Biology STAAR EOC Review
Wilkins-Baker Biology STAAR EOC cards
Terms in this set (129)
organic molecules which combine to form living organisms; includes carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
biomolecule of carbon,hydrogen and oxygen combined in 1:2:1 ratio; include simple and complex sugars; molecules which store energy, add structure, & provide sugars for DNA and RNA; monomer - monosaccharaide ; polymer - polysaccharide
biomolecule composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; includes fats,oils, waxes and sterols; important component of cell membranes
biomolecule composed of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; made up of monomer amino acids; enzyme is an example
biomolecule made up of nucleotides; nucleotides contain a phosphate sugar and nitrogen base; examples include DNA and RNA
single unit ; small piece of biomolecule
multi piece unit; made up of smaller monomers
A chemical reaction in which water or another simple substance is released by the combination of two or more molecules, aka dehydration synthesis
A chemical reaction that builds up molecules by losing water molecules
The process of splitting a compound into fragments with the addition of water; a kind of reaction that is used to break down polymers into simpler units, e.g. starch into glucose.
An organic compound always contains carbon; Examples : carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
an organism whose cell generally lacks a true nucleus Examples: bacterial cells
organism possessing a membrane-bound nucleus ; animals, plants, fungi, and protists
The tendency of an organism or a cell to regulate its internal conditions, usually by a system of feedback controls or feedback loops, so as to stabilize health and functioning, regardless of the outside changing conditions ex: sweating when hot
energy conversion organelles
Chloroplasts - Only in plant cells, these organelles convert solar energy to chemical energy that the cell can use. Mitochondria - The energy center of the cell. Changes food energy into chemical energy the cell can use.
transport of molecules organelles
movement of nutrients & wastes must occur within the cell;lysosomes digest wastes; vacuoles stores & removes wastes;cell membrane controls movement of materials in and out of cell; endoplasmic reticulum transports materials inside of cell
synthesis of molecules organelles
organelles within a cell must make molecules ; ribosomes make proteins; golgi body repackages proteins for different uses;
A submicroscopic infectious agent that is unable to grow or reproduce outside a host cell. It is non-cellular but consisting of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat.
viral infection which immediately makes host sick by destroying cells
viral disease which remain dormant for a time and causes no symptoms
human immunodeficiency virus
HIV caused AIDS or Aquired Immune Deficiency by destroying a special white blood cell known as a Helper T cell
viral disease caused by airborne transmission; vaccines must be taken annually to lower probability of contacting the "flu"
double-stranded nucleic acid found in the nucleus which provides instruction for making proteins; provides hereditary information
single stranded nucleic acid made during transcription to provide template for making proteins at ribosome during translation
components include interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis
part of the cell cycle; resting stage of cell and preparation for mitosis; includes G 1 (duplication of organelles) S phase(replication of DNA) and G 2 (checking of replication)
part of cell cycle; division of the nucleus; includes prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase
part of cell cycle; division of cytoplasm and organelles except nucleus
specialization of cells for a particular function
uncontrolled cell division; creates tumors and interferes with normal cell function
A subunit (monomer) of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA. Composed of a sugar, phosphate, and nitrogenous base.
Component of DNA or RNA nucleotide
A monosaccharide (sugar) found in each nucleotide in DNA.
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine in DNA. Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine, and Guanine in RNA.
The code found in DNA that matches codons in mRNA to amino acids on tRNA.
An organism's complete set of genetic information (DNA).
The process where a copy of mRNA is made from one gene in DNA; occurs in nucleus
The process of making a protein, where tRNA matches amino acids to codons in the mRNA; occurs in ribosome
mutation resulting from movement of DNA from one chromosome to a different location on some chromosome
cell division creating sex cells with half the amount of DNA
punnett square showing results of genetic cross of one trait
allele with genetic trait always expressed
alleles with the same genetic information
genetic inheritance pattern different from dominant hides recessive trait such as codominance, imcomplete dominance
genetic inheritance pattern where phenotype of offspring are a blend between two separate parental phenotypes
changes in organism's DNA sequence;
changes in genetic code with removal of nucleotides
changes in genetic code with addition of nucleotides
changes in genetic code with nucleotides in opposite order
A unit of heredity; A portion of DNA that codes for a trait.
graphic organizer showing results of a genetic cross
punnett square showing results of genetic cross of two traits
genetic inheritance pattern when dominant trait always masks or hides phenotype of recessice trait
Genetic trait which only expresses phenotype when in homozygous state; hides when dominant allel is present
alleles with the same genetic information
alleles with different genetic information; one dominant allele and one recessice allele.
