. It came about because the third estate claimed they were the National Assembly, so they invited people from the other estates to help them write their constitution. Sworn by renegade delegates of the Estates General who pledged to draft a constitution.
The Great Fear
fear of vagabonds and outlaws that fanned the flames of rebellion in the countryside in 1789.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution. Guaranteed the ability to speak, write, and publish freely, representative government, liberty, property, security, and resistance from oppression as well as the presumption of innocence in criminal investigations.
Women's (Oct.) March
October 5, 1789. Violently targeted the royal family in a show of anger over high bread prices and unemployment.
Constitutional monarchy
monarch shares governmental power with elected legislature or serves as ceremonial leader of government; written constitution exists as rule of law
Saint-Domingue
island now known as Haiti; good for sugar producing; residents (slaves) heard about equality and the other enlightenment ideas and asked France for the same rights as those people living in France but did not receive them--civil war breaks out and many Frenchmen die--gains independence from France--becomes nation of Haiti
Code noir
1685 black code that said free people of color had same legal status as whites, could own land, live anywhere, education and career of choice but from 1760 on whites stopped the rights
Vincent Ogé
Haitian, free man of color that raised an army for rights of free men and failed. Significance: caused the national assembly to compromise and give rights to free people of color born to two free parents who had enough property.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Were an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. In a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
Maximilien Robespierre
When Louis XVI accepted the final version of the completed constitution in September 1791, a young and still obscure provincial lawyer and member of the National Assembly named Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) evaluated the work of two years and concluded, "The Revolution is over." Robespierre was both right and wrong. He was right in the sense that the most constructive and lasting reforms were in place. Nothing substantial in the way of liberty and useful reform would be gained in the next generation. He was wrong in the sense that a much more radical stage lay ahead. New heroes and new ideologies were to emerge in revolutionary wars and international conflict. The National Convention proclaimed France a republic in 1792. However, the convention was split between the Girondists and the Mountain, led by Robespierre and Danton. Robespierre established a planned economy to wage total war and aid the poor. The government fixed prices on key products and instituted rationing. Workshops were nationalized to produce goods for the war effort, and raw materials were requisitioned. Under Robespierre, the Reign of Terror was instituted to eliminate opposition to the Revolution, and some 40,000 people were jailed or executed. Robespierre cooperated with the san-culottes in bringing about a state-controlled economy--particularly fixing the price of bread. He was guillotined because Robespierre's Terror wiped out many of the angry men who had been criticizing Robespierre for being soft on the wealthy.
Edmund Burke
After the French Revolution began, conservative leaders such as Edmund Burke (1729-1797) were deeply troubled by the aroused spirit of reform. In 1790 Burke published Reflections on the Revolution in France, one of the great intellectual defenses of European conservatism. He defended inherited privileges in general and those of the English monarchy and aristocracy. He glorified the unrepresentative Parliament and predicted that thoroughgoing reform like that occurring in France would lead only to chaos and tyranny. Burke's work sparked much debate.
Mary Wollstonecraft
One passionate rebuttal came from a young writer in London, Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1707). Born into the middle class, Wollstonecraft was schooled in adversity by a mean-spirited father who beat his wife and squandered his inherited fortune. Determined to be independent in society that generally expected women of her class to become homebodies and obedient wives, she struggled for years to earn her living as a governess and teacher-practically the only acceptable careers for a single, educated woman-before attaining success as a translator and author. Interested in politics and believing that a "desperate disease requires a powerful remedy" in Great Britain as well as France, Wollstonecraft was incensed by Burke's book. She immediately wrote a blistering, widely read attack, a Vindication of the Rights of Man (1790). Then, fired up on controversy and commitment, she made a daring leap. She developed for the first time the logical implications of natural law philosophy in her masterpiece, A Vindication of the Rights of a Woman (1792). To fulfill the still-unrealized potential of the French Revolution and to eliminate the sexual inequality she had felt so keenly, she demanded that the rights of a woman be respected and there be justice for them. She advocated rigorous coeducation, which would make women better wives and mothers, good citizens, and even economically independent people. Women could manage businesses and enter politics if only men would give them a chance. Men themselves would benefit from women's rights
Declaration of Pillnitz
was issued by Austria and Prussia to intimidate French revolutionaries. A statement agreed upon by Leopold II and Fredrick William II to intervene if Louis XVI was threatened by revolution.
Jacobin club
When the National Assembly in France disbanded, it sought popular support by decreeing that none of its members would be eligible for election to the new Legislative Assembly. This meant that when the new representative body convened in October 1791, it had a different character. The great majority of the legislators were still prosperous, well-educated, middle-class men, but they were younger and less cautious than their predecessors. Many of the deputies were loosely allied and called "Jacobins," after the name of their political club. All of the members of the National Convention were republicans, and at the beginning almost all belonged to the Jacobin club of Paris. The great majority also continued to come from the well-educated middle class. But control of the Convention was increasingly contested by two bitterly competitive groups-the Girondists, named after a department in southwestern France, and the Mountain, led by Robespierre and another young lawyer, Georges Jacques Danton. The uppermost left-hand benches of the assembly hall. A majority of the indecisive Convention members, seated in the "Plain" below, floated back and forth between the rival factions.
Second Revolution
the fall of the monarchy, which lead to a rapid radicalization of the revolution. Louis's imprisonment was followed by the September massacres. Wild stories seized the city that imprisoned counter-revolutionary aristocrats and priests were plotting with the allied invaders. As a result, angry crowds invaded the prisons of Paris and slaughtered half the men and women they found. In late September 1792, the new, popularly elected national convention proclaimed France a republic. The new government wanted to create a new culture and started to change many things such as the calendar and such.
Girondists
The control of the Convention was increasingly contested by two bitterly competitive groups-the Girondists, named after a department in southwestern France, and the Mountain, led by Robespierre and another young lawyer, Georges Jacques Danton. The Mountain was so called because its members sat on the uppermost left-hand benches of the assembly hall. A majority of the indecisive Convention members, seated in the "Plain" below, floated back and forth between the rival factions. The Girondists feared a bloody dictatorship by the Mountain. The petty traders and laboring poor were often known as the sans-culottes, "without breeches," because sans-culottes men wore trousers instead of knee breeches of the aristocracy and the solid middle class. The immediate interests of the sans-culottes were mainly economic, and in the spring of 1793 the economic situation was as bad as the military situation. Rapid inflation, unemployment, and food shortages were again weighing heavily on poor families. Moreover, by the spring of 1793, the sans-culottes had become keenly interested in politics. Encouraged by the so-called angry men, the sans-culottes men and women were demanding radical political action to guarantee them their daily bread. At first the Mountain joined the Girondists in violently rejecting these demands. But in the face of military defeat, peasant revolt, and hatred of the Girondists, the Mountain and especially became more sympathetic. The Mountain joined with sans-culottes activists in the city government to engineer a popular uprising which forced the convention to arrest thirty-one Girondists deputies for treason. All power passed to the Mountain. Robespierre and others from the Mountain joined the recently formed Committee of Public Safety, to which the Convention had given dictatorial power to deal with the national emergency. These developments in Paris triggered revolt in leading provincial cities, where moderates denounced Paris and demanded a decentralized government.
