Terms in this set (68)
A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities
Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere.
A broad band of mixed coniferous and deciduous trees that stretches across northern North America (and also Europe and Asia); its northernmost edfe, the taiga, intergrades with the artic tundra
A type of plant community common to areas of the world that have a Mediterranean climate (for example, California and Italy). It is characterized by shrubs, shrubby thickets and small trees that are adapted to seasonal dry conditions. Also called Mediterranean Scrubland.
A type of biome characterized by low moisture levels and infrequent and unpredictable precipitation. Daily and seasonal temperatures fluctuate widely
A biome found in the dry temperate interiors of continents. This biome is characterized by rich soil, moderate rainfall, a hot, dry climate, thick grasses, and herds of grazing animals.
Layer of permanently frozen subsoil in the tundra
(of weather or climate) free from extremes
trees that lose their leaves during a part in the year
a woodland of tall trees growing in a region of year-round warmth and abundant rainfall
A biome at the northernmost limits of plant growth and at high altitudes, characterized by dwarf woody shrubs, grasses, mosses, and lichens.
Estuaries, Coral Reefs, Pelagic Zones (open oceans), Photic Zone ( 1-300 feet; area where light penetrates), Benthic Zone, Abyssal Zone
Does not contain any saltwater and can be rivers, lakes, streams,ponds, and wetlands
Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
An area that provides an organism with its basic needs for survival.
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
Referring to any characteristic that varies according to an increase in population density
Growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
Growth pattern in which a population's growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth
Number of individuals per unit area
The tendency for characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations of two species than in allopatric populations of the same two species.
A common demand by two or more organisms upon a limited supply of a resource; for example, food, water, light, space, mates, nesting sites. It may be intraspecific or interspecific.
animal that eats plants & animal
An organism that can make its own food.
A behavior that uses the existing resources. This includes such things as refinement, choice, production, efficiency, selection, implementation, and execution
(ecology) a community of organisms where each member is eaten in turn by another member
A consumer that eats only plants.
A consumer that eats only animals.
An animal that eats both plants and animals
An organism that feeds on a living host
A relationship between two species in which both species benefit
(ecology) the status of an organism within its environment and community (affecting its survival as a species)
The process by which natural selection drives competing species into different patterns of resource use or different niches. Coexistence is obtained through the differentiation of their realized ecological niches.
An animal that carries pollen from one plant to another of the same species, enabling plants to reproduce.
An animal that hunts other animals for food
Animal hunted or caught for food
An herbivore; an organism in the trophic level of an ecosystem that eats plants or algae
A member of the trophic level of an ecosystem consisting of carnivores that eat herbivores.
A very large quantity of something
(ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
A stable, mature community that undergoes little or no change in species over time
A generic term for heterogeneity. The scientific meaning of diversity becomes clear from the context in which it is used; it may refer to heterogeneity of species or habitat, or to genetic heterogeneity.
A species that influences the survival of many other species in an ecosystem
First species to populate an area during primary succession
An ecological succession that begins in an area where no biotic community previously existed
Succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil
Relative Species Abundance
Determines biodiversity, expressed as a percent. How many of an organism compared to other organisms. Low in areas of high diversity.
A series of changes in the population sizes of organisms at different trophic levels in a food chain, occurring when predators at high trophic levels indirectly promote populations of organisms at low trophic levels by keeping species at intermediate trophic levels in check. Trophic cascades may become apparent when a top predator is eliminated from a system.
The number of different species in a community
Process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
A measure of the total dry mass of organisms within a particular region
The organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again
A system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
A diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web
A process by which nutrients, particularly phosphorus and nitrogen, become highly concentrated in a body of water, leading to increased growth of organisms such as algae or cyanobacteria.
Net Primary Productivity
The gross primary productivity minus the energy used by the producers for cellular respiration; represents the storage of chemical energy in an ecosystem available to consumers.
Process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia
Continuous flow of nutrients into and out of stores in the ecosystem; balanced, unless disturbed by human activity
also known as a food web, interconnected cycle from plant to tertiary consumer
The movement of deep, cold, and nutrient-rich water to the surface
Increase in concentration of certain stable chemicals (for example, heavy metals or fat-soluble pesticides) in successively higher trophic levels of a food chain or web
Chlorinated Fluorocarbons are chemicals that break down the ozone layer
A group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
Change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over periods of decades
Chemicals that disrupt normal hormone functions
Gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and ozone in the atmosphere which are involved in the greenhouse effect.
-changes made by humans to the land surface of Earth that alter the physical or biological characteristics of the affected regions