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Ms. Kiefer Theology Final
Terms in this set (162)
The study of the last things
The Last Things
-The Last/General Judgement
-Resurrection of the Body
-Right after death
-Based on how we imitated Christ and the Gospel
-Determines individual destination: Heaven, Hell, Purgatory
-God is fair—justice and mercy
-Die in God's friendship and grace, are perfectly purified
-Encounter the Trinity, Blessed Mother, angels and saints
Images of Heaven in Scripture
-The Father's House
Seeing God "face-to-face" in Heaven
Name the Church gives to the final purification of those who die in God's grace and friendship but
to achieve the holiness necessary to enter Heaven
People in _______________ will
go to Heaven
Purgatory is ___________ and __________ because you are happy that heaven is near but the process might involve burning with sorrow and shame over sin and struggling to give up our selfish attachments
Biblical passages such as 2 Maccabees 12:39-46, which encourages those who are living to pray for the dead so that they may be released from their sins
Where is Catholic belief in the existence of Purgatory in Scripture?
1 Corinthians 3:13-15; 1 Peter 1:7
-Church Tradition has interpreted these passages as referring to a place of "cleansing fire"
-Catholic belief in the existence of Purgatory in Scripture
from God brought on by deliberate, unrepented mortal sin
of our hearts' deepest desire for God
-Those in Hell grieve over their eternal punishment, suffer spiritually and physically, and give up all hope of salvation
To commit mortal sin, there must be...
We know Hell exists though Scripture
-Parable of the sheep and goats (Mt 25:31-46)
-Explanation of the parable of the weeds (Mt 13:41-42)
-Parable of the rich man and Lazarus (Lk 16:19-31)
Through Sacred Scripture and Tradition
How do we know Hell exists?
In the Bible, Jesus referred to ______________, the Jewish word for Hell
The Last/General Judgement
-On the last day of human history Jesus will come again
God the Father
knows the timing
-Confirms our particular judgement
The Second Coming of Christ when the Lord will judge the living and the dead
The Resurrection of the Body
-After the last judgement our souls will be reunited with our bodies
-Will be transformed and our bodies will be made incorrupt
Being a Disciple Involves
-Adhering to Jesus and accepting his teaching
-Converting your heart and life and forming a good conscience
-Worshipping and loving God as Jesus taught
-Living a sacramental life and a life of prayer
-Putting Jesus' oral spiritual teaching into practice
-Serving the poor and marginalized
-Taking part in evangelization
-Fulfilling your responsibility for stewardship
A decision-making process that attends to the implications and consequences of an action or choice by prayerfully and meditatively separating out what is truly good from what only appears to be good but is in fact a lie and a temptation
The 2 parts to discernment are identifying your ____________ and ________________
Specific gifts or graces given to you by the Holy Spirit that directly or indirectly benefit the Church
-To be holy and disciples
-"Universal Call of Holiness"
We can start our primary vocation through ______________ and the sacraments of _____________
-Bringing God's love to others
-Sharing the Gospel
-Seeking Heaven in all we do
How can we live out our primary vocation?
Lay, priestly, and religious vocations
-Root of word is "change"
-A radical reorientation away from sin, evil, and selfishness and towards God and service to others
-Describes the ongoing spiritual change a person needs to go through in order to return to God and become more Christ-like
Corporal Works of Mercy
-Share food and drink with the hungry and thirsty
-Welcome strangers you encounter
-Provide clothes for those in need
-Shelter the homeless
-Care for and visit the sick
-Visit the imprisoned, pray for them, and minister to them
-Bury the dead, comfort the grief-stricken
-Give to the poor
A person's most secret and core sanctuary that helps to discern between good and evil and "moves them at the appropriate moment to do good and avoid evil"
-Learn more about the Church's teaching
-Read relevant scripture
-Seek wise counsel—a spiritual mentor
To properly form our conscience and make good decisions, we should...
-Using emotional/physical violence to solve problems
-Pursuing financial success at all costs
A poorly formed conscience comes from listening to attitudes that aren't Christ-like...
The God-given power by which you can know God and the natural law written on your heart
Makes you capable of
what is good
Allows you to
When you use ___________ ___________, you take a similar commandment or Jesus' teaching and determine how it would apply in your situation
Seeing that cheating on a test is a form of stealing, it violates the 7th commandment
Using lesser values to talk yourself into thinking an action is right even though your conscience tells you its wrong
To be separated from the ordinary, everyday world
What did it mean to be holy in the Old Testament?