The Mountain
The control of the Convention was increasingly contested by two bitterly competitive groups the Girondists, named after a department in southwestern France, and the Mountain, led by Robespierre and another young lawyer, Georges Jacques Danton. The Mountain was so called because its members sat on the uppermost left-hand benches of the assembly hall. A majority of the indecisive Convention members, seated in the "Plain" below, floated back and forth between the rival factions. The Mountain was no less convinced that the more moderate Girondists would turn to conservatives and even royalists in order of retain power. The petty traders and laboring poor were often known as the sans-culottes, "without breeches," because sans-culottes men wore trousers instead of knee breeches of the aristocracy and the solid middle class. The immediate interests of the sans-culottes were mainly economic, and in the spring of 1793 the economic situation was as bad as the military situation. Rapid inflation, unemployment, and food shortages were again weighing heavily on poor families. Moreover, by the spring of 1793, the sans-culottes had become keenly interested in politics. Encouraged by the so-called angry men, the sans-culottes men and women were demanding radical political action to guarantee them their daily bread. At first the Mountain joined the Girondists in violently rejecting these demands. But in the face of military defeat, peasant revolt, and hatred of the Girondists, the Mountain and especially became more sympathetic. The Mountain joined with sans-culottes activists in the city government to engineer a popular uprising which forced the convention to arrest thirty-one Girondists deputies for treason. All power passed to the Mountain. Robespierre and others from the Mountain joined the recently formed Committee of Public Safety, to which the Convention had given dictatorial power to deal with the national emergency. These developments in Paris triggered revolt in leading provincial cities, where moderates denounced Paris and demanded a decentralized government.
Sans-culottes
The petty traders and laboring poor were often known as the sans-culottes, "without breeches," because sans-culottes men wore trousers instead of knee breeches of the aristocracy and the solid middle class. The immediate interests of the sans-culottes were mainly economic, and in the spring of 1793 the economic situation was as bad as the military situation. Rapid inflation, unemployment, and food shortages were again weighing heavily on poor families. Moreover, by the spring of 1793, the sans-culottes had become keenly interested in politics. Encouraged by the so-called angry men, the sans-culottes men and women were demanding radical political action to guarantee them their daily bread. At first the Mountain joined the Girondists in violently rejecting these demands. But in the face of military defeat, peasant revolt, and hatred of the Girondists, the Mountain and especially became more sympathetic. The Mountain joined with sans-culottes activists in the city government to engineer a popular uprising which forced the convention to arrest thirty-one Girondists deputies for treason. All power passed to the Mountain. Robespierre and others from the Mountain joined the recently formed Committee of Public Safety, to which the Convention had given dictatorial power to deal with the national emergency. These developments in Paris triggered revolt in leading provincial cities, where moderates denounced Paris and demanded a decentralized government.
Committee of Public Safety
Created by the Convention, it was created to make policies during the Reign of Terror; this committee was led by Maximilien Robespierre.
Planned economy
an economic system in which the government or workers' councils manages the economy
Reign of Terror
While the radical economic measures supplied the poor with bread and the armies with weapons, the Reign of Terror (1793-1794) was solidifying the home front. Special revolutionary courts responsible only to Robespierre's Committee of Public Safety tried rebels and "enemies of the nation" for political crimes. Drawing on popular, sans-culottes support centered in the local Jacobin clubs, these local courts ignored normal legal procedures. Some 40,000 French men and women were executed of died in prison. Another 300,000 suspects crowded the prisons and often brushed close to death in a revolutionary court. Robespierre's Reign of Terror was one of the most controversial phases of the French revolution. It was not directed against any specific class, instead it was rather a political weapon directed impartially against all who might oppose the revolutionary government. For many Europeans of the time, however, the Reign of Terror represented a terrifying perversion of the generous ideals that had existed in 1789
Thermidorian Reaction
a reaction to the Reign of Terror where middle class professionals reasserted their authority
The Directory
created by the new constitution it was the first bicameral legislature in French history. It consisted of a parliament of 500 representatives, but the majority of French people wanted to be rid of them. They habitually disregarded the terms of the constitution, and, when the elections went against them, appealed to the sword. They resolved to prolong the war because state finances had been so ruined that the government could not meet its expenses without the plunder and the tribute of foreign countries. If peace were made, the armies would return home and the directors would have to face the angry, unemployed soldiers and power hungry generals. The directors were not supported and their general maladministration heightened their unpopularity.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Louis Napoleon was elected because he allowed universal male suffrage, which gave him four times as many votes as the other four candidates combined. He also had the great name of his uncle. As Karl Marx stressed at the time, middle-class and peasant property owners feared the socialist challenge of urban workers, and they had wanted a tough ruler to provide protection. He also had a positive "program" for France, this program had been elaborated earlier in two pamphlets, which was widely circulated and was to guide him, through his reign. Louis believed that the government should represent all people and it should help them economically. The answer was a strong and authoritarian ruler, not parliaments and political parties. The leader would e linked to all people by direct democracy, uncorrupted by politicians and legislative bodies. Rather than doing nothing, he provided only temporary relief for the awful poverty of the poor, the state and its leader had a sacred duty to provide jobs and stimulate the economy. All classes would benefit from this.
Napoleonic (Civil) Code
The French legal code formulated by Napoleon I (r. 1804-1814) in 1804. Also called the Napoleonic Code, it reaffirmed many of the social liberties that had been introduced during the Revolution (1789-99) while at the same time reestablishing a patriarchal system. Property rights, religious liberty, and equal treatment under the law to all classes of men were assured. However, it curtailed many of the rights of women, restricting them to the private sphere of the home and giving males greater authority over them.
Concordat of 1801
reaffirmed the Roman Catholic Church as the major religion (but religious toleration for all) of France and restored some of its civil status (pleased catholic French which were majority) government could nominate bishops, but pope can remove them. [During the French revolution, the national assembly had confiscated church properties and issued the civil constitution of the clergy, which made the church a department of the state, removing it from the authority of the pope. subsequent laws abolished the traditional Gregorian calendar and Christian holidays.] This restored some ties to the papacy, largely in favor of the state; the balance of church-state relations was good for napoleon Bonaparte.
Treaty of Lunéville (1801)
ended the second coalition; resulted in Austria's loss of its Italian possessions; German territory on the west bank of the Rhine incorporated into France; Russia retreated from western Europe when they saw their ambitions in the Mediterranean blocked by the British; Britain again was isolated.
Treaty of Amiens (1802)
between France and Great Britain (second coalition had already ended at the treaty of Lunéville, 1801). This treaty settled peace with Great Britain. For short period then, 1802 to 1803, there was peace - the only period of peace between 1792 and 1814, when no European power was at war with another.