genetic inheritance pattern in which two dominant alleles are expressed in phenotype
creating a gel electrophoresis of DNA nucleotides to determine similarities in banding patterns
changing of the DNA sequence to alter protein synthesis
karyotype; picture of chromosomes to determine mutations such as nondisjunction
Haploid cells created by meiosis; gametes
Mendel principle states different pairs of genes are passed to offsrping separately to form new gene combinations
exchange of DNA from separate chromosomes during meiosis
Mendel principle that gene pairs separate during meiosis so each parent passes down one form of gene to offspring.
the most recent ancestral form or species from which two different species evolved
A term used by paleontologists to refer to the total number of fossils that have been discovered, as well as to the information derived from them
the study of the geographical distribution of living things.
morphological(form or structure) or physiological (function) similarities between different species of plants or animals
genes shared due to common ancestry
Studying the embryological development of living things provides clues to the evolution of present-day organisms
the process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures
any alteration in the structure or function of an organism or any of its parts that results from natural selection and by which the organism becomes better fitted to survive and multiply in its environment
degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet
differences in genetic information passed down through
Mutation, migration (gene flow), genetic drift, and natural selection
change in the frequency of a gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling
the transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another
a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene's which alters the amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by the gene
change in genetic sequence which increases variation among organisms
eukaryotic cells are larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells
classfy living organisms into groups; Domain,Kingdom,Phylum,Class,Order,Family,Genus,Species
prokaryotic kingdom of bacteria able to live in harsh enviroments which are hot,salty or acidic
prokaryotic kingdom of bacteria with majority of organisms are beneficial and only a few are harmful
eukaryotic kingdom of mostly one celled organism divided into 3 groups: animal like, plant like, and fungus like
eukaryotic kingdom of heterotrophic decomposers with cell walls made of chitin
eukaryotic kingdom of autotrophic, multicellular stationary organisms which undergo photosynthesis
eukaryotic kingdom of heterotrophic, multicellular mobile organisms.
stalk portion of stamen used to support anther
Elements and compounds on left side of chemical equation which enter a chemical reaction
Elements and compounds on right side of chemical equation which exit a chemical reaction
Internal Feedback Mechanisms
Chemical signals which communicate within a body system to help an organism maintain homeostasis
how an area changes over time from an area that is uninhabitable to one that is able to support a healthy ecosystem
a living thing; exhibits all 5 characteristics of life (ORGAN)
a group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed
a group of different populations (different species) that live in the same area
a living thing in an ecosystem; ex. plant, animal, bacteria
a nonliving thing in an ecosystem; ex: water, rocks, earth
something necessary to make a good place to live: shelter and space, and access to food and water
any factor that limits the size of a population by restricting its numbers, reproduction, or distribution
the maximum population a habitat can sustain
a relationship between two species where one species hunts (predator) and eats the other species (prey)
a relationship between two species where they both require the same resource (food, water, shelter, space) and must compete for it
a relationship between two species where one species is helped and the other species is harmed
a relationship between two species where one species is helped and the other species is not affected
a relationship between two species where both species are helped
an organism that can use photosynthesis to make its own food: "self-feeding"
an organism that cannot use photosynthesis to make its own food and must eat other organisms to survive: "other-feeding"
the position a species occupies in a food chain; ex. producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer
a sequence of organisms that shows how energy is transferred from plants, to plant eaters, to meat eaters and so on
a combination of several food chains within an ecosystem
a graphic representation of the amount of biomass present in each trophic level of a food chain; producers are always on the bottom, then primary consumers, then secondary consumers and so on
living things that can only be seen with a microscope; ex. bacteria, protists
areas with similar climate and conditions: ex. rainforests, grasslands, desert, wetland
amount of total available food, water , shelter and space; toal amount of biotic and abiotic factors available for organims
the cyclic movement of carbon atoms between living things (organic carbon) and their environment (inorganic carbon)
the cyclic movement of nitrogen atoms between living things (organic nitrogen) and their environment (inorganic nitrogen)
A structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell.
A protective layer that covers the cell's surface and controls what moves in and out of the cell.
The fluid, jelly-like substance that fills the cell.
A large organelle in a eukaryotic cell that contains the cell's DNA/chromosomes/genetic material.
Organelles in plant cells that trap sunlight; organelle in which photosynthesis takes place.
Structures in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells made of DNA.
An organelle that makes proteins.
The organelle that digests food particles, wastes, cell parts, and foreign invaders.
The organelles that that break down food/sugar to release energy.
The organelle that transports proteins around the cell.
The organelle that packages proteins before they leave the cell.
The organelle that stores water and other materials.
The dark area of the nucleus which stores materials that will be used to make ribosomes.