charge cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred
Name the parts of an atom from biggest to smallest.
neutron, proton, electron
What does it mean to say that electric charge is quantized?
when an object is charged its charge is always a multiple of a fundamental unit of charge
What is the SI unit for charge?
What is the fundamental unit of charge of a single electron or proton?
What is an electrical conductor?
a material in which charges can move freely
What are some examples of an electrical conductor?
copper, aluminum, and most other metals
What is an electrical insulator?
a material in which charges cannot move freely
What are some examples of an electrical insulator?
rubber, glass, and pure water
How can insulators and conductors be charged?
contact or induction
What does contact charging involve?
the direct transfer of electrons from one object to another
When does induction charging occur?
when a charged object is brought near a conducting surface and electrons move in the surface material (can be used to charge a conductor by bringing it near another charged object and grounding the conductor)
How can a surface charge be induced on insulators?
How does polarization work?
the charges with individual molecules are realigned such that the molecule has a slight charge separation
What is it called when two charges near one another exert a force on one another?
What kind of force is electric force? Why?
field force because it acts at a distane
Compare and contrast gravitational force and electric force.
they are both field forces but gravitational force only attracts, while electric force attracts and repels
What is Coulomb's Law?
the electric force is proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the square of distance between them
What is the Inverse Square Law?
both electric force and gravitational force have the same relationship between strength of force and distance between charges or masses