1stCoalition
Britain, Holland, Spain, Austria, and Prussia formed the First Coalition to fight against France during the French Revolution
2nd Coalition
the Russians, Austrians, and the ottomans joined Britain to form this, after the invasion of Egypt. Russians (under Suvorov) pull out of the coalition. Napoleon defeats Austria and signs a new treaty; he conquered Venice and gave it back to Austria. Since British were not doing well with the industrial revolution going on, they sign the treaty of Amiens.
3rd Coalition
consisted of Britain, Russia, Austria, Sweden, and Prussia, defeated by napoleon in brilliant victories (only defeat was off southern coast of Spain) (stopped invasion of England and ensure British naval supremacy)
Battle of Trafalgar (1805)
naval battle in which napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson.
Lord Horatio Nelson
When Napoleon tried to bring his Mediterranean fleet around Gibraltar to northern France, a combined French and Spanish fleet was, after a series of mishaps, virtually annihilated by Lord Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar on October 21, 1805. Invasion of England was henceforth impossible. Renewed fighting had its advantages, however, for the first consul used the wartime atmosphere to have himself proclaimed emperor in late 1804.
Battle of Austerlitz (1805)
battle that took place in the heart of Europe, napoleon defeated a combined force of Russia, Prussia, and Austria-Hungary making him the master of Europe, napoleon has Pratzen heights - higher ground, napoleon faked a retreat and so old military leaders on the other side said do not fall for it but Alexander wanted to get him so they attack and napoleon troops defeat them and the leaders are forced to surrender
Treaty of Tilsit (1807)
napoleon and Alexander I met on a raft in the middle of the Niemen River near the border between Russia and Prussia. The Prussian king, Frederick William iii, was waiting nervously on the bank. Napoleon charmed Alexander - let him develop Russia to the east in exchange for non-interference with napoleon's plans in west. In effect, France and Russian seen as "allies" for a while (5 years). Mainly an alliance against Great Britain - but a reluctant one from Russia's perspective. Napoleon was to continue his occupation of Prussia.
Haitian Revolution
Toussaint L'Ouverture led this uprising, which in 1790 resulted in the successful overthrow of French colonial rule on this Caribbean island. This revolution set up the first black government in the Western Hemisphere and the world's second democratic republic (after the US). The US was reluctant to give full support to this republic led by former slaves.
Gen. Charles Victor Emmanuel Leclerc
Charles Victor Emmanuel Leclerc, 1772-1802, French general. He served under Napoleon Bonaparte in the Italian campaign, married (1797) Pauline Bonaparte , and took part in Napoleon's coup of 18 Brumaire (1799). In 1801 he commanded the French expedition to Portugal. He then headed the force sent to subdue Haiti , where François Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture had established a virtually autonomous state. The French won several victories after severe fighting, and an agreement was reached. This was broken by Leclerc, who, acting on Napoleon's secret instructions, had Toussaint seized by trickery and deported to France. The natives, led by Jean Jacques Dessalines and Henri Christophe , rose in revolt and expelled the French, who were weakened by an epidemic of yellow fever. Leclerc died of the fever.
Grand Empire
Napoleons Empire at its height was called the grand empire. Divided up into three areas, those under the direct rule of France, those under the rule of puppet regimes of napoleons relatives, and countries friendly to himself. His empire began to struggle however from the British counter-blockade of trade and searching for a scapegoat attacked Russia who had recently reopened trade with Britain.
Alexander I (Rus)
"liberal" tsar of Russia (1801-25) who had played a major role in downfall of napoleon. Feared by representatives of other powers as dreamer, self-chosen world savior (holy alliance) who wanted to bring Christianity into politics. Some even thought of him as a crowned liberal.
Louis XVIII
restored bourbon throne after the revolution. he accepted napoleon's civil code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the chamber of peers (chosen by king) and the chamber of deputies (chosen by an electorate).
Hundred Days
He was sent on exile and then when he came back he fought at Waterloo. Napoleon's gamble was a desperate long shot, for the allies were united against him. At the end of this frantic period known as the Hundred Days, they crushed his forces at Waterloo on June 18, 1815, and imprisoned him on the rocky island of St. Helena, far off the western coast of Africa.
Battle of Waterloo (1815)
the battle of waterloo, fought on 18 June 1815, was napoleon Bonaparte's last battle. His defeat put a final end to his rule as emperor of the French. Waterloo also marked the end of the period known as the hundred days, which began in March 1815 after napoleon's return from Elba, where he had been exiled after his defeats at the battle of Leipzig in 1813 and the campaigns of 1814 in France.
German Confederation of the Rhine
A federation of German states organized under Napoleon I in July 1806. Formerly under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire, which was dissolved the same year, the new federation placed itself under the "protection" of Napoleon and was governed by one of his close allies. It quickly fell apart after Napoleon's defeat outside Leipzig in 1813 as member states abandoned the French and joined the German nationalist "war of liberation."
Industrial Revolution
Building on technical breakthroughs, power-driven equipment, and large-scale enterprise, the Industrial Revolution in England greatly increased output in certain radically altered industries, stimulated the large handicraft and commercial sectors, and speeded up overall economic growth. The industrial revolution is a term used to describe the burst of major inventions and technical changes they had witnessed in certain industries. Building on technical breakthroughs, power-driven equipment, and large-scale enterprise, the Industrial Revolution in England greatly increased output in certain radically altered industries, stimulated the large handicraft and commercial sectors, and speeded up overall economic growth.
James Hargreaves (spinning jenny)
James Hargreaves invented his cotton-spinning jenny about 1765. Hargreaves' jenny was simple and inexpensive, and hand-operated. In early models, from six to twenty-four spindles were mounted on a sliding carriage, and each spindle spun a fine, slender thread.
Richard Arkwright (water frame)
English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early industrial revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once.
Edmund Cartwright (power loom)
Edmund Cartwright invented a power loom that would save on labor costs in 1785. But the power looms of the factories worked poorly at first, and handloom weavers continued to receive good wages until at least 1800
Thomas Savery & Newcomen
Thomas Savery in 1698 and Thomas Newcomen in 1705 invented the first primitive steam engines. Both engines burned coal to produce steam, which was then used to operate a pump. Both machines were extremely inefficient, but by the early 1770s many of them were operating successfully in English and Scottish mines.
James Watt (steam engine)
James Watt (1736-1819) was drawn to a critical study of the steam engine. After a series of observations, Watt saw why the engine wasted energy: The cylinder was being heated and cooled for every single stroke of piston. To remedy this problem, Watt added a separate condenser where the steam could be condensed without cooling the cylinder. This splendid invention greatly increased the efficiency of the steam engine. He increased the efficiency of the steam engine and began to produce them.