A habitual and firm disposition to do the good
-Gifts God gives you to participate in his own divine nature and lead a moral life
-Foundations of Christian moral-living, they inform and give life to all other virtues
-Virtue by which we believe in God and all that he has said and revealed to us, and all that the Holy Church proposes for our belief
-Makes it possible to commit yourself totally to God
-Must be a living faith that shows itself in concrete acts
Ways to Strengthen Faith
-Celebrate the Sacraments
-Study your faith
-Draw on the faith of friends
-Put your faith into action
Virtue by which we desire the Kingdom of Heaven and eternal life as our happiness, placing our trust in Christ's promises, and relying not on our own strength, but on the help of the grace of the Holy Spirit
-Keeps you from discouragement
-Sustains you when you feel abandoned
-Opens your heart to expect happiness in eternal life
-Preserves you from selfishness
-Leads you to the happiness that flows from love
-Gives you joy, even in the midst of trials
What does hope do?
-Also known as love
-Greatest of the 3 theological virtues
-Virtue by which we love God above all things for his own sake, and our neighbor as ourselves for the love of God
Attributes of Charity
-Obedience: love means obeying Jesus' commands
-Reverence: love involves respecting and valuing the goodness of God and others
-Sacrifice: love requires commitment—never giving up on God, others, or ourselves
-The proclamation of Christ and the Good News of the Gospel by your words and the way you live, in fulfillment of Christ's command
-Proclaiming the Gospel in such a way that people's hearts and lives are changed
-Keep Sundays holy
-Smile a lot to share your Christian joy
-Visit someone who is lonely
How can you evangelize through actions?
-Say "thank you"
-Say less and think before you speak—does it glorify God?
-Tell God and others you love them
How can you evangelize through words?
Keys to Effective Evangelization
-Trust in God
3 Elements of Every Human Act
-The object chosen
-The end in view or intention
-The circumstances of the action
-The matter of our actions—what we actually do
Most important source of morality
-The action we take
-Our motivation—what we hope the outcome will be
-Purpose of doing something
-A good intention can
justify an intrinsically evil act
-The secondary factors that surround an action (time, place, method of performing the act)
-Can increase or reduce the evil or goodness of an act
-However, some actions can
be made morally good or better
-A vital and personal relationship with the living and true God
-The living relationship of the children of God with their Father who is good beyond measure, with his Son Jesus and with the Holy Spirit
Prayer reminds us that our Catholic-Christian faith is fundamentally a
, not just a system of ideas (ideology)
How does prayer benefit you?
Challenges of Prayer
-Feelings (restless, out of sorts)
-Spiritual dryness or darkness (feeling separated from God)
-Doubting God hears your prayers
Getting Started in Daily Prayer
-Set aside a place and time for prayer
-Choose a posture that works
-Focus on God's presence
You can hear God speak through...
Expressions of Prayer
-Uses spoken words
-Reflects union of body and soul
-A quest to uncover the "why and how" of the Christian life, in order to adhere and respond to what the Lord is asking
-Prayerfully reflecting on a written text
-Uses thoughts, emotions, imagination, and desires to consider God's presence in the world and your life
-Inner prayer, rather than prayer based on a text
-Usually centers directly on Jesus
-Some can move by God's grace from mental prayer into this type of prayer
-Similar but more intense than mental prayer
-Empty mind of thoughts and images
-Simply let God's presence envelop you
Forms of Prayer
When you ask God's blessing, you ask him to shower grace upon you or others
-Humbly acknowledge God as loving creator and you as his creation
-Glorifying God's greatness
-Also known as supplication
-Ask God to provide what you need (material or spiritual)
Asking for forgiveness of sins
Contrition and Intercession are special types of ______________
Praying for the interest/needs of others
The Eucharist is a special prayer of this form
From the Greek "to give thanks"
-Acknowledging that God is God and he is awesome, not just for what he does, but simply for who he is
-Celebration of the Eucharist is the ultimate prayer and sacrifice of this form
Contain a series of prayers
-Invocations: call on God or saints for something
-Responses: "Hear us" or "pray for us"
"To ask in earnest"