Henry Cort (puddling furnace)
In the 1780's Henry Cort developed the puddling furnace, which allowed pig iron to be refined in turn with coke. Strong, skilled ironworkers-the puddlers-"cooked" molten pig iron in a great vat, raking off globs of refined iron for further processing. Cort also developed heavy-duty, steam powered rolling mills, which were capable of spewing finished iron in every shape and form. The economic consequence of these technical innovations was a great boom in British iron industry. In 1740 annual British iron production was only 17,000 tons. With the spread of coke smelting and the fast impact of Cort's inventions, production reached 68,000 tons in 1788, 125,000 in 1796, and 260,000 tons in 1806. In 1844 Britain produced 3 million tons of iron. Once scarce and expensive, iron became cheap, basic, indispensable building block of the economy.
George Stephenson
As soon as a rail capable of supporting a heavy locomotive was developed in 1816, many experiments with the steam engines on rails went forward. In 1825, after ten years of work, George Stephenson built an effective locomotive. In 1830 his Rocket sped down the track of the just completed Liverpool and Manchester at sixteen miles per hour.
The Rocket
a steam locomotive invented by Englishman George Stephenson in 1929 which could reach 30 mph.
Great Exhibition (1851)
held in the Crystal Palace, reflected the growth of industry and population in Britain and confirmed that Britain was the "workshop of the world." The Crystal Palace, an architectural masterpiece made entirely of glass and iron, both of which were cheap and abundant. Companies and countries displayed their products and juries awarded prizes in the strikingly modern Crystal Palace.
Crystal Palace
In 1851 Great Exposition, held in the Crystal Palace, reflected the growth of industry and population in Britain and confirmed that Britain was the "workshop of the world." The Crystal Palace, an architectural masterpiece made entirely of glass and iron, both of which were cheap and abundant. Companies and countries displayed their products and juries awarded prizes in the strikingly modern Crystal Palace.
Thomas Malthus
He wrote Essay on the Principle of Population (1798). Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) argued the population would always tend to grow faster than the food supply. He believed that the only hope of warding off such "positive checks" to population growth as war, famine, and disease was "prudential restraint." Young men and women had to limit the growth of population by marrying late in life. He did not think this was possible however. The powerful attraction of the sexes would cause most people to marry early and have many children. Malthus and Ricardo were both proven wrong in the long run
David Ricardo
A wealthy English stockbroker and leading economist David Ricardo (1772-1823). Ricardo's depressing "iron law of wages" posited that because the pressure if population growth, wages would always sink to subsistence level. Wages would be just high enough to keep workers from starving. Wages would always be low according to Ricardo. Malthus and Ricardo were both proven wrong in the long run.
Iron law of wages
David Ricardo formulated the iron law of wages, which said that because of the pressure of population growth, wages would be just high enough to keep workers from starving.
William & John Cockerill
emigrated with father to Belgium to set up a factory in Leige --- became a nerve center of continental Europe and many British engineers illegally defected for the large amounts of money he was offering
Fritz Harkort
German business pioneer who served in Britain and brought their ideas to Germany; set up a steam engine shop that failed because he had to import British workers, but important in bringing ideas over
Tariff protection
Friedrich List wanted a high protective tariff to encourage the infant industries to allow them to develop and eventually hold their own tariff against their more advanced British counterparts. It was a government's way of supporting and aiding their own economy by laying high tariffs on the cheaper, imported goods of another country, ex. when France responded to cheaper British goods flooding their country with high tariffs on British imports.
Friedrich List
a German journalist and thinker. He promoted government's greater role in industrialization on the continent. List thought that the growth of the modern industry was most important because manufacturing was the way to increase the well being of people and relieve poverty. List was a nationalist. He wrote "wider the gap between the backward and advanced nations, the more dangerous it is to remain behind." To promote industry was to defend the nation. The practical policies that List focused on in articles and in his influential National System of Political Economy (1841) were railroad building and the protective tariff.
Zollverein
Modern industry grew rapidly in Europe throughout the 1850's. Nowhere was this growth more rapid than within the German customs union (Zollverein). Developing gradually under Prussian leadership after 1818 and founded officially in 1834 to stimulate trade and increase the revenues of member states, the Zollverein had not included Austria. After 1848, this exclusion became a crucial factor in the Austro-Prussian rivalry. The Zollverein's tariff duties were substantially reduced so that Austria's highly protected industry could not bear to join. In retaliation, Austria tried to destroy the Zollverein by inducing the south German states to leave it, but without success. Indeed, by the end of 1853 all the German states except Austria had joined the customs union. A new Germany excluding Austria was becoming an economic reality. Middle-class and business groups in the Zollverein were enriching themselves and finding solid economic reasons to bolster their idealistic support of national unification. The growing economic integration of the states within the Zollverein gave Prussia a valuable advantage in its struggle against Austria's supremacy in German political affairs.
Economic nationalism
It resulted in short term benefits for countries such as Germany but not long term benefits occurred.
Crédit Mobilier (Paris)
Crédit Mobilier of Paris was a corporate bank founded by Isaac and Emilie Pereire, two young Jewish journalists from Bordeaux. The Crédit Mobilier advertised extensively. It used the savings of thousands of small investors as well as the resources of big ones. The activities of the bank were far-reaching; it built railroads all over France and Europe. Most corporate banks usually worked in collaboration with governments; they established and developed many railroads and many companies working in heavy in heavy industry, which were increasingly organized as limited liability corporations.
Class consciousness
subjective awareness of common vested interests and the need for collective political action to bring about social change--according to Marxism, proletariat need this to change things
Luddites
these were the angry old cottage industry workers who lost their jobs and costumers to machines and as a result, they began to secretly destroy the machines
Friedrich Engels
The pessimistic view of Malthus and Ricardo was accepted and reinforced by Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), the future revolutionary and colleague of Karl Marx. After studying working conditions in northern England, this young middle-class German published in 1844, The Condition of the Working Class in England, and a blistering indictment of the middle classes. The new poverty of industrial workers was worse than the old poverty of the cottage workers and agricultural laborers, according to Engels. The culprit was industrial capitalism, with its relentless competition and constant technical change. Engels' extremely influential charge of the middle-class exploitation and increasing worker poverty was embellished by Marx and later socialists.
Robert Owen
was a self-made cotton manufacturer. He had pioneered in industrial relations by combining firm discipline with concern for the health, safety, and hours of his workers. After 1815, he experimented with cooperative and socialist communities. Then in 1834, Owen organized one of the largest and most visionary of the early national unions, the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union.
Factory Act (1833)
It limited the Factory workday for children between nine and thirteen to eight hours and that of adolescents between fourteen and eighteen to twelve hours, although the act made no effort to regulate the hours of work for children at home of in small businesses. The law also prohibited the factory employment of children under nine; they were to be enrolled in the elementary schools that factory owners were required to establish. Due to this new act, the employment of children declined rapidly. Thus the Factory Act broke the pattern of whole families working together in the factory because efficiency required standardized shifts for all workers.
Separate spheres (labor)
Studies show that married women in the working classes did not normally work full time outside the house after the first child. They still earned small amounts through putting-out handicrafts at home and taking in boarders. When married women did work for wages outside the house, they usually came from the poorest, most desperate families, where husbands were poorly paid, sick, unemployed, or missing. All women were generally confined to low-paying, dead-end jobs. Virtually no occupation open to women paid a wage sufficient for a person to live independently. The man emerged as the family's primary wage earner. (746-747)
Mines Act (1842)
Eliminated the employment of boys under ten and women in mines.
Combination Acts (1799)
In 1799 Parliament passed the Combination Acts, which outlawed unions and strikes. The Combinations Acts were widely disregarded by workers, yet the printers, papermakers, carpenters, tailors, and other such craftsmen continued to take collective action, and societies of skilled factory workers also organized unions. Unions sought to control the number of skilled workers, limit apprenticeship to members' own children, and bargain with owners over wages. They were afraid to strike; there was, for example, a general strike of adult cotton spinners in Manchester in 1810. In the face of widespread union activity, Parliament repealed the combinations Act in 1824, and unions were tolerated, though not fully accepted, after 1825
Grand Nat'l Consolidate Trades Union
In 1834 Owen organized one of the largest and most visionary of the early national unions, the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union (the GNCTU). When this and other grandiose schemes collapsed, the British labor movement moved once again after 1851 in the direction of craft unions
Chartist movement
After the collapse of Owens's National Trade Union, the energy of the working people went into the Chartist Movement, whose goal was political democracy. Chartism was a workers' political movement that sought universal male suffrage, shorter work hours, and cheap bread. The key Chartist demand-that all men be given the right to vote-became the great hope of millions of aroused people
Congress of Vienna
The conservative aristocratic monarchies such as Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Britain met at the congress of Vienna to make a general peace settlement after they defeated Napoleon France. The political leader had to construct a settlement that would last and not sow the seeds of another war. Their efforts were successful and resulted in a century unmarred by war.
Klemens von Metternich
During the Congress of Vienna, Castlereagh and Metternich grew fed up with Russia and Prussia's demands that they almost initiated a war against them. Under Metternich's leadership, Austria, Russia, and Prussia started on a crusade against the ideas and politics of the dual revolution. Metternich was horrified when Spain and kingdoms of Italy granted liberals constitutions against the will of the Holy Alliance. Metternich battled against liberal political change in the following years. Metternich's policies dominated Austria and also the entire German confederation. Metternich's ruthless imposition of repressive internal policies on the governments of central Europe contrasted sharply with the intelligent moderation he displayed during the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Klemens von Metternich was an internationally oriented aristocrat who made a brilliant diplomatic career in Austria. He was loyal to his class and unfalteringly defended its rights and privileges till the day he died. A conservative, Metternich firmly believed that liberalism was the cause of war generations before him. He supported and strongly advocated conservatism. He blamed liberal revolutionaries for stirring up the way things were meant to be and the lower classes, which he believed desired nothing more than peace and quiet. Liberalism threatened the existence of the aristocracy, the class which Metternich belonged to, and also threatened to destroy the Austrian empire and revolutionize central Europe.
Robert Castlereagh
British foreign minister, whose main goal at the congress of Vienna was to keep the balance of power in Europe. The congress met for 10 months trying to restore peace in Europe. He wanted to prevent revival of French military power.
Charles Talleyrand
French foreign minister at the congress of Vienna. Supported the rise of napoleon, but served as foreign minister under Louis xviii (smart politician).
Congress system
The members of the Quadruple Alliance agreed to meet periodically to discuss their common interests and to consider appropriate measures for the maintenance of peace in Europe. This agreement was the beginning of the European "congress system." The congress system was established by the Holy Alliance which included the countries of Russia, Prussia, and Austria
Holy Alliance
coalition of Russia, Austria and Prussia created in 1815 at the request of Alexander I of Russia, signed in Vienna on September 26, 1815. Was to instill the Christian values of charity and peace in European political life. Monarchs used this to prevent revolutionary influence (French revolution) from entering these nations. It was against democracy, revolution, and secularism.
Carlsbad Decrees
issued by Metternich, required 39 independent German states, including Prussia and Austria, to root out subversive ideas. (Censorship) also established permanent committee with spies to punish any liberal or radical organization.
Liberalism
Liberalism, as embodied in America and France, demands for representative government and civil liberties. Liberals believed that people, each national group, has a right to establish its own independent government and seek to fulfill its own destiny, the idea of national self-determination was repellent to Metternich. The main principles of liberalism were liberty and equality. The idea of liberty means specific individual freedoms: freedom of press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom of arbitrary arrest. Liberal demands were a call for freedom and revolutionary change.
Laissez-faire economics
The laissez-faire was the philosophy that promoted the free economy of equal opportunity for all people. Economic liberalism and laissez economic thought were embraced most enthusiastically by business groups and became a doctrine associated with business interests. Economic liberalism that believes in unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
Adam Smith
Scottish philosophy professor Adam Smith who's Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) founded modern economics. Smith criticized mercantilism and its attempt to regulate trade and economic activity. Smith argued in the laissez-faire and said that freely competitive private enterprise would result in greater income for everyone, not just the rich.
Nationalism
Nationalism was a second radical idea in the years after 1815, an idea that was to have an enormous influence in the modern world. Nationalism evolved from the concept of cultural unity, manifesting itself in a common language, history, and territory. Nationalists believed that every nation, like every citizen, had the right to exist in freedom and to develop its character and spirit
Dual Revolution
In 1815, economic and political changes fused together in what was called the dual revolution. The dual revolution first altered Europe dramatically and then continued to alter the rest of the world. The interrelated economic and political transformation was built on complicated histories, strong traditions, and diverse cultures. The dual revolution also posed a great problem; economic, political, and social changes remained unclear.
Marxian Socialism
Early French socialists often appealed to the middle class and the state to help the poor. Marx ridiculed such appeals as naïve. He argued that the interests of the middle class and those of the industrial working class were inevitably opposed to each other. In Marx's view, one class had always exploited the other, and because of modern history, society was more clearly split than ever before: between the middle class (the bourgeoisie) and the working class (the proletariat). The idea of Karl Marx who thought that the proletariat would rebel and set up the ideal government. It became communism.
"Imagined communities"
in the 19th century, this was the product of nationalism. This was the belief that communities seeking to bind millions of strangers together around the abstract concept of an all-embracing national identity. , a concept coined by Benedict Anderson which states that a nation is a community socially constructed, which is to say imagined by the people who perceive themselves as part of that group.
Giuseppe Mazzini
part of Italian unification. In 1832 established a young nationalist group. He headed a republican government in Rome for a short time, and believed that nation-states were the best hope for social justice, democracy and peace in Europe. The rebellions failed, and he was sent into exile.
Jules Michelet
He was a French historian noted for his 17-volume Histoire de France.
Classicism
Aesthetic attitudes and principles manifested in the art, architecture, and literature of ancient Greece and Rome and characterized by emphasis on form, simplicity, proportion, and restraint.