-Comes from the Latin word for "nine"
-Prayed over 9 days privately or publicly to obtain special graces or petition for particular intentions
A holy image you gaze at, putting yourself in the presence of the holy person or mystery that it portrays
-"Sacred Reading" of Scripture
-One component of the Liturgy of the Hours
5 Steps of Lectio Divina
1. Reading (lectio)
2. Thinking (meditatio)
3. Prayer (oratorio)
4. Contemplation (contemplatio)
The Liturgy of the Hours
-The official daily prayer of the Church
-Also called the Divine Office
-Consists of prayers, Scripture, and readings at regular intervals throughout the day
5 Periods at which the Liturgy of the Hours is prayed
1. The Office of Readings
2. Lawds or Morning Prayer
3. Daytime Prayer (traditionally said at 3 different times of day)
4. Vespers or Evening Prayer
5. Compline or Night Prayer
The movement, inspired and led by the Holy Spirit, that seeks the union of all Christian religions and eventually the unity of all peoples throughout the world within the Catholic Church
St. Augustine's Analogy of the Trinity
-God the Father: the Lover, source of divine love
-God the Son: the Beloved, returns love back to the Father
-Holy Spirit: shared bond of love between the Father and Son
Credo (Latin for Creed)
-Recited at Mass on Sundays and Holy Days of Obligation
-Comes from Councils of Nicaea (325) and Constantinople (381)
-Professed at Baptism and beginning of the Rosary
-Came from the Apostles themselves
The denial of Christ and the repudiation of the Christian Faith by a baptized Christian
A baptized person who denies or stubbornly doubts a dogma of the Catholic faith
An obstinate denial after Baptism to believe a truth that must be believed with divine and Catholic faith, or an obstinate doubt about such truth
Eastern Schism (aka Great Schism; 1054)
Differences in Church belief and practice in Roman (western) and Byzantine (eastern) empire
"Defender of the Faith". A Catholic who works hard to dispel the false rumors about Catholicism and Christianity and who makes the faith appear both more reasonable and acceptable to non-Christians
3 Degrees of the Sacrament of Holy Orders
-Oversees parish, in communication with and obedience to the bishop
-Must follow bishop, can't separate or go against
-"Diakonoi"— Greek for "servant" or "waiter"
-Assist at Mass, distribute communion, help at/bless marriages, preach Gospel, funerals, etc.
Lead regional churches called diocese
"Servant of the Servants of God"
Live your ordinary life in a way that your relationship with God shines through
How can you become a saint and achieve holiness?
Sinfulness, Christ's presence
The _______________ of some Catholics never reduce the Church's holiness. The Church is
holy because of ____________ ____________
A holy person who lives by the grace of the Holy Spirit and offers inspiration for others to live good and holy lives
The Pope declares that a person is in Heaven and worthy of veneration as a saint
1st Step to Sainthood
-Bishop investigates the person's life
-If worthy, he submits the report to the Vatican Congregation for Causes of Saints
2nd Step to Sainthood
-If they accept the person may be called "Servant of God"
3rd Step to Sainthood
-Congregation decides if the person lived a heroically virtuous life on earth
-If so, they receive the next title, "Venerable"
4th Step to Sainthood
-An unexplained miracle has to be identified and verified by independent doctors and a panel of theologians
-Goes to Pope and he declares the next title, "Blessed"
5th Step to Sainthood
-A second miracle has to be approved the same way as the first
-Declared "saint" by Pope and officially canonized
Healing that has to be instantaneous, permanent, and completed while also being scientifically unexplainable
What must miracles include to become a saint?
How long did St. Therese of Lisieux live?
St. These of Lisieux was a _______________ nun
"The Story of a Soul"
The autobiography of St. Therese of Lisieux written in journal entries
St. Therese of Lisieux
The "little flower"
St. Therese of Lisieux wanted to get to Heaven by her "__________ _______"
How did St. Therese of Lisieux die?
Doctor of the Church
St. Therese of Lisieux was named a...
How long did Blessed Pier Giorgio Frassati live?
He loved the outdoors: hiking and skiing
What activities did Blessed Pier Giorgio Frassati like to do?
Blessed Pier Giorgio Frassati came from a _____________ family
Blessed Pier Giorgio
Fought for justice in protests against Italy's fascist regime
The Eucharist—it was his 1st food everyday
What food did Blessed Pier Giorgio Frassati have a great love for?