Utopian socialism
A socialism achieved by voluntary sacrifice. Planning greater economic equality, and state regulation of property-these were the key ideas of early French socialism and of all socialism since.
Count Henri de Saint-Simon
One of the most influential socialist thinkers was a nobleman, Count Henri de Saint-Simon. He was an early utopian socialist, who advocated industrial development. Saint-Simon also stressed in highly moralistic terms that every social institution ought to have its main goal improved for the poor. Saint-Simon's stress on industry and science inspired middle-class industrialists and bankers such as the Pereire brothers, founders of the Crédit Mobilier.
Charles Fourier
Fourier, a lonely, saintly man with a tenuous hold in reality, described a socialist utopia in lavish mathematical detail. He proposed new planned towns; he also criticized middle-class family life and sexual and marriage customs. He believed that marriage was another form of prostitution. Therefore, Fourier called for the abolition of marriage, free unions based only on love, and sexual freedom.
Louis Blanc
a Paris journalist, editor of revue de progress and author of organization of work. Proposed social workshops/state supported manufacturing centers as a way to deal with the problems of industrialization (recognized the developing hostility toward the owning class/bourgeoisie)
Pierre Joseph Proudhon
Pierre Joseph Proudhon was a self-educated printer who wrote a pamphlet in 1840 titled What Is Property? His answer was that it was nothing but theft. Property was a profit that was stolen from the worker, who was the source of all wealth. Unlike most socialists, Proudhon feared the power of the state and was often considered an anarchist.
Karl Marx
In 1848 the thirty-year-old Karl Marx (1818-1883) and the twenty-eight-year-old Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) published The Communist Manifesto, which became the bible of socialism. He was a German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. He wrote books on explaining historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and these books have had a profound influence on the social sciences. In Marx's view, one class had always exploited the other, and with the advent of modern history, society was more clearly split than ever before: between the middle class (the bourgeoisie) and the working class (the proletariat). Just as the bourgeoisie had triumphed over the feudal aristocracy, Marx predicted, the proletariat would conquer the bourgeoisie in a violent revolution.
The Communist Manifesto
In 1848 the thirty-year-old Karl Marx (1818-1883) and the twenty-eight-year-old Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) published The Communist Manifesto, which became the bible of socialism. According to the Manifesto, the "history of all previously existing society is the history of all class struggles." In Marx's view, one class had always exploited the other, and with the advent of modern history, society was more clearly split than ever before: between the middle class (the bourgeoisie) and the working class (the proletariat). Marx predicted, the proletariat would conquer the bourgeoisie in a violent revolution. While a tiny minority owned the means of production and grew richer, the ever-poorer proletariat was constantly growing in size and in class-consciousnesses. It was the key work of socialism.
Proletariat
class of working people without access to producing property; typically manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agricultural economy, or urban poor; in Europe, product of economic changes of 16th and 17th centuries
Republicanism
Favoring a republic form of government as the best out of all other monarchies, oligarchies, democracies, and etc.
Georg Hegel
Marx's theory of historical evolution was built on the philosophy of German Georg Hegel (1770-1831). Hegel believed that history is "ideas in motion": each age is characterized by a dominant set of ideas, which produces opposing ideas and eventually a new synthesis. The idea if being had been dominate initially, for example, and it had produced its antithesis, the idea of nonbeing. Thus history has pattern and purpose.
Romanticism
Romanticism was characterized by a belief in emotional exuberance, unrestrained imagination, and spontaneity in both art and in personal life. Forerunners of the Romantic Movement appeared from about 1750 on. Of these, Rousseau-the passionate advocate of feeling, freedom, and natural goodness-was the most influential. Romanticism then fully crystallized in the 1790's. The Romantic Movement was in part a revolt against classicism and the Enlightenment.
The Romantics (Wordsworth, Coleridge, Keats, Scott, Byron, Shelley, Goëthe, Hugo, Dumas Pushkin)
(Storm and Stress) German early Romantics of the 1770s and 1780s who lived lives of tremendous emotional intensity - suicides, duels, madness and strange illnesses were common.
Eugene Delacroix
The greatest and move moving romantic painter in France was Eugéne Delacroix (1798-1863), probably the illegitimate son of foreign minister Talleyrand. Delacroix was a master of dramatic, colorful scenes that stirred the emotions. He was fascinated with remote and exotic subjects, whether lion hunts in Morocco or the languishing, sensuous women of a sultan's harem. Yet he was also a passionate spokesman for freedom. His masterpiece, Liberty Leading the People, celebrated the nobility of popular revolution in general and revolution in France in particular. He was known for his vast, dramatic, canvases, and exuberant use of color.
J.M.W. Turner
this English painter specialized in landscapes. He reflected the changing political world in his art, which depicted dramatic and colorful scenes. He was a romantic artist; before romanticism, English art was primarily portraiture.
John Constable
most notable romantic painter-fascinated by nature-gentle wordsworthian landscapes in which human beings were at one with their environment, the comforting countryside of unspoiled rural England
Corn Laws (1815)
Protected the English landowners by prohibiting the importation of foreign grain unless the domestic price rose above a certain level.
Six Acts (1817) :( England) December, 1819. Parliament adopted these repressive acts
1. restricted freedom of speech and assembly and other civil liberties 2. Increased taxes on newspapers 3. Established fines for seditious libel 4. Expanded right of search by police 5. Promoted speedy trial 6. Allowed for harsh punishment.
Battle of Peterloo
an enormous orderly protest at saint peter's fields in Manchester. -Savagely broken up by armed cavalry -nicknamed battle of Peterloo in scorn of Waterloo --->demonstrated government's determination to repress and stand fast
Whig Party
an American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose president Andrew Jackson and the democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements
Reform Bill (1832)
gives franchise and vote to the middle class
"People's Charter" (1838)
demanded by the chartists, it called for: 1) universal adult male suffrage 2) the secret ballot 3) abolition of property requirements for members of parliament 4) salaries for parliament members 5) equal electoral districts 6)annual parliaments (the only one not eventually accomplished)
Anti-Corn Law League
was a Whig-liberal-radical combo of interests. Wage earners objected to Corn Laws because food prices were high. Industrialists objected because it caused wage inflation. League organized like a political party. The famine in Ireland provided the final push. Ireland needed to import grain since potato harvest had failed and people were starving. Finally, the Tories under Sir Robert Peel repealed the Corn Laws.
Ten Hours Act (1847)
It limited the workday for women and young people in factories to ten hours.
Robert Peel (Tory party)
He was a British policeman who established the London police force and helped pass the Catholic Emancipation Act. He later served as prime minister. To avert the impending catastrophe, Tory Prime Minister Robert Peel joined with the Whigs and a minority of his own party to repeal the Corn Laws in 1846 and allow free imports of grain. England escaped famine. Thereafter, the liberal doctrine of free trade became almost sacred dogma in Great Britain.
Great Famine (Ireland)
The result of four years of crop failure in Ireland, a country that had grown dependent of potatoes as a dietary staple.
Constitutional Charter (1844)
Louis XVIII's Constitutional Charter if 1814-theoretically a gift from the king but actually a response to political pressures-was basically a liberal constitution. It was undemocratic, but still protected the people against a return to royal absolutism and aristocratic privilege.
Charles X (Fr)
set out to restore the absolute monarchy with the help of the ultra royalists. Tried to repay nobles for lands lost during the revolution, but the liberals in the legislative assembly opposed him. Eventually, he issued the July ordinances
Louis Philippe
Louis Philippe, (1773-1850), was king of France from 1830 to 1848. He is often called The Citizen King. He was born on Oct. 6, 1773, in Paris, the eldest son of Philippe Egalite, Duke of Orleans. He sympathized with the liberal ideas of the French Revolution and joined the National Guard at the beginning of the revolt. He was proclaimed "Citizen King" of France after Charles X was forced to give up the throne in 1830 and he ruled after the overthrow of the Bourbons in the July Revolution and abdicated during the Revolution of 1848. During his reign, he became unpopular with all classes of the French people. The legitimists opposed him because they were loyal to the descendants of Charles X. The liberals disliked his increasing suppression of disagreement. Louis Philippe's reign was prosperous but uneventful, as his ministers pursued cautious policies. The Revolution of 1848 broke out partly because he refused to reform election laws. He was forced to give up his throne, and escaped to England.
Second Republic (Fr)
goal was to have a truly popular and democratic republic, so that the healthy life-giving forces of the common people could reform society with wise legislation-right to vote to every adult male-freeing of all slaves in French colonies, abolition of death penalty, and establishment of a 10 hour workday for Paris
Constituent Assembly
the French government between 1789 and 1791, it issued the declaration of the rights of man and the civil constitution of the clergy, and developed the constitution of 1791, upon which it dissolved and was replaced by the legislative assembly.
Alexis de Tocqueville
de Tocqueville came from France to America in 1831. He observed democracy in government and society. His book (written in two parts in 1835 and 1840) discusses the advantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
June Days
a revolt during the month of June as a result of the abolishment of national workshops. This event ended the liberal capitalist and the radical socialist's tension ending in victory for liberalism and capitalism.-also with the June days it led to having a new constitution demanding a strong executive, which led to the rise of Louis napoleon.
Ferdinand I (Aus)
ruler of Austria from 1835-1848. After the nationalistic uprising which forced Metternich to flee, Ferdinand capitulated and promised the national factions a constitution. However, his armies remained loyal to him and crushed the revolution. He abdicates the throne to Francis Joseph in 1848.
Magyar Revolt (Hungary)
March 3, 1848 Louis Kossuth, a Magyar nationalist and member of the Hungarian diet, attacked the controlling Austrians and fought for the independence of Hungary. This inspired students to revolt in Vienna. Emperor Ferdinand tried to compromise, but the revolt continued and eventually the emperor and the imperial court fled.
Archduchess Sophia
conservative Bavarian princess who married the brother of Ferdinand I. became a rallying point for conservatives and acted quickly to crush revolution within Austria and Prussia. With nobles, forced Ferdinand to make her son heir to throne.
Franz Joseph (Aus)
emperor of Austria-hungry. He does not believe in representative government. He is against reform. Gives no help to the minorities. (Bosnia minority). Radicalism is the opposition which contributed to the formation of the Black Hand.
Nicholas I (Rus)
Russian tsar that succeeded Alexander; he strengthened the secret police and the bureaucracy. He was also willing to use Russian troops to crush revolutions, as he greatly feared them.
Schleswig-Holstein
It was the fight between Denmark and Prussia over who would get the Schleswig-Holstein region. As the Schleswig-Holstein issue demonstrated, the national ideal was a crucial factor motivating the German middle classes in 1848.
Prussian Constituent Assembly
group of liberal elected officials charged with writing the new constitution for Prussia
Frankfurt (National) Assembly
Meeting in Frankfurt in May, the National Assembly was a curious revolutionary body. A middle-class liberal body of lawyers, professors, doctors, officials, and businessmen that begun writing a constitution for a unified Germany.
Frederick William IV (Prus)
Frederick William IV was the king of Great Britain and Ireland. On March 21, he promised to grant Prussia a liberal constitution and to merge Prussia into a new national German state that was to be created. But urban workers wanted much more and the Prussian aristocracy wanted much less than the moderate constitutional liberalism the king conceded. The workers issued a series of democratic and vaguely socialist demands that troubled their middle-class allies, and the conservative clique gathered around the king to urge counter-revolution. He ascended the throne after a long naval career.
Frantisek Palacky
The leader of the Czech cultural revival, the passionate democrat and nationalist historian Francis Palacky is a good example of the "they" tendency. He was a nationalist. Francis Palacky, Mazzini, and Michelet all spoke of national mission and the superiority of one nation over the other. Palacky lauded the Czech people's adherents, which he characterized as a long struggle against brutal German denomination.
National Workshops
Blanc asserted that permanent government sponsored cooperative workshops should be established for workers. A compromise between the socialists' demands for work for all and the moderates' determination to provide only temporary relief for the massive unemployment.
Radicalism
Radicalism is a political philosophy that emphasizes the need to find and eliminate the basic injustices of society. The word radicalism comes from the Latin word radix, meaning root. Radicals seek what they consider the roots of the economic, political, and social wrongs of society and demand immediate and sweeping changes to wipe them out. The doctrines or practices of being radical.
Conservatism
Conservatism stressed on tradition, a hereditary monarchy, and an official church. Conservatives such as Metternich exemplified these characteristics and theological ideas through the diplomatic qualities of an empire, more specifically the Austrian Empire. The wanted to keep old traditions, ideas, values, and customs intact.
Jeremy Bentham
English "sage" and founder of philosophical radicalism. Wrote prolifically between 1776 and 1832. Sought reform in England - especially in criminal justice system, church, parliament and the constitution. Supporter of utilitarianism - goal of which was "the greatest happiness for the greatest number," - sought codes of scientific law applicable to society which followed this credo. If laws had utility, they would benefit mankind.
Edwin Chadick
Edwin Chadwick was one of the commissioners charged with the administration of relief to paupers under Britain's revised Poor Law of 1834. Chadwick believed that disease and death actually cause poverty simply because a sick worker was an unemployed worker and orphaned children were poor children. He also believed that cleaning up the urban environment could prevent disease, which was his "sanitary idea." He collected detailed reports from local Poor Law officials on the "sanitary conditions of the laboring population" and published his hard-hitting findings in 1842. This mass of widely publicized evidence proved that disease was related to filthy environment of conditions, which were in turn caused largely by lack of drainage, sewers, and garbage collection. He also proposed the installation of running water and sewers. Putrefying, smelly excrement was worse than just revolting. It polluted the atmosphere and caused disease. Chadwick's report became the basis of Great Britain's first public health law, which created a national health board and gave cities broad authority to build modern sanitary systems.