How did Blessed Pier Giorgio Frassati die?
Blessed Pier Giorgio Frassati
Beatified by St. John Paul II in 1990
Most popular religious medal worn by Catholics
-In 1830, the Blessed Mother appeared to young nun, St. Catherine Laboure
-Told her to have a medal struck in honoring her as the
through a series of visions
All who wear it with great faith will receive great graces
What was the promise of the Miraculous Medal?
Announcement of angel Gabriel to Mary that she would be the Mother of the Savior
in her mother Ann's womb without Original Sin
Church dogma that teaches that Mary was taken directly to Heaven when her earthly life was over because of her role as the
Mother of God
When Jesus is dying on the cross
Jesus to Mary: "Woman, behold your son"
Jesus to John: "Behold your mother"
When does Mary become the Mother of the Church?
True or False: Authentic devotion to Mary never distracts from the saving work of Jesus
Asserts that a person of faith can't be expected to be a tolerant and enlightened American
-Religion is a personal hobby that doesn't affect public life
-Taking faith seriously and bringing it into public is considered being "un-American"
Catholic schools help combat wide-spread secularization. To defend the Church against new secularization, an energetic evangelization with Catholic schools at its center is all the more necessary
Why are Catholic schools needed?
to that universal call (we are Catholics)
Refers to the Catholic Church made up of those Christians who accept:
-Apostolic structure of the Church
-Sacraments and doctrinal teaching
-Because Christ is present
-Because of her mission to the entire human race
In what two ways is the Church universal/catholic?
To highlight differences between the Church and heretical groups
Why did the early Church start describing herself as catholic?
St. Ignatius of Antioch
Recorded use of the term catholic appears in the 2nd century writing of ____________________
-The Catholic Faithful
-Others who believe in Christ (other denominations)
-All people who are "called by God's grade to salvation" aka
All people are called to know Christ in the Church and all people belong or are connected to the Church, including these people:
_______________ is the foundation of unity among all Christians
The Church believes in _______ baptism for the forgiveness of sins and generally accepts as valid most _____________ baptisms
-Sacred Scripture as a rule of faith
-Acts of charity inspired by the Holy Spirit
What are key elements that the Church has in common with other Christians?
1. She is built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ as the capstone
2. Remains faithful to the teachings of the apostles
3. Accepts the teaching, sanctification, and guidance of apostles through their successors (bishops and pope)
How is the Church apostolic?
Creeds, doctrine, hierarchy, the liturgy, some types of prayer, social teaching & practice
Dogmas are _________________ and __________________
with the charism of infallibility and
with the gift of indefectibility (absolute, flawless)
-Any belief that has official approval of the Magisterium
-Not all of Church teaching is at status of dogma
-Helps us understand implications of dogma
The Church will always teach the Gospel without error, in sprite of the defects of her members
What does it mean that dogmas are protected with the gift of indefectibility?
-Includes teachings that are not revealed directly by God but necessary for protecting and explaining Divine Revelation
-Also taught infallibly (irreversible & irreformable)
-Not divinely revealed but drawn from Church's reflection on Divine Revelation
-Not taught infallibly
-Set of laws and regulations intended to identify structures, practices, and norms for Catholics to help them on path to holiness
-Also called Church Law
-Contained in the
Code of Canon Law
-Key Church laws = precepts of the Church
Examples of Canon Law
-How a parish goes about purchasing land for new church
-Decision of bishop about number of Holy Days of Obligation in diocese
3 Main Tasks of Pope and Bishops
-To teach: catechesis
-To sanctify: help laity grow in holiness
-To govern: diocese, magisterium
Process of education in the Faith for young people and adults with the goal of making them disciples
Deposit of Faith
The heritage of faith contained in Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition, handed down in the Church from the time of the Apostles, from which the Magisterium draws out all that it proposes for belief as being divinely revealed
The official teaching authority of the Church
Coming to know God by observing the world around us and other human beings
-The way God communicates who he is to humankind
-A self-communication revealed by his words and actions over time
A term that means "the first gospel," which is found in Genesis 3:15, when God revealed he would send a Savior to redeem the world from its sins
"I will put enmity between you and the women, and between your offspring and hers; He will strike at your head, while you strike at his heel"
A method of biblical interpretation in which persons, events, places, or things in the Old Testament are seen to prefigure ones found in the New Testament
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