Germ Theory
It was the theory that specific diseases were caused by specific living organism (germs) and that these organisms could be controlled in people, wine, beer, and milk.
Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was a French chemist who began studying fermentation in 1854 at the request of brewers. Pasteur found that fermentation depended on the growth of living organisms and that the activity of these organisms could be suppressed by heating the beverage-by "pasteurizing" it.
Joseph Lister
English surgeon Joseph Lister (1827-1912) immediately grasped the connection between aerial bacteria and the problem of wound infection. He reasoned that a chemical disinfectant applied to a wound dressing would "destroy the life of the floating particles." Lister's "antiseptic principle" worked wonders. In the 1880s, German surgeons developed the more sophisticated practice of sterilizing not only the wound but also everything-hands, instruments, clothing-that entered the operating room.
Antiseptic Principle
Was developed by English surgeon Joseph Lister. It was the idea that a chemical disinfectant applied to a wound dressing would destroy aerial bacteria. This lead to more sanitary conditions in German operating rooms
Georges Haussmann
Baron Georges Haussmann (1809-1884), an aggressive, impatient Alsatian whom he placed in charge of Paris, Napoleon III found an authoritarian planner capable of bulldozing both buildings and opposition. In twenty years, Paris was transformed. Haussmann and his fellow planners proceeded on many interrelated fronts. With bold energy that often shocked their contemporaries, they razed old buildings in order to cut broad, straight, tree-lined boulevards through the center of the city as well as in new quarters on the outskirts. Haussmann and Napoleon III tried to make Paris a more beautiful city, and to a large extent they succeeded. The broad, straight boulevards, such as those radiating out like the spokes of a wheel from the Arch of Triumph and those centering on the new Opera House, afforded impressive vistas were their achievements.
"Servant keeping classes"
working class' skilled workers.
Middle class culture
The middle class was loosely united by a shared code of expected behavior and morality. This code was strict and demanding. It laid great stress on hard work, self-discipline, and personal achievement. Men and women who fell into crime or poverty were generally assumed to be responsible for their own circumstances. Traditional Christian morality was reaffirmed by this code and was preached tirelessly by middle-class people. Drunkenness and gambling were denounced as vices; sexual purity and fidelity were celebrated as virtues. In short, the middle-class was supposed to know right from wrong and was expected to act accordingly.
Labor aristocracy
The labor aristocracy contained the highly skilled workers. It made up about fifteen percent of the working class at the turn of the twentieth century. They developed a high lifestyle of stern morality. They considered themselves the leaders of the working class. And they had strong political and philosophical beliefs
Prostitution
prostitution was very widespread in Paris alone 155,000 women were registered as prostitutes and 750,000 were suspected of prostitution (1871-1903)¬ my secret life¬:o by anonymous author's describes how easy it was to get a girl in the late 19th century's reveals the dark side of sex and class in urban society since a middle class man could pay the working class girl that has no money at all¬ sexual exploitation's young servant girls were often sexually exploited by their masters¬ for many women prostitution became a stage of their life, just like domestic service
Separate spheres (home)
Middle-class ideal where home life was strictly separated from the workplace and women's roles were separate from means, with women running the household and men earning money outside it.
Franziska Tiburtius
one of many women who had to go to Switzerland to study and get a medical degree. Strongly opposed by her male colleagues, so early as the 1870's she was the first woman to open a medical practice.
Feodor Dotoevsky
Russian novelist. Published crime and punishment.
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), the Viennese founder of psychoanalysis, formulated the most striking analysis of the explosive dynamics of the family, particularly the middle-class family in the late nineteenth century. A physician by training, Freud began his career treating mentally ill patients. He noted that the hysteria of his patients appeared to originate in bitter early-childhood experiences wherein the child had been obliged to repress string feelings. When these painful experiences were recalled and reproduced under hypnosis of through the patient's free association of ideas, the patient could be brought to understand his or her unhappiness and eventually deal with it.
Thermodynamics
The branch of physics concerned with the conversion of different forms of energy
Dmitri Mendeleev
Russian scientist that created the periodic table according to atomic mass
Michael Faraday
His discoveries in electromagnetism resulted in first dynamo (generator)
Auguste Comte
He was a French philosopher that applied scientific methods to the study of society and formed the positivist method. Auguste Comte's discipline of sociology postulated that "each branch of our knowledge passes successively through three different theoretical conditions; the Theological, or will of God; the Metaphysical, or the will of an orderly nature; and the Scientific, or to the rule of unchanging laws."
Positivism
Auguste Comte's discipline of sociology postulated that branch of our knowledge passes successively through three different theoretical conditions; the Theological, or fictitious; the Metaphysical, or abstract; and the Scientific, or positive
Evolution
Charles Darwin (1809-1882). Darwin proposed that earth and the organisms living on it were incredibly old and that these organisms had evolved from a common origin. He suggested that every organism in every species had slight variations that made it more or less fit for its environment. Only those organisms with the most advantageous variations survived.
Charles Lyell
Effectively discredited the long-standing view that the earth's surface had been formed by short-lived cataclysms, such as biblical floods and earthquakes-his principle: uniformitarians: same geological processes that are at work today slowly formed the earth's surface over an immensely long time
Jean Baptiste Lamarck
The evolutionary view of biological development, first proposed by Greek Anaximander in the sixth century B.C., re-emerged in a more modern form in the work of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829). Lamarck asserted that all forms of life had arisen through a long process of continuous adjustment to the environment. Lamarck's work was flawed-he believed that the characteristics parents acquired in the course of their lives could be inherited by their children-and was not accepted.
Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin (1809-1882), the most influential of all nineteenth century evolutionary thinkers. Darwin carefully collected specimens of the different animal species he encountered on the voyage. Back in England, convinced by fossil evidence and by his friend Lyell that the earth and life were immensely ancient, Darwin came to doubt the general belief in a special divine creation of each species of animal. Instead, he concluded, all life had gradually evolved from a common ancestral origin in an unending "struggle for survival." After a long hesitation, Darwin published his research, which immediately attracted wide attention.
Natural Selection
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
Herbert Spencer
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection (survival of the fittest) to human societies.
Social Darwinism
It was applying Darwin's ideas to human affairs. A group of thinkers popular with the upper middle class who saw the human race being driven forward to ever-greater specialization and progress by the unending economic struggle determining the survival of the fittest
Realism
Realism emerged in the 1840's and continued to dominate Western culture and style until the 1890's. Realist writers believed that literature should depict life as it exactly was. Using poetry for prose and the personal, emotional viewpoint of the romantics for strict, scientific objectivity, the realists simply observed and recorded content let the facts speak for themselves.
Realists (de Balzac, Tolstoy, Zola, Flaubert, Hardy, Dreiser)
A 19th-century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be. Strict determinists; unlike Romantics